Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31231
Long-Term Effect of Breastfeeding in Preschooler’s Psychomotor Development

Authors: Aurela Saliaj, Majlinda Zahaj, Bruna Pura


Background: Breast milk may impact early brain development, with potentially important biological, medical and social implications. There is an important discussion on which is the adequate breastfeeding extension to the development consolidation and how the children breastfeeding affects their psychomotor development, in the first year of life, and in following periods as well. Some special fats (LC PUFA) contained in breast milk play a key role in the brain’s maturation and cognitive development or social skills. These capacities created during breastfeeding time would be unfolded throughout all lifespan. Aim of the study: In our research, we have studied the effect of breastfeeding in preschooler's psychomotor assessment. Method: This study was conducted in a sample of 158 preschool children in Vlorë, Albania. We have measured the psychometric parameters of preschoolers with ASQ-3 (Age&Stage Questionnaires- 3). The studied sample was divided in three groups according to their breastfeeding duration (3, 6 and 12 months). Results: Children breastfed for only 3 months have definitely lower psychometric scores compared to the ones with 6 or more months of breastfeeding (respectively 217 to 239 ASQ-3 scores). Six and twelvemonth breastfed children have progressively more odds to have high levels of psychomotor development comparing to those with only 3 months of breastfeeding. The most affected psychometric domains by shortness of breastfeeding are Communication and Global motor. Conclusion: This leads to conclusion that to ensure high psychomotor parameters during childhood is necessary breastfeeding for at least 6 months.

Keywords: Breastfeeding, preschoolers, psycho-motor development, psycho-motor domains

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2020


[1] The long-term effects of breastfeeding on child and adolescent mental health: a pregnancy cohort study followed for 14 years. Oddy WH, Kendall GE, Li J, Jacoby P, Robinson M, de Klerk NH, et al. 2009, J Pediatr, pp. 156: 568–74.doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.10.020. Epub 2009 Dec 14.
[2] “Breastfeeding and early child development: a prospective cohort study”. Wendy H. Oddy, Monique Robinson, Garth E. Kendall, Jianghong Li, Stephen R. Zubrick, Fiona J. Stanley,. 2011, ActaPædiatrica ISSN 0803–5253, pp. doi:10.1111/j.1651- 2227.2011.02199.x.
[3] Influence of breast-feeding on mental and psychomotor development. Gómez-Sanchiz M, Cañete R, Rodero I, Baeza JE, Avila O.s.l.: ClinPediatr (Phila), 2003. 42(1):35-42. PMID: 12635980.
[4] Breast feeding and cognitive development at age 1 and 5 years. Angelsen NK, Vik T, Jacobsen G, Bakketeig LS.s.l.: Arch Dis Child., 2001. 85(3):183-8. PMID: 11517096.
[5] Breast-feeding and alcoholism: the Trotter hypothesis. Goodwin DW, Gabrielli WF Jr, Penick EC, Nickel EJ, Chhibber S, Knop J,. 1999, Am J Psychiatry, pp. 156 (4):650-2.
[6] Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: new evidence from a large randomized trial. Kramer MS, Aboud F, Mironova E, Vanilovich I, Platt RW, Matush L, Igumnov S, Fombonne E, Bogdanovich N, Ducruet T, Collet JP, Chalmers B, Hodnett E, Davidovsky S, Skugarevsky O, Trofimovich O, Kozlova L, Shapiro S. 2008, Arch Gen Psychiatry., pp. 65(5):578-84. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.65.5.578.
[7] Breastfeeding, Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Colostrum, and Infant Mental Development. Mònica Guxens, Michelle A. Mendez, Carolina Moltó-Puigmartí, Jordi Julvez, Raquel García-Esteban, Joan Forns, Muriel Ferrer, Martine Vrijheid, M. Carmen López-Sabater, Jordi Sunyer,. 2011, Pediatrics, pp. VOLUME 128 / ISSUE 4, retrieved from
[8] Mjeshtëria e nënës - A dimë ta ushqejmëkrijesëntonë? Tushe Edi et al. 2000.
[9] The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in term and preterm infants and breastfeeding mothers. WC, Heird. 2001, PediatrClin North Am., pp. 48(1):173-88.
[10] Effect of breast feeding on child development: Tasnim, Saria. 2014, South East Asia Journal of Public Health, p. DOI:
[11] Ages & Stages Questionnaries – A parent-Completed Child Monitoring System, third edition. Psychometric studies of ASQ. Squires Jane, Ph.D, Twombly Elizabeth, M.S., Bricher Diane, Ph.D, Potter LaWanda, M.S.,. 2009, p. retrieved from http://agesandstages. com/pdfs/asq3_technical_report.pdf.
[12] Exclusive Breastfeeding and Developmental and Behavioral. Olof H. Jonsdottir, Inga Thorsdottir,. s.l.: Nutrients, 2013. 5, 4414-4428; doi:10.3390/nu5114414.
[13] Breast-feeding and cognitive development: a meta-analysis. James W Anderson, Bryan M Johnstone, and Daniel T Remley. s.l.: American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 1999. vol. 70 no. 4 525-535.
[14] Essential fatty acids in early life: structural and functional role. Uauy R, Hoffman DR, Peirano P, Birch DG, Birch EE. s.l.: Lipids., 2001. Sep; 36(9):885-95. PMID: 11724460.
[15] Influence of breast-feeding on the infant's intelectual development. Temboury MC, Otero A, Polanco I, Arribas E (1994) J Pediatr GastroenterolNutr 18:32–36.
[16] Infant feeding and mental and motor development at 18 months of age in first-born singletons. Florey C du, Leech AM, Blackhall A (1995) Int J Epidemiol 24:S21–S26.
[17] Duration of breast-feeding and Bayley's mental developmental index at 1 year of age. Paine BJ, Makrides M, Gibson RA (1999) JPaediatr Health 34:82–85.
[18] Duration of breastfeeding and developmental milestones during the latter half of infancy. Vestergaard M, Obel C, Henriksen TB, et al. (1999) Acta Paediatr 88:1327–1332.
[19] Lianne J. Woodward, P. K.,Breastfeeding, and Child Psychosocial Development. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. 2nd edition, 2008. retrieved from: http://www.childencyclopedia. com/breastfeeding/according-experts/breastfeeding-andchild- psychosocial-development.
[20] Emla Fitzsimons, M. V.-h. Food for the Brain? Breastfeeding and Child Development. CiteSeerX. 2013, retrieved from:
[21] Breast-feeding and later cognitive and academic outcomes. Horwood J, Fergusson D (1998) Pediatrics 101:e9.
[22] Association between breast feeding, child development and behaviour.Golding J, Rogers IS, Emmett PM (1997) Early Hum Dev 49:S175–S184.
[23] Feeding in infancy and later ability and attainment: a longitudinal study. Rodgers B (1978) Dev Med Child Neurol 20:421–426.
[24] Breast feeding and cognitive development in the first 7 years of life. Fergusson DM, Beautrais AL, Silva P (1982) SocSci Med 16:1705– 1708.
[25] Breast-feeding and child development at 5 years. Taylor B, Wadsworth J (1984) Dev Med Child Neurol 26:73–80.
[26] Breast feeding and cognitive development. Rogan WJ, Gladen BC (1993) Early Hum Dev 31:181–193.
[27] Long-term associations with infant feeding in a clinically advantaged population of babies. Pollock JI (1994) Dev Med Child Neurol 36:429– 440.
[28] Is breastfeeding beneficial and maternal smoking harmful to the cognitive development of children? Niemelä A, Jarvenpaa AL (1996) ActaPaediatr 85:1202–1206.
[29] Mother's choice to provide breast milk and developmental outcome. Morley R, Cole TJ, Powell R, Lucas A (1988) Arch Dis Child 63:1382–1385.
[30] Early diet in preterm babies and developmental status at 18 months. Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ, et al. (1990) Lancet 335:1477–1481.
[31] Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. Lucas A, Morley R (1992) Lancet 339:261–264.
[32] A Randomised Multicentre Study of Human Milk versus Formula and Later Development in Preterm Infants. Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ, Gore SM (1994) Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 70:F141–F146.
[33] Impact of breast milk on IQ, brain size and white matter development. Isaacs, E. B., Fischl, B. R., Quinn, B. T., Chong, W. K., Gadian, D. G., & Lucas, A. (2010). Pediatric Research, 67(4), 357–362.