Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31231
A Review on Impacts of Grid-Connected PV System on Distribution Networks

Authors: Davud Mostafa Tobnaghi


This paper aims to investigate and emphasize the importance of the grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems regarding the intermittent nature of renewable generation, and the characterization of PV generation with regard to grid code compliance. The development of Photovoltaic systems and expansion plans relating to the futuristic in worldwide is elaborated. The most important impacts of grid connected photovoltaic systems on distribution networks as well as the Penetration level of PV system was investigated.

Keywords: Power Quality, distribution network, grid-connected photovoltaic system, penetration levels

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4010


[1] Razykov TM, Ferekides CS, Morel D, Stefanakos E and Ullal HS. 2011. Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects. Solar Energy. 85(8): 1580–1608.
[2] Singh GK. 2013. Solar power generation by PV (photovoltaic) technology: A review. Energy. 58(1): 1-13.
[3] Singh P. 2008. Temperature dependence of I–V characteristics and performance parameters of silicon solar cell. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 92(12): 1611–1616.
[4] Singh P and Ravindra NM. 2012. Temperature dependence of solar cell performance—an analysis. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cell. 101: 36–45.
[5] Radziemska E. 2003. The effect of temperature on the power drop in crystalline silicon solar cells. Renew Energy. 28: 1–12.
[6] W. T. Jewell, R. Ramakumar, and S. R. Hill, “A study of dispersed photovoltaic generation on the PSO system,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 3, 473–478, 1988.
[7] Acharya YB. 2001. Effect of temperature dependence of band gap and device constant on I–V characteristics of junction diode. Solid-State Electron. 45: 115–119.
[8] Rustemli S and Dincer F. 2011. Modeling of Photovoltaic Panel and Examining Effects of Temperature in Matlab/Simulink. Electronics And Electrical Engineering. 109(3): 35-40.
[9] A. F. Povlsen, “Impacts of power penetration from photovoltaic power systems in distribution networks,” International Energy Agency, February 2002.
[10] Cuce E. and Cuce PM. 2013. An experimental analysis of illumination intensity and temperature dependency of photovoltaic cell parameters. Applied Energy. 111: 374–382.
[11] Tobnaghi DM and Madatov R. 2013. The Effect of Temperature on Electrical Parameters of Solar Cells IJAREEIE. 2(12): 6404-6407.
[12] Bunea G, Wilson K, Meydbray Y and Ceuster D. 2006. Low Light Performance of Mono-Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell. 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conference. Waikoloa: 1312–1314.
[13] California ISO, “2020 renewable transmission conceptual plan based on inputs from the RETI process,” September 15,2009.
[14] Iijima A, Suzuki K, Wakao S, Kawasaki N and Usami A. 2013. A fundamental study of spectrum center estimation of solar spectral irradiation by statistical pattern recognition. Electrical Engineering In Japan. 184(1): 10–18.
[15] L. Solarbuzz, “German PV market 2006,” January 2007.
[16] Chegaar M, Ouennoughi Z and Hoffmann A. 2001. A new method for evaluating illuminated solar cell parameters. Solid State Electron. 45: 293–296.
[17] Solar server, global solar industry website, Germany’s PV installed capacity in 2011.
[18] F. Katiraei, K. Mauch, and L. Dignard-Bailey, “Integration of photovoltaic power systems in high-penetration clusters for distribution networks and mini-grids,” National Resources Canada, January 2009.
[19] Lammert MD and Schwarts RJ. 1997. The integrated back contact solar cell: a siliconsolar cell for use in concentrated sunlight. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. 24: 337–342.
[20] H. Laukamp, M. Thoma, T. Meyer, and T. Erge, “Impact of a large capacity of distributed PV production on the low voltage grid,” in 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris, France, June (2004), pp. 7–11.
[21] Tobnaghi DM and Madatov R. 2013. Influence of Illumination Intensity on Electrical Parameters of Solar Cells” Tech J Engin& App Sci. 3(s): 3854-3857.
[22] Yadav AK and Chandel SS. 2013. Tilt angle optimization to maximize incident solar radiation: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 23: 503–513.
[23] Bakirci K. 2012. General models for optimum tilt angles of solar panels: Turkey case study. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16(8): 6149–6159.
[24] IEEE recommended practice for utility interface of photovoltaic (PV) systems. Project Authorization Request P929. Draft 10, February; 1999.
[25] Cronemberger J and Caamano E. 2012. Assessing the solar irradiation potential for solar photovoltaic applications in buildings at low latitudes – Making the case for Brazil. Energy and Buildings. 55: 264–272.
[26] Zhao Y, Wang S, Li X, Wang W, Liu Z, Song S. China renewable energy development project. Report on the development of the photovoltaic industry in China. NDRC/GEF/WB, August; 2006.
[27] D. M. Tobnaghi, R. Madatov, Recovery in the electrical parameters of the aging silicon solar cells by annealing, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Vol. 16, No. 5-6, May - June 2014, p. 764 – 768.
[28] Santos IP and R. Ruther. 2014. Limitations in solar module azimuth and tilt angles in building integrated photovoltaics at low latitude tropical sites in Brazil. Renewable Energy. 63: 116–124.
[29] J. T. Day and W. J. Hobbs, “Reliability impact of solar electric generation upon electric utility systems,” IEEE Trans. Reliab. R-31, 304–307 (1982).
[30] M. Thomson and D. G. Infield, “Impact of widespread photovoltaics generation on distribution systems,” IET Renewable Power Gener. 1, 33–40 (2007).
[31] C. Whitaker, J. Newmiller, M. Ropp, and B. Norris, “Distributed photovoltaic systems design and technology requirements,” Sandia Laboratories, 2008.
[32] N. Miller and Z. Ye, “Distributed generation penetration study,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2003.
[33] S. Cobben, B. Gaiddon, and H. Laukamp, “Impact of photovoltaic generation on power quality in urban areas with high PV population,” PV Upscale, 2008.
[34] V. H. M. Quezada, J. R. Abbad, and T. G. S. Roman, “Assessment of energy distribution losses for increasing penetration of distributed generation,” IEEE Trans. Power Systems 21, 533–540 (2006).
[35] F. Katiraei, K. Mauch, and L. Dignard-Bailey, “Integration of photovoltaic power systems in high-penetration clusters fordistribution networks and mini-grids,” National Resources Canada, January 2009.
[36] Technical Interconnection Requirements for Distributed Generation: Micro Generation & Small Generation, 3-phase, less than 30 kW, Hydro One Networks Inc., 2010.
[37] Kroposki B. and Vaughn A., “DG power quality, protection, and reliability case studies report,” Report No. NREL/SR-560-34635, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 2003.
[38] W. Wencong, J. Kliber, Z. Guibin, X. Wilsun, B. Howell, and T. Palladino, “A power line signaling based scheme for anti-islanding protection of distributed generators: Part II: Field test results,” in Power Engineering Society GeneralMeeting, 2007 (IEEE, 2007), p. 1.
[39] G. Hernandez-Gonzalez and R. Iravani, “Current injection for active islanding detection of electronically-interfaced distribute resources,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 21, 1698–1705 (2006).
[40] A. Woyte, R. Belmans, and J. Nijs, “Testing the islanding protection function of photovoltaic inverters,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 18, 157–162 (2003).
[41] H. Zhenyu, W. Freitas, and X. Wilsun, “A practical method for assessing the effectiveness of vector surge relays for distributed generation applications,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 2005 (20): 57–63.
[42] Sung J. and Kwang K., “An islanding detection method for distributed generations using voltage unbalance and total harmonic distortion of current,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 2004 (19): 745–752.
[43] Smith G. A., Onions P. A., and Infield D. G., “Predicting islanding operation of grid connected PV inverters,” IEE Proc.: Electr. Power Appl. 2000 (147): 1–6.
[44] OKane P. and Fox B., “Loss of mains detection for embedded generation by system impedance monitoring,” in Sixth International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection. 1997 (434): 95–98.
[45] Jun Y., Liuchen C., and Diduch C., “A new adaptive logic phase-shift algorithm for anti-islanding protections in inverterbased DG systems,” in IEEE 36th Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2005: 2482–2486.
[46] Ropp M. E., Begovic M., and Rohatgi A., “Analysis and performance assessment of the active frequency drift method of islanding prevention,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 19991(4): 810–816.
[47] Jun Y., Diduch C. P., and Liucheng C., “Islanding detection using proportional power spectral density,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 2008 (23): 776–784.
[48] Wilsun X., Guibin Z., L. Chun, Wencong W., Guangzhu W., and J. Kliber, “A power line signaling based technique for anti-islanding protection of distributed generators: Part I: Scheme and analysis,” in Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2007, p. 1.
[49] M. Thomson and D. Infield, “Impact of widespread photovoltaics generation on distribution systems,” IET Journal of Renewable Power Generation. 2007 (1): 33–40.
[50] W.N. Macedo and R. Zilles, “Operational results of grid-connected photovoltaic system with different inverter’s sizing factors (ISF)”, Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications 2007(15) :337–52.
[51] E.R. Michael, B. Miroslav, R. Ajeet, A.K. Gregory, Bonn Sr RH, Gonzalez S. “Determining the relative effectiveness of islanding detection methods using phase criteria and nondetection zones”. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 2000(15).
[52] Zeineldin H. H. and Kirtley J. L., “A simple technique for islanding detection with negligible nondetection zone,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 2009 (24): 779–786.