Isolation and Molecular Identification of Two Fungal Strains Capable of Degrading Hydrocarbon Contaminants on Saudi Arabian Environment
In the vicinity of red sea about 15 fungi species were isolated from oil contaminated sites. On the basis of aptitude to degrade the crude oil and DCPIP assay, two fungal isolates were selected amongst 15 oil degrading strains. Analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2 and amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity revealed that these strains belong to Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Two strains that proved to be the most efficient in degrading crude oil was Aspergillus niger (54%) and Penicillium commune (48%) Subsequent to two weeks of cultivation in BHS medium the degradation rate were recorded by using spectrophotometer and GC-MS. Hence, it is cleared that these fungal strains has capability of degradation and can be utilize for cleaning the Saudi Arabian environment.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1110239Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2343
 Plohl K, Leskovsˇek H, Bricelj M (2002) Biological degradation of motor oil in water. Acta Chim Slov 49:279–289.
 Bumpus JA (1989) Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:154–158.
 Clemente AR, Anazawa TA, Durrant LR (2001) Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by soil fungi. Braz J Microbiol 32:255–261.
 Cerniglia CE, Sutherland JB (2001) Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by ligninolytic and non-ligninolytic fungi. In: Gadd GM (ed) Fungi in bioremediation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 136–187.
 Bumpus JA, Tien M, Wright D, Aust SD (1985) Oxidation of persistent environmental pollutants by a white rot fungus. Science 228:1434–1436.
 Novotny C, Erbanova P, Sasek V, Kubatova A, Cajthaml T, Lang E et al (1999) Extracellular oxidative enzyme production and PAH removal in soil by exploratory mycelium of white rot fungi. Biodegradation 10:159–168.
 April TM, Fought JM, Currah RS (2000) Hydrocarbon-degrading filamentous fungi isolated from flare pit soils in northern and western Canada. Can J Microbiol 46:38–49.
 Prenafeta-Boldu´ FX, Kuhn A, Luykx D, Anke H, van Groenestijn JW, de Bont JAM (2001) Isolation and characterisation of fungi growing on volatile aromatic hydrocarbons as their sole carbon and energy source. Mycol Res 105:477–484.
 Saraswathy A, Hallberg R (2002) Degradation of pyrene by indigenous fungi from a former gaswork site. FEMS Microbiol Lett 210:227–232.
 Mesyami P, Baheri M (2003) Pre-screening of fungi and bulking agents for contaminated soil bioremediation. Adv Environ Res 7:881–887.
 Yamada K, Mukumoto H, Katsuyama Y, Tani Y (2002) Degradation of long-chain alkanes by a polyethelene-degrading fungus, Penicillium simplicissimum YK. Enzyme Microb Technol 30:828–831.
 Santos EO, Centeno da Rosa CF, dos Passos CT, Sanzo AVL, de Medeiros Burkert JF, Kalil SJ et al (2008) Pre-screening of filamentous fungi isolated from a contaminated site in Southern Brazil for bioaugmentation purposes. Afr J Biotechnol 7(9):1314–1317.
 Adekunle, I.M., Adetunji M.T., Gbadebo A.M., and Banjoko O.B. (2007). Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest, Nigeria”. Int. Journal of Environment and Public Health. 4(4): 307-318.
 Anupama M, Padma S.(2009). Studies on biodegradaction of crude oil by Aspergillus niger, The South Pacific Journal of Natural Science, 27:57-60
 Esteve-Zarzoso B., Belloch C., Uruburu F.and A.Querol(1999). International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 49: 329 (1999).
 White T. J., Bruns T., Lee S. and J.Taylor, in: A. Innis, Gelfand D. H. and J. J. Sninsky (eds.), (1990). PCR Protocols, Academic Press, San Diego, USA, pp. 315-322.
 Tamura, K., Nei, M., Kumar, S. (2004). Prospects for inferring very large phylogenies by using the neighbor-joining method. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 101, 11030-11035.
 Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M., Kumar, S. (2007). MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24, 1596-1599.
 Hanson KG, Desai JD, Desai AJ (1993). A rapid and simple screening technique for potential crude oil degrading microorganisms. Biotechnol Tech 7: 745-748.
 Guo-liang Zhang, Yue-ting Wu, Xin-ping Qian, Qin Meng(2005). Biodegradation of crude oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of rhamnolipids, J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 6: 725–730.
 Joo, M.H., Kim, J.Y. (2013). Characteristics of crude oil biodegradation by biosurfactant-producing bacterium Bacillus subtilis JK-1. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 56, 193–200.
 Al-Nasrawi Hussein (2012). Biodegradation of Crude Oil by Fungi Isolated from Gulf of Mexico. J Bioremed Biodegrad 3:147.
 Leahy, J.G., Tracy, K.D., Eley, M.H. (2003). Degradation of mixtures of aromatic and chloroaliphatic hydrocarbons by aromatic hydrocarbondegrading bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 43:271-276.
 Gesinde AF, Agbo EB, Agho MO, Dike EFC (2008) Bioremediation of Some Nigerian and Arabian Crude Oils by Fungal Isolates. Int Jor P App Scs 2: 37-44.
 Obire O, Anyanwu E.C. (2009). Impact of various concentrations of crude oil on fungal populations of soil. Int J Environ Sci Technol 6: 211- 218.
 De N, Bello YM, Saleh M (2000) Biodegradation of crude oil by Fusarium sp. and Trichoderma sp. Isolated from oil contaminated soil in different auto mechanic garages. Waste and Management 18 (6).
 Bartha R (1977). The microbiology of aquatic oil spills. Adv Appl Microbiol 22: 225-266.
 Norman, R.S., Moeller, P., McDonald, T.J., Morris, P.J. (2004). Effect of Pyocyanin on a Crude-Oil-Degrading Microbial Community. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 4004–4011.
 Abioye OP, Akinsola, RO, Aransiola SA, Damisa D.(2013). Biodegradation of crude oil by saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from fermented zobo (locally fermented beverage in Nigeria). Pak J Biol sci . 15; 16:2058-61.