Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30075
The Influence of Forest Management Histories on Dead Wood and Habitat Trees in the Old Growth Forest in Northern Iran

Authors: Kiomars Sefidi

Abstract:

Dead wood and habitat tree such as fallen logs, snags, stumps and cracks and loos bark etc. are regarded as an important ecological component of forests on which many forest dwelling species depend on presence of them within forest ecosystems. Meanwhile its relation to management history in Caspian forest has gone unreported. The aim of research was to compare the amounts of dead wood and habitat trees in the forests with historically different intensities of management, including: forests with the long term implication of management (PS), the short term implication of management (NS) which were compared with semi virgin forest (GS). The number of 405 individual dead and habitat trees were recorded and measured at 109 sampling locations. ANOVA revealed volume of dead tree in the form and decay classes significantly differ within sites and dead volume in the semi virgin forest significantly higher than managed sites. Comparing the amount of dead and habitat tree in three sites showed that, dead tree volume related with management history and significantly differ in three study sites. Meanwhile, frequency of habitat trees was significantly different within sites. The highest amount of habitat trees including cavities, cracks and loose bark and fork split trees was recorded in virgin site and lowest recorded in the sites with the long term implication of management. It can be concluded that forest management cause reduction of the amount of dead and habitat tree specially in a large size, thus managing this forest according to ecological sustainable principles require a commitment to maintaining stand structure that allow, continued generation of dead trees in a full range of size.

Keywords: Cracks trees, forest biodiversity, fork split trees, nature conservation, sustainable management.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1109501

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1319

References:


[1] M. E. Harmon, J. F. Franklin, F. J. Swanson, P. Sollins, S. V. Gregory, J. D. Lattin, N. H. Anderson, S. P. Cline, N. G. Aumen, J. R. Sedell, G. W. Lienkaemper, K. Cromack, and K. W. Cummins. Ecology of Coarse Woody Debris in Temperate Ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research, 154, 1986, pp133-302.
[2] D. Kraus, F. Krumm, Integrative Approaches as an Opportunity for the Conservation of Forest Biodiversity. European Forest Institute, 2013, 284 pp.
[3] T. Ranus, and O. Kindvall. Extinction Risk of Wood-Living Model Species in Forest Landscapes as Related to Forest History and Conservation Strategy. Landscape Ecology, vol 21, 2006, pp 687-698.
[4] M. Christensen, Hahn K., E. P. Mountford, P. Ódor, T. Standovár, D. Rozenbergar, J. Diaci, S. Wijdeven, P. Meyer, S. Winter, and T. Vrska. Dead Wood in European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Forest Reserves. Forest Ecology and Management, vol 210, 2005, pp 267-282.
[5] A. H. Colak. Dead Wood and Its Role in Nature Conservation and Forestry: A Turkish Perspective. J Pract Ecol Conserv, 5 (1), 2002, pp 37-49.
[6] B Norden, F Gotmark, M Tonnberg, M Ryberg. Dead Wood in Semi- Natural Temperate Broadleaved Woodland: Contribution of Coarse and Fine Dead Wood, Attached Dead Wood and Stumps. For Ecol Manag, vol 194, no (1-3), 2004, pp 235-248.
[7] K. Hahn, M Christensen. Dead Wood in European Forest Reserves-A Reference for Forest Management. EFI Proceedings 51, 2004, pp 181- 191.
[8] MM Rahman, G Frank, H Ruprecht and H Vacik. Structure of Coarse Woody Debris in Lange-Leitn Natural Forest Reserve, Austria. J. For. Sci. Vol 54, No 4, 2008, pp 161-169.
[9] R Butler, R Schlapfer. Dead Wood in Managed Forests: How much is Enough? Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen vol 155, no 2, 2004, pp 31-37.
[10] Kh Sagheb-Talebi, T Sajedi, M Pourhashemi. Forest of Iran, A Treasure from the Past, a Hope for the Future, Springer verlage, 2014, 145p.
[11] Y Resaneh., M.H. Moshtagh, P Salehi. Quantitative and Qualitative Study of North Forests. In: Nation Seminar of Management and Sustainable Development of North Forests, August 2000. Ramsar, Forest and Range Organization Press, 2001, pp 55–79.
[12] P Svoboda. Forest Tree Species and Their Stands. Prague, SZN, 1953, 110 p.
[13] K Nosrati, MR Marvie-Mohadjer, Bode W, Knapp HD. Schutz der Biologischen Vielfalt und integriertes Management der Kaspischen Wälder (Nordiran). Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn. 2005.
[14] M L Dewan, J Famouri. Soil Map of Iran. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.1961.
[15] K. Sefidi, Marvie-Mohadjer M. R., Mosandl R. and C. A. Copenheaver. Canopy Gaps and Regeneration in Old-Growth Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Stands, Northern Iran. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol 262, No 2, 2011, pp 1094-1099.
[16] K Sefidi, M R Marvie-Mohadjer, R Mosandl, CA Copenheaver. Coarse and Fine Woody Debris in Mature Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Forests of Northern Iran.Nat Areas J, Vol 33, No 3, 2013, pp 248-255.
[17] S. U. Müller and N. Bartsch. Decay Dynamic of Coarse and Fine Woody Debris of a Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Forest in Central Germany, European Journal of Forest Research, Vol 128, 2009, pp 287–296.
[18] L. Albrecht. Grundlagen, Ziele und Methodik der Waldökologischen Forschung in Naturwaldreservaten.Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Müchen. 1990.
[19] M. Zobeiri. Forest Stands and Tree Measurements. University of Tehran Prees. 2008.450p.
[20] ME Harmon, J. Sexton. Guidelines for Measurements of Woody Detritus in Forest Ecosystems. US LTER Publication no. 20, US LTER Network Office. University of Washington, Seattle, WA. .1996.
[21] J. H. Zar. Biostatistical Analysis. Upper Saddle River Prentice-Hall. 1999.