Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31106
Power Ultrasound Application on Convective Drying of Banana (Musa paradisiaca), Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and Guava (Psidium guajava L.)

Authors: Erika K. Méndez, Carlos E. Orrego, Diana L. Manrique, Juan D. Gonzalez, Doménica Vallejo


High moisture content in fruits generates post-harvest problems such as mechanical, biochemical, microbial and physical losses. Dehydration, which is based on the reduction of water activity of the fruit, is a common option for overcoming such losses. However, regular hot air drying could affect negatively the quality properties of the fruit due to the long residence time at high temperature. Power ultrasound (US) application during the convective drying has been used as a novel method able to enhance drying rate and, consequently, to decrease drying time. In the present study, a new approach was tested to evaluate the effect of US on the drying time, the final antioxidant activity (AA) and the total polyphenol content (TPC) of banana slices (BS), mango slices (MS) and guava slices (GS). There were also studied the drying kinetics with nine different models from which water effective diffusivities (Deff) (with or without shrinkage corrections) were calculated. Compared with the corresponding control tests, US assisted drying for fruit slices showed reductions in drying time between 16.23 and 30.19%, 11.34 and 32.73%, and 19.25 and 47.51% for the MS, BS and GS respectively. Considering shrinkage effects, Deff calculated values ranged from 1.67*10-10 to 3.18*10-10 m2/s, 3.96*10-10 and 5.57*10-10 m2/s and 4.61*10-10 to 8.16*10-10 m2/s for the BS, MS and GS samples respectively. Reductions of TPC and AA (as DPPH) were observed compared with the original content in fresh fruit data in all kinds of drying assays.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Drying, banana, mango, guava, effective diffusivity

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2044


[1] FAO, “The market for organic and fair-trade mangoes and pinneapples,” no. September, pp. 4–9, 2009.
[2] D. C. Restrepo-Sánchez, C. E. Narváez-Cuenca, and L. P. Restrepo- Sánchez, “ExtraccióN de compuestos con actividad antioxidante de frutos de guayaba cultivada en vélez-santander, Colombia,” Quim. Nova, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1517–1522, 2009.
[3] “Guayaba, variables internacionales,” Manual del exportador de frutas, hortalizas y tubérculos en Colombia, 2000. (Online). Available: (Accessed: 23-Aug-2015).
[4] F. a N. Fernandes, F. E. Linhares, and S. Rodrigues, “Ultrasound as pretreatment for drying of pineapple,” Ultrason. Sonochem., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1049–1054, 2008.
[5] J. Gamboa-Santos, A. Montilla, J. A. Cárcel, M. Villamiel, and J. V. Garcia-Perez, “Air-borne ultrasound application in the convective drying of strawberry,” J. Food Eng., vol. 128, pp. 132–139, 2014.
[6] K. Schössler, H. Jäger, and D. Knorr, “Effect of continuous and intermittent ultrasound on drying time and effective diffusivity during convective drying of apple and red bell pepper,” J. Food Eng., vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 103–110, 2012.
[7] A. S. Mujumdar, Handbook of industrial drying. CRC Press, 2014.
[8] Q. Zhang and J. B. Litchfield, “An optimization of intermittent corn drying in a laboratory scale thin layer dryer,” Dry. Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 383–395, 1991.
[9] A. Midilli, H. Kucuk, and Z. Yapar, “A new model for single-layer drying,” Dry. Technol., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1503–1513, 2002.
[10] C. Y. Wang and R. P. Singh, “A single layer drying equation for rough rice,” ASAE Pap., vol. 78, p. 3001, 1978.
[11] A. Yagcioglu, A. Degirmencioglu, and F. Cagatay, “Drying characteristic of laurel leaves under different conditions,” in Proceedings of the 7th international congress on agricultural mechanization and energy, 1999, vol. 26, no. 27, pp. 565–569.
[12] G. M. White, T. C. Bridges, O. J. Loewer, and I. J. Ross, “Seed coat damage in thin layer drying of soybeans as affected by drying conditions,” American Society of Agricultural Engineers, paper no. 3052. 1978.
[13] L. M. Diamante and P. A. Munro, “Mathematical modelling of hot air drying of sweet potato slices,” Int. J. food Sci. Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 99–109, 1991.
[14] L. R. Verma, R. A. Bucklin, J. B. Endan, and F. T. Wratten, “Effects of drying air parameters on rice drying models,” Trans. ASAE-American Soc. Agric. Eng., 1985.
[15] S. M. Henderson, “Progress in developing the thin layer drying equation (for maize),” Trans. ASAE, 1974.
[16] J. Crank, The mathematics of diffusion, Second. Oxford university press, 1979.
[17] A. O. Dissa, H. Desmorieux, F. Ouattara, P. Degraeve, D. J. Bathiebo, and J. Koulidiati, “Influence of fruit maturity on water diffusivity during convective drying of mango,” Phys. Chem. News, vol. 60, no. July, pp. 122–132, 2011.
[18] L. Hassini, S. Azzouz, R. Peczalski, and a. Belghith, “Estimation of potato moisture diffusivity from convective drying kinetics with correction for shrinkage,” J. Food Eng., vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 47–56, 2007.
[19] C. L. Taylor, “Purple Pepper Plants, An Anthocyanin Powerhouse: Extraction, Separation and Characterization,” University of Maryland, 2014.
[20] V. L. Singleton, R. Orthofer, and R. M. Lamuela-Raventos, “Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent.,” Methods Enzymol., no. 299C, pp. 152–178, 1999.
[21] G. Marinova and V. Batchvarov, “Evaluation of the methods for determination of the free radical scavenging activity by DPPH,” Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 11–24, 2011.
[22] P. Molyneux, “The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity,” Songklanakarin J Sci Technol, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 211–219, 2004.
[23] W. Brand-Williams, M. E. Cuvelier, and C. Berset, “Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity,” LWT-Food Sci. Technol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 1995.
[24] C. Ozuna, T. G. Álvarez-arenas, E. Riera, J. A. Cárcel, and J. V Garciaperez, “Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Influence of material structure on airborne ultrasonic application in drying,” Ultrason. - Sonochemistry, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1235–1243, 2014.
[25] M. H. Nguyen and W. E. Price, “Air-drying of banana: Influence of experimental parameters, slab thickness, banana maturity and harvesting season,” J. Food Eng., vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 200–207, 2007.
[26] S. P. Kek, N. L. Chin, and Y. A. Yusof, “Simultaneous timetemperature- thickness superposition theoretical and statistical modelling of convective drying of guava,” J. Food Sci. Technol., vol. 51, no. December, pp. 1–14, 2013.
[27] M. Alothman, R. Bhat, and a. a. Karim, “UV radiation-induced changes of antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut tropical fruits,” Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 512–516, 2009.
[28] M. Siddiq, D. S. Sogi, and K. D. Dolan, “Antioxidant properties, total phenolics, and quality of fresh-cut ‘Tommy Atkins’ mangoes as affected by different pre-treatments,” LWT - Food Sci. Technol., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 156–162, 2013.
[29] J. V. Santacatalina, O. Rodríguez, S. Simal, J. a. Cárcel, a. Mulet, and J. V. García-Pérez, “Ultrasonically enhanced low-temperature drying of apple: Influence on drying kinetics and antioxidant potential,” J. Food Eng., vol. 138, pp. 35–44, 2014.