Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30127
Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Low Cost Adsorbents
Abstract:This paper describes the use of by-products as adsorbents for removing heavy metals from aqueous effluent solutions. Products of almond skin, walnut shell, saw dust, rice bran and egg shell were evaluated as metal ion adsorbents in aqueous solutions. A comparative study was done with commercial adsorbents like ion exchange resins and activated carbon too. Batch experiments were investigated to determine the affinity of all of biomasses for, Cd(ΙΙ), Cr(ΙΙΙ), Ni(ΙΙ), and Pb(ΙΙ) metal ions at pH 5. The rate of metal ion removal in the synthetic wastewater by the biomass was evaluated by measuring final concentration of synthetic wastewater. At a concentration of metal ion (50 mg/L), egg shell adsorbed high levels (98.6 – 99.7%) of Pb(ΙΙ) and Cr(ΙΙΙ) and walnut shell adsorbed high levels (35.3 – 65.4%) of Ni(ΙΙ) and Cd(ΙΙ). In this study, it has been shown that by-products were excellent adsorbents for removal of toxic ions from wastewater with efficiency comparable to commercially available adsorbents, but at a reduced cost. Also statistical studies using Independent Sample t Test and ANOVA Oneway for statistical comparison between various elements adsorption showed that there isn’t a significant difference in some elements adsorption percentage by by-products and commercial adsorbents.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1112157Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1938
 Addour L, Belhoucine D, Bouldries N, Comeau Y, Pauss A, Mameri N: Zinc uptake by Streptomyces rimosus biomass using a packed bed column. J. Chemistry. Technology. Biotechnology 1999, 74: 1089-1095.
 Ahluwalia S.S, Goyal D: Removal of Heavy Metals by Waste Tea Leaves from Aqueous Solution. Engineer. Life Science 2005, 5: 158- 162.
 Akpor O. B, Muchie M: Remediation of heavy metals in drinking water and wastewater treatment systems: Processes and applications. International. J.Physical Science 2010, 5: 1807-1817
 Al Duri B: Introduction to adsorption, Use of adsorbents for the removal of pollutants from wastewater. In proceeding of the Conference on Hazarded Waste Research; 1999: 1-5.
 Al-Asheh S, Duvnjak Z: Sorption of heavy metals by Canola meal. J. Water Air Soil Pollution 1999, 114: 251-276.
 Alluri HK, RondaSR, Settalluri VS, Bondili JS, Suryanarayana V, Venkateshwar P: Biosorption: An eco-friendly alternative for heavy metal removal. African J. Biotech 2007, 6 (25): 2924-2931.
 Antunes WM, Luna AS, Henriques CA, Da Costa ACA: An evaluation of copper biosorption by a brown seaweed under optimized conditions. Electronic J. Biotech 2003, 6: 174-184.
 Bailey S.E, Olin T.J, Bricka R.M, Adrian D.D: A review of potentially low cost sorbents for heavy metals. J. Water Research 1999, 33: 2469- 2479.
 Benjamin M M, Sletten R S, Bailey R P, Bennett T: Sorption and filtration of metals using iron-oxide-coated sand. J. Water Research 1996, 30: 2609-2620.
 Chubar N, Carvalho JR, Neiva CMJ: Cork Biomass as biosorbent for Cu (II), Zn (II) and Ni (II). Colloids Surf. A: Physicochemical. Engineer. Asp 2003, 230: 57-65.
 Cooney D. O: Adsorption design for wastewater treatment. Lewis Publ. New York 1998: 1-4 and 27-37.
 Dakiky M, Khamis M, Manassra A, Mereb M: Selective adsorption of chromium (VI) in industrial wastewater using low-cost abundantly available adsorbents. Adv. Environ. Research 2002: 6: 533-540.
 Das Nilanjana, Karthika P, Vimala R, Vinodhini V: Use of natural products as biosorbent of heavy metals, An overview. Natural Product Radiance 2008, 7: 133-138
 Demirbas E: Adsorption of cobalt (II) Ions from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from hazelnut shells. J. Scencei. Technol 2003, 21: 951-963.
 Demirbas E, Kobya M, Senturk E, Ozkan T: Adsorption kinetics for the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions on the activated carbons prepared from agricultural wastes. www.wrc.org.za. Water S 2004, 30: 533-539.
 Drake L. R, Lin S, Rayson G.D, Jackson P. J: Chemical modification and metal binding studies of Datura innoxia. J. Environment. Science.Technology 1996, 30: 110-114.
 Elaigwu S.E, Usman L.A, Awolola G.V, Adebayo G.B, Ajayi R.M.K: Adsorption of Pb (II) from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from Cow Dung. J. Environment. Research 2010, 4: 257-260.
 Elifantz H Tel-or E: Heavy metal biosorption by plant biomass of the macrophyte Ludwigia stolonifera. J. Water Air Soil Pollution 2002, 141: 207- 218.
 Forstner U, Wittman CTW: Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment. Springer, the University of Michigan; 1981.
 Garcia MA, Alonso J, Melgar MJ: Agaricus macrosporus as a potential bioremediation agent for substrates contaminated with heavy metals. J. Chemical. Technology. Biotechnology 2005, 80: 325-330.
 Igwe J.C, Abia A.A: Sorption kinetics and Intraparticulate diffusivities of Cd, Pb and Zn ions on maize cob. African. J. Biotechnology 2005, 4: 509-512.
 Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H: Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. CRC Press Inc, Florida; 2001.
 Kaewsarn P, Yu Q: Cadmium (II) removal from aqueous solutions by pre-treated biomass of marine algae (Padina sp).J. Environment. Pollution 2001, 112: 209-213.
 Kalyani G, Rao H, Joga Kumar T, Anup Mariadas K, Vijetha P, Kumar Y, Prasanna Kumaraswamy K, Pallavi P, Sumalatha B: Biosorption of Lead from Aqueous Solutions using Egg Shell Powder as Biosorbent: Equilibrium Modelling. International, J, Biotechnology, Biochemistry 2010, 6(6): 911-920
 Kanamadi RD, Ahalya N, Ramachandra TV: Biosorption of heavy metals by low cost adsorbents. Technical Report 2006, No. 112
 Kar P, Misra M: Use of keratin fibre for separation of heavy metals from water. J. Chemical. Technology. Biotechnology 2004, 79: 1313-1319.
 Katarzyna C: Biosorption of Cr(III) ions by eggshells. J. Haz. Mater 2005,121: 167-173
 Klimmek S, Stan HJ, Wilke A, Bunke G, Buchholz R: Comparative analysis of the biosorption of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc by Algae. J. Environment. Science. Technology 2001, 35: 4283-4288.
 Lopez FA, Martin MI, Perez C, Lopez- Delgado A, Alguacil FJ: Removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions by a steelmaking byproduct. J. Water Research 1993, 37: 3883-3890.
 Lopez-Delgado A, Perez C, Lopez FA: Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge. J. Water Research 1998, 32: 989–996.
 Lu W, Shi J, Wang C, Chang J: Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter Sp. J1 possessing high heavy-metal resistance. J. Haz. Mater 2006, B134: 80-86.
 Marshall Wayne E, Champagne Elaine T: Agricultural By-products as Adsorbents for Metal Ions in Laboratory Prepared Solutions and in Manufacturing Wastewater. J. Environment. Science. Health, Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering 1995, 30: 241-261.
 Marshall WE, Johns MM: Agricultural by-products as metal adsorbents: Sorption properties and resistance to mechanical abrasion. . J. Chemical. Technology. Biotechnology 1996, 66: 192-198.
 Martın Isabel M, Lopez Felix A, Perez C, Lopez-Delgado A, Alguacil Francisco J: Adsorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions with by-products of the steelmaking industry. . J. Chemical. Technology. Biotechnology 2005, 80: 1223-1229.
 Melo, M.; D’Souza, SF: Removal of chromium by mucilaginous seeds of Ocimum Basilicu. Bioresour. J. Technology 2004, 92: 151-155.
 Ogunsuyi HO, Ipinmoroti KO, Amoo IA, Ajayi OO: Adsorption of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution on thiolated and activated cellulose adsorbents developed from agricultural wastes. J. Technoscience 2001, 5: 75-83.
 Okieimen FE, Ogbeifun DE, Nwala GN, Kumsah CA: Binding of cadmium, copper and lead ions by modified cellulosic materials. Bull. J. Environment. Contamination. Topical 1985, 34: 866-870.
 Okieimen FE, Okundaye JN: Removal of cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions with thiolated maize (Zea mays) cob meal. J. Biotechnology. Wastes 1989, 30: 225-230.
 Okiemen FE, Okundia EU, Ogbeifun DE: Sorption of cadmium and lead ions on modified groundnut (Arachis hypogea) husk. J. Chemistry. Technology. Biotechnology 1991, 51: 97-103.
 Opeolu B. O, Bamgbose O, Arowolo T.A, Adetunji M. T: Utilization of biomaterials as adsorbents for heavy metals’ removal from aqueous matrices. Scientific Research and Essays 2010, 5(14): 1780-1787.
 Orhan Y, Büyükgüngör H: The Removal of Heavy Metals by Using Agricultural Wastes. J. Water Sci. Tech 1993, 28: 247–255.
 Periasamy K, Namasivayam C: Process development for removal and recovery of cadmium from wastewater by a low-cost adsorbent: Adsorption rates and equilibrium studies. J. Industrial. Engineer. Chemistry. Research 1994, 33: 317-320.
 Rangsayatorn N, Upatham ES, Kruatrachue M, Pokethitiyook P, Lanza GR: Phytoremediation potential of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis: Biosorption and toxicity studies of Cadmium. J. Environment. Pollution 2002, 119: 45-53.
 Rios J.V, Bess-Oberto L, Tiemann K.J, Gardea-Torresdey J.L: Investigation of metal ion binding by agricultural by-products. In Proceeding of the Conference on Hazardous Waste Research 1999.
 Saeed A, Iqbal M, Akhtar MW: Removal and recovery of lead (II) from single and multimetal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) solutions by crop milling waste (Black gram husk). J. Hazardous. Material 2005, B117: 65-73.
 Saeed A, Iqbal M, Akhtar MW: Application of biowaste materials for the sorption of heavy metals in contaminated aqueous medium. Pak. J. Science. Industry. Research 2002, 45: 206-211.
 Schneegurt Mark A, Jain Jinesh C, Menicucci John A, Brown Sarah A, Kemner Kenneth M, Garofalo David F, Quallick Matthew R, Neal C, Kulpa Charles F: Biomass By-products for the Remediation of Wastewaters Contaminated with Toxic Metals. J. Environment. Science. Technology 2001, 35: 3786-3791.
 Shukla SR, Pai RS: Removal of Pb (II) from solution using cellulose containing materials. J. Chemistry. Technology. Biotechnology 2005, 80: 176-183.
 Stirk WA, Staden JV: Removal of heavy metals from solution using dried brown seaweed material. J. Botanical Marina 2000, 43: 467-473.
 Teixeria T, Cesar R, Zezzi A, Marco A: Biosorption of heavy metals using rice milling by-products. Characterization and application for removal of metals from aqueous solutions. Chemosphere 2004, 54: 905- 915.
 Tokcaer E, Yetis U: Pb(II) biosorption using anaerobically digested sludge. J. Hazardous. Material 2006, B137: 1674-1680.
 Ulmanu M, Maranon E, Fernandez Y, Castrillon L, Anger I, Dumitriu D: Removal of copper and cadmium ions from diluted aqueous solutions by low cost and waste material adsorbents. J. Water Air soil Pollution 2003, 142: 35-373.
 Vijayaraghavan K, Jegan J, Palanivelu K, Velan M: Removal and recoveryof copper from aqueous solution by egg shell in a packed column. J. Minerals Engineering 2005, 18: 545-547.