Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30172
Neuromarketing: Discovering the Somathyc Marker in the Consumer´s Brain

Authors: Mikel Alonso López, María Francisca Blasco López, Víctor Molero Ayala

Abstract:

The present study explains the somatic marker theory of Antonio Damasio, which indicates that when making a decision, the stored or possible future scenarios (future memory) images allow people to feel for a moment what would happen when they make a choice, and how this is emotionally marked. This process can be conscious or unconscious. The development of new Neuromarketing techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), carries a greater understanding of how the brain functions and consumer behavior. In the results observed in different studies using fMRI, the evidence suggests that the somatic marker and future memories influence the decision-making process, adding a positive or negative emotional component to the options. This would mean that all decisions would involve a present emotional component, with a rational cost-benefit analysis that can be performed later.

Keywords: Emotions, decision making, somatic marker, consumer´s brain.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1339133

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1600

References:


[1] Bechara, A., Damasio, H. y Damasio, A.R. (2000). Emotion, decision, making and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cereb. Cortex 10, pgs. 295-307.
[2] Bechara A. y Damasio A. (2005): The somatic marker hipótesis: A neural theory of economic decision. Games and economic behavior 52 pp. 336-372.
[3] Camerer C., Loewenstein G. y Prelec P. (2003). Neuroeconomics: why economics needs brain. Scand. J. of Economics 106(3), 555–579, 2004
[4] Damasio, A. (1994): Descartes´ Error: Emotion, Reason and The Human Brain. Ed. Crítica.
[5] Damasio, A. (1999): The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Ed. Crítica.
[6] Damasio, A. (2003): Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain. Ed: Crítica.
[7] Damasio, A. (2003): The person within: The mental self. Ed: Crítica.
[8] Deppe M., Schwindt W., Kugel H., PaBmann H. y Kenning P. (2005). Nonlinear responses within the medial prefrontal cortex reveal when specific implicit information influences economic decision making. Journal of neuroimaging. Vol. 15 num2.
[9] Deppe M., Schwindt W., Kr¨amer J., Kugel H., Plassmann H., Kenning P. Y Ringelstein E.B. (2005). Evidence for a neural correlate of a framing effect: Bias-specific activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during credibility judgments. Brain Research Bulletin 67 413–421
[10] Edwards, W. (1954). The theory of decision making. Psychological bulletin, 51(4), 380.
[11] Ekman, P. (1992): An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6 pp. 169-200.
[12] Ernst, M. y Paulus, M.P. (2005). Neurobiology of decision making: a selective review from a neurocognitive and clinical perspective. Biological Psychiatry. Volume 58, Issue 8: 597-604.
[13] Epstein, R., Harris, A., Stanley D. Y Kanwisher, N. (1999). The parahippocampal place area. Neuron, vol. 23, Issue 1: 115-125.
[14] Etzioni, A. (1988) Normative-affective factors: toward a new decision-making model. Journal of Economic-Psycology, vol 9, pp. 125-150.
[15] Finucane M.L., Peters E. y Slovic P., (1988): Judgment and decision making: the dance of affect and reason. Emerging perspectives on Judgment and Decision Research. Cambridge University Press pp. 327-364.
[16] Fischhoff B., Slovic P. y Lichtenstein, S. (1988): Knowing what you want: Measure labile values. Cambridge University Press pp. 398-421.
[17] Flores, J.C., Ostrosky-solís F. 2008. Neuropsicología de Lóbulos Frontales, Funciones Ejecutivas y Conducta Humana. Revista Neuropsicología, Neuropsiquiatría y Neurociencias, Abril, Vol.8, No. 1, pp. 47-58.
[18] Glimcher P.W. (2009). Choice: towards a standard back-pocket model. In: Neuroeconomics: decision making and the brain (Glimcher PW, Camerer CF, Fehr E, Poldrack RA, eds), pp 503–521. New York: Academic.
[19] Gupta R., Koscik T., Bechara A., Tranel D. (2011). The amygdala and decision-making. Neuropsychologia 49 760–766.
[20] Hsee, C.K. (1998). Less is Better: when low-value optons are valued more highly than high-value options. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. Vol 11, pp. 107-121.
[21] Jameson T.L., Hinson J.M., Whitney P. (2004). Components of working memory and somatic markers in decision making. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 2004, 11 (3), 515-520.
[22] Johnson S.C., Baxter L.C., Wilder L.S., Pipe J.G., Heiserman J.E., Prigatano G.P. (2002). Neural correlates of self-reflection. Brain 125 (pt 8):1808-1814.
[23] Knutson B., Rick S., Wimmer G.E., Prelec D. y Loewenstein G. (2007). Neural predictors of purchases. Neuron 53:147–156.
[24] Krause B.J., Horwitz B. Y Taylor J.G. (1999). Network analysis in episodic encoding and retrieval of word-pair associates: a PET study. Eur J Neurosc.;11:3293-3301.
[25] LeDoux J. (1999): Emotional brain. Editorial Planeta.
[26] LeDoux J. (2000): Emotion circuits in the brain. Annual Rev. Neurosci. pp. 155-184.
[27] Mikel J., Maglio S., Reed A.y Kaplowitz L. (2011). Should I Go with My Gut? Investigating the Benefits of Emotion-Focused Decision Making. Emotion 2011, Vol. 11, No. 4, 743–753
[28] Mitchell D. (2011). The nexus between decision making and emotion regulation: A review of convergent neurocognitive substrates. Behavioural Brain Research 217 (2011) 215–231
[29] Maddock R.J., Garrett A.S. y Buonocore M.H. (2003). Posterior cingulate cortex activation by emotional words: fMRI evidence from a valence decision task. Hum Brain Mapp; 18:30-41.
[30] Maguire E.A., Frith C.D. y Morris R.G. (1999). The fuctional neuroanatomy of comprehension and memory: the imortance of prior knowledge. Brain ;122 (pt10):1839-1850.
[31] O’Doherty, J., Kringelbach, M. L., Rolls, E. T., Hornak, J. y Andrews, C. (2001). Abstract reward and punishment representations in the human orbitofrontal cortex. Nature Neurosci. 4, 95–102.
[32] Ongur D., Ferry A. T., Price J.L. (2003). Architectonic subdivision of the human orbital and medial prefrontal cortex. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Vol 460, Issue3, 425-449.
[33] Pessiglione, M., Seymour, B., Flandin, G., Dolan, R.J., y Frith, C.D. (2006). Dopamine-dependent prediction errors underpin reward-seeking behaviour in humans. Nature 442, 1042–1045.
[34] Phillips M.L., Drevets WC., Rauch S.L., y Lane R. (2003). Neurobiology of Emotion Perception I: The Neural Basis of Normal Emotion Perception. Biol psychiatry.;54:504–514
[35] Prabhakaran V., Narayanan K., Zhao Z. y Gabrieli J.D. (2000). Integration of diverse information in working memory within the frontal lobe. Nat Neurosci; 3:85-90
[36] Price J.L. (1999): Prefrontal cortical networks related to visceral function and mood. Ann N Y Acad Sci 877:383–396.
[37] Schneider J.A. y Barnes. L.L. (2003): What do people really want? Goals and context in Decision Making. Emerging perspectives on Judgment and Decision Research. Cambridge University Press pp. 394-427.
[38] Simon, H. A. (1959). Theories of decision-making in economics and behavioral science. The American economic review, 253-283.
[39] Simón M. (1997): La participación emocional en la toma de decisiones. Psicotheme Vol 9, nº2, pp. 365-376.
[40] Snell, R. (2005). Clinical neuroanatomy for medical students (6th ed). Lavoisier.
[41] Svenson, O. (2003). Values, affect and processes in Human Decisión Making. A differentiation and consolidation theory perspective. Emerging perspectives on Judgment and Decision Research. Cambridge University Press pp. 287-326.
[42] Zajonc R. (1980): Feeling and thinking: preferentes need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35, pp. 151-175.