**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**30685

##### Computer-Assisted Management of Building Climate and Microgrid with Model Predictive Control

**Authors:**
Vinko Lešić,
Mario Vašak,
Anita Martinčević,
Marko Gulin,
Antonio Starčić,
Hrvoje Novak

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Energy-Efficient Buildings,
Hierarchical model
predictive control,
Microgrid power flow optimization,
Price-optimal
building climate control

**Digital Object Identifier (DOI):**
doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1338662

**References:**

[1] Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), Renewables 2015, Global Status Report, 2015.

[2] M. Erol-Kantarci, H. T. Mouftah, ”Energy-Efficient Information and Communication Infrastructures in the Smart Grid: A Survey on Interactions and Open Issues”, IEEE Communication Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 17, no. 1, 2015.

[3] A.-H. Mohsenian-Rad, A. Leon-Garcia, Optimal Residential Load Control With Price Prediction in Real-Time Electricity Pricing Environments, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 2, 2010.

[4] M. P. F. Hommelberg, C. J. Warmer, I. G. Kamphuis, J. K. Kok, G. J. Schaeffer, Distributed Control Concepts using Multi-Agent technology and Automatic Markets: an Indispensable Feature of Smart Power Grids, Proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, pp. 7, 2007.

[5] M. Sechilariu, B. Wang, F. Locment, ”Building Integrated Photovoltaic System With Energy Storage and Smart Grid Communication”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1607–1618, 2013.

[6] Y. Ma, F. Borrelli, B. Hencey, B. Coffey, S. Bengea, P. Haves, ”Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol.20, no.3, pp. 796–803, 2012.

[7] A. Schirrer, O. K¨onig, S. Ghaemi, F. Kupzog, M. Kozek, ”Hierarchical Application of Model-predictive Control for Efficient Integration of Active Buildings into Low Voltage Grids”, Proceedings of the 2013 Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems, MSCPES, pp. 6, 2013.

[8] X. Zhang, G. Schildbach, D. Sturzenegger, M. Morari, ”Scenario-Based MPC for Energy-Efficient Building Climate Control under Weather and Occupancy Uncertainty”, Proceedings of European Control Conference, ECC, pp. 1029–1034, 2013.

[9] Y. Ma, J. Matuˇsko, F. Borrelli: Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Building HVAC Systems: Complexity and Conservatism, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 101–116, 2015.

[10] J. Matuˇsko, F. Borrelli, ”Scenario-based approach to stochastic linear predictive control”, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC, pp. 5194–5199, 2012.

[11] F. Oldewurtel, A. Parisio, C. N. Jones, M. Morari, D. Gyalistras, M. Gwerder, V. Stauch, B. Lehmann, K. Wirth, Energy Efficient Building Climate Control using Stochastic Model Predictive Control and Weather Predictions, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, pp. 5100-5105, 2010.

[12] T. ˇ Zakula, P.R. Armstrong, L. Norford, ”Modeling Environment for Model Predictive Control of Buildings”, Energy and Buildings, vol. 85, pp. 549–559, 2014.

[13] M. Vaˇsak, A. Martinˇcevi´c, ”Optimal Control of a Family House Heating System”, Proceedings of the International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics, MIPRO, pp. 907–912, 2013.

[14] A. Martinˇcevi´c, A. Starˇci´c, M. Vaˇsak, ”Parameter Estimation for Low-order Models of Complex Buildings”, Proceedings of the Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT EUROPE, pp. 6, 2014.

[15] F. Oldewurtel, A. Parisio, C. N. Jones, D. Gyalistras, M. Gwerder, V. Stauch, B. Lehmann, M. Morari, ”Use of Model Predictive Control and Weather Forecasts for Energy Efficient Building Climate Control”, Energy and Buildings, vol. 45, pp. 15–27, 2012.

[16] J. Drgoˇna, M. Kvasnica, M. Klauˇco, M. Fikar, ”Explicit Stochastic MPC Approach to Building Temperature Control”, Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC, pp. 6440–6445, 2013.

[17] D. Sturzenegger, D. Gyalistras, M. Gwerder, C. Sagerschnig, M. Morari, R. S. Smith, ”Model Predictive Control of a Swiss Office Building”, Proceedings of the 11th REHVA World Congress Clima 2013, 2013.

[18] A. Bejan, A. D. Kraus, Heat Transfer Handbook, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-39015-1, 2003.

[19] C. Lu, M. Zheng, W. H. Leong, Verification and Analysis of a TRNSYS Model of a Demonstration House Equipped with a Solar Assisted Ground Coupled Heat Pump System, Proceedings of the International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks, CECNet, pp. 1887-1891, 2011.

[20] W. J. Cole, E. T. Hale, T. F. Edgar, ”Building Energy Model Reduction for Model Predictive Control Using OpenStudio”, American Control Conference, ACC, pp. 449–454, 2013.

[21] ”User Manual IDA Indoor Climate and Energy”, EQUA Simulation AB, 2013.

[22] International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA). (2015, Sep. 8). Building Energy Software Tools Directory. Available: http://www.buildingenergysoftwaretools.com

[23] K. Deng, P. Barooah, P. G. Mehta, S. P. Meyn, ”Building Thermal Model Reduction via Aggregation of States”, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, ACC, pp. 5118-5123, 2010.

[24] American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, ”2009 ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals”, 2009.

[25] A. C. Antoulas, ”An Overview of Model Reduction Methods and a New Result”, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC, pp. 5357-5361, 2009.

[26] K. Glover, ”All Optimal Hankel-norm Approximations of Linear Multivariable Systems and Their L(infinity)-error Bounds”, International Journal of Control, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1115-1193, 1984.

[27] M. G. Safonov, R. Y. Chiang, ”Schur Method for Balanced-truncation Model Reduction”, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 729-733, 1989.

[28] S. J. Julier and J. K. Uhlmann, ”Unscented Filtering and Nonlinear Estimation”, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 401-422, 2004.

[29] M. Maasoumy, B. Moridian, M. Razmara, M. Shahbakhti, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, ”Online simultaneous state estimation and parameter adaptation for building predictive control”, ASME Conference Proceedings, vol. 2013, 2013.

[30] J. Jang, ”System Design and House Dynamic Signature Identification for Intelligent Energy Management in Residential Buildings”, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Mech. Eng., Univ. California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2008.

[31] BSI, EN 15251:2007, Indoor Environmental Input Parameters for Design and Assessment of Energy Performance of Buildings Addressing Indoor Air Quality, Thermal Environment, Lighting and Acoustics.

[32] S. Goyal, H. A. Ingley, P. Barooah, ”Zone-Level Control Algorithms Based on Occupancy Information for Energy Efficient Buildings”, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, ACC, pp. 3063–3068, 2012.

[33] M. Gulin, M. Vaˇsak, M. Baoti´c, ”Analysis of Microgrid Power Flow Optimization with Consideration of Residual Storages State”, Proceedings of the 2015 European Control Conference, ECC, pp. 3131–3136, 2015.

[34] W. S. Parker, ”Predicting Weather and Climate: Uncertainty, Ensembles and Probability”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 263–272, 2010.

[35] R. H. Lasseter, Smart Distribution: Coupled Microgrids, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 1074-1082, 2011.

[36] A. Parisio, E. Rikos, L. Glielmo, ”A Model Predictive Control Approach to Microgrid Operation Optimization”, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1813-1827, 2014.

[37] P. O. Kriett, M. Salani, ”Optimal control of a residential microgrid”, Energy, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 321–330, 2012.

[38] G. Comodi, A. Giantomassi, M. Severini, S. Squartini, F. Ferracuti, A. Fonti, D. Nardi Cesarini, M. Morodo, F. Polonara: Multi-apartment Residential Microgrid with Electrical and Thermal Storage Devices: Experimental Analysis and Simulation of Energy Management Strategies, Applied Energy, vol. 137, pp. 854–866, 2015.

[39] F. Blaabjerg, D. M. Ionel, ”Renewable Energy Devices and Systems State-of-the- Art Technology, Research and Development, Challenges and Future Trends”, Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 1319–1328, 2015.

[40] M. Gulin, M. Vaˇsak, T. Pavlovi´c, Dynamical Behaviour Analysis of a DC Microgrid in Distributed and Centralized Voltage Control Configurations, Proceedings of the 23rd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE, pp. 2365-2370, 2014.

[41] M. Gulin, M. Vaˇsak, N. Peri´c, ”Dynamical optimal positioning of a photovoltaic panel in all weather conditions”, Applied Energy, vol. 108, pp. 429–438, 2013.

[42] M. Gulin, M. Vaˇsak, T. Pavlovi´c, ”Model Identification of a Photovoltaic System for a DC Microgrid Simulation”, Proceedings of the 16th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference and Exposition, PEMC, pp. 501–506, 2014.

[43] M. Gulin, J. Matuˇsko, M. Vaˇsak, ”Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Optimal Economic Operation of a Residential DC Microgrid”, Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ICIT, pp. 505–510, 2015.

[44] M. Gulin, M. Vaˇsak, G. Banjac, T. Tomiˇsa, ”Load Forecast of a University Building for Application in Microgrid Power Flow Optimization”, Proceedings of the IEEE International Energy Conference, EnergyCon, pp. 1284–1288, 2014.

[45] L. Y. Pao, K. E. Johnson, ”Control of Wind Turbines: Approaches, Challenges, and Recent Developments”, IEEE Control Systems Magazine, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 44–62, 2011.

[46] S. Widergren, C. Marinovici, T. Berliner, A. Graves, ”Real-time Pricing Demand Response in Operations”, Power and Energy Society General Meeting, pp. 5, 2012.

[47] C. Eksin, H. Delic, A. Ribeiro, ”Real-Time Pricing with Uncertain and Heterogeneous Consumer Preferences”, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, ACC, pp. 5692–5699, 2015.

[48] R. Scattolini, ”Architectures for distributed and hierarchical Model Predictive Control A review”, Journal of Process Control, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 723–731, 2009.

[49] EPEX SPOT. (2015, Sep. 8). European Power Exchange Electricity Index. Available: http://www.epexspot.com

[50] M. Herceg, M. Kvasnica, C.N. Jones, M. Morari, ”Multi-Parametric Toolbox 3.0”, Proceedings of the European Control Conference, ECC, pp. 502–510, 2013.