Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30004
Incidence of Fungal Infections and Mycotoxicosis in Pork Meat and Pork By-Products in Egyptian Markets

Authors: Ashraf S. Hakim, Randa M. Alarousy


The consumption of food contaminated with molds (microscopic filamentous fungi) and their toxic metabolites results in the development of food-borne mycotoxicosis. The spores of molds are ubiquitously spread in the environment and can be detected everywhere. Ochratoxin A is a toxic and potentially carcinogenic fungal toxin found in a variety of food commodities. In this study, the mycological quality of various ready-to-eat local and imported pork meat and meat byproducts sold in Egyptian markets were assessed and the presence of various molds was determined in pork used as a raw material, edible organs as liver and kidney as well as in fermented raw meat by-products. The study assessed the mycological quality of pork raw meat and their by-products sold in commercial shops in Cairo, Egypt. Mycological analysis was conducted on (n=110) samples which included pig’s livers and kidneys from Egyptian Bassatin slaughter house; local and imported processed pork meat by-products from Egyptian pork markets. The isolates were identified using traditional mycological and biochemical tests. All kidney and liver samples were positive to molds growth while all byproducts were negative. Ochratoxin A levels were quantitatively analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the highest results were present in kidney 7.51 part per billion (ppb) followed by minced meat 6.19 ppb generally the local samples showed higher levels than the imported ones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on mycotoxins detection and quantification from pork by-products in Egypt.

Keywords: Egypt, imported pork by-products, local, mycotoxins.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF


[1] A. Laciakova, and V. Laciak, "Možnosti eliminácie mikroskopických vláknitých húb dezinfekčnými prostried- kami". Vet. Med. (Czech), 39:723–731, 1994.
[2] CAST, "Mycotoxins: Risks in plants, animals and humans". Tasks Force Report No.139. Council for Agriculture Science and Technology (CAST), Ames, Iowa, USA, 2003.
[3] S. Homdork, H. Fehrmannand, and R. Beck "Influence of different storage conditions on the mycotoxin production and quality of Fusarium- infected wheat grain". J. of phytopathology, 148(1): 7-15, 2000.
[4] I. Štyriak, E. Čonkova, A. Lacikova, and J. Bohm, "Prevention of fumonisin production by microorganisms". Czech J. Anim. Sci., 43: 449–452, 1998.
[5] H. P. Hanssen, "Molds control in the meat processing industry". Fleischwirtschaft, 75: 52, 1995.
[6] A. A. Hassan and R. El- Sharnouby, "Antimicrobial effect of some chemicals and plant extracts on Egyptian food". J. Egypt. Vet. Med. Assoc., 57 (4): 1331- 1349, 1997.
[7] A. A. Hassan, "Detection of some mycotoxins and mycotoxins producing fungi in both macro- and microenvironment of diseased animals".7th Sci. Cong. Egyptian Society for Cattle Diseases, pp. 112 – 119, 7-9, 2003.
[8] M. A. Abdel-Wahhab, and A. M. Kholif, " Mycotoxins in Animal Feeds and Prevention Strategies: A Review". Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2: 7-25, 2008.
[9] L. Berry, "The pathology of mycotoxins". Journal of Pathology 154: 301, 1988.
[10] D. Puntaric, J. Bosnir, Z., Smit, and Z. Baklaic, "Ochratoxin A in corn and wheat: Geographical association with endemic nephropathy". Croatian Medical Journal. 42(2):175, 2001.
[11] A. Rodríguez, M. Rodríguez, A. Martín, F. Nuñez, and J.J. Córdoba, "Evaluation of hazard of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and patulin production in dry-cured ham and early detection of producing molds by qPCR". Food Control 27 (1), 118-126, 2012.
[12] L. Malagutti, M. Zannotti, A. Scampini, and F. Sciaraffia, "Effects of Ochratoxin A on heavy pig production". Anim. Res.54 (3): 179-184, 2005.
[13] J. Fink-Gremmels "The role of mycotoxins in the health and performance of dairy cows". Vet J. 176(1):84-92, 2008.
[14] J.W. Bennett and M. Klich, "Mycotoxins". Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 16(3): 497-516, 2003.
[15] J.L. Richard, "Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses--an overview". Int J Food Microbiol. 20; 119(1-2):3-10, 2007.
[16] Risk Assessment Studies Report No. 23, Ochratoxin A in Food", 2006.
[17] A. Tarín, M.G. Rosell, and X. Guardino, "Use of high-performance liquid chromatography to assess airborne mycotoxins. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. J Chromatography. 27; 1047(2):235-40, 2004.
[18] R.C.Shoemaker and D.E. House, "A time-series study of sick building syndrome: chronic, biotoxinassociated illness from exposure to waterdamaged buildings". Neurotoxicol. Teratol., 27:29-46, 2005.
[19] B. Gutarowska, and M. Piotrowska, "Methods of mycotogical analysis in building". Build. Environ., 42, 1843-1850, 2007.
[20] Y. Wang, T. Chai, G. Lu, C. Quan, H. Duan, M. Yao, B.A. Zaucker and G. Schlenker, "Simultaneous detection of airborne Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin and Zearalenone in a poultry house by immune-affinity clean-up and high–performance liquid chromatography". Environ. Res., 107, 139-144, 2008.
[21] A.S. Hakim, S. M. Azza Abuelnaga, M. Afaf Ezz-Eldeen,. M.A. Bakry, and A. Seham Ismail, "Prevalence of some food poisoning bacteria in local and imported retail pork by-products in Egyptian markets". Afr. Journal of Microbiol. Res., 9(22):1492-1498, 2015.
[22] American Public Health Association, "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water" Wastewater, 16th Ed. APHA, Washington, D.C, 1985.
[23] J.I. Pitt, A.D. Hocking, and D.R. Glenn "An improved medium for the detection of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus". J Appl Bacteriol. 54(1):109-14, 1983.
[24] L. Monaci, F. Palmisano, R. Matrella, and G. Tantillo "Determination of ochratoxin A at part-per-trillion level in Italian salami by immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection". J Chromatogr A. 7; 1090(1-2):184-7, 2005.
[25] D.R. Milićević, V.B. Jurić, S.M. Stefanović, M. Jovanovic, and S.D. Jankovic, "Survey of slaughtered pigs for occurrence of ochratoxin A and porcine nephropathy in Serbia". Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9, 2169–2183, 2008.
[26] K. J. Merwe, P. S. Steyn, and L. Fourie, Mycotoxins. Part 2. "The constitution of ochratoxin A, B, and C, metabolites of Aspergillus ochraceus". Journal of the Chemical Society, 7083–7088, 1965b.
[27] S. Li, R.R. Marquardt, A.A. Frohlich, T.G. Vitti, and G. Crow “Pharmacokinetics of ochratoxin A and its metabolites in rats”. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol., 145(1):82-90, 1997.
[28] Centre for Food Safety Food and Health Bureau, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department, 2006.
[29] V. Ostry, J. Ruprich, J. Skarkova, I. Prochazkova, and A. Kubatova, "Occurrence of the toxigenic fungi (producers of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A) in foodstuffs in the Czech Republic 1999- 2000".Mycotoxin Res. 17 (2):188-92, 2001.
[30] Z. M. Zaky, M. A. Ismail, and R. S. Refaie "Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins residues in luncheon meat". Assiut Vet. Med., 33: 114–118, 1995.
[31] Z.Cvetnić, and S. Pepeljnjak "Aflatoxin-producing potential of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from samples of smoked-dried meat". Nahrung. 39 (4):302-7, 1995.
[32] I. A. EL-Kady, S. S. M. EL-Maraghy, and E. M. Mostafa, "Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in different spices in Egypt". Folia Microbiol., 40: 297–300,1995.
[33] M. Hubner, T. Vrabcheva, and M. Garies, "Simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A and B in spices and herbs by immunoaffinity column clean up and HPLC". Rev. Med. Vet., 149: 507, 1998.
[34] M. Olsen, T. Moller, A.C. Salomonsson, "Occurrence of aflatoxin producing molds in spices". Rev. Med. Vet., 149: 529, 1998.
[35] A. A. Frohlich, R. R. Marquardt, and J.R. Clarcke, "Enzymatic and immunological approaches for the quantitation and confirmation of ochratoxin A in swine kidneys". J. Food Protect., 60 : 172- 176, 1997.
[36] V.G. Curtui, M. Gareis, E. Usleber, and E. Martlbauer, "Survey of Romanian slaughtered pigs for the occurrence of mycotoxins ochratoxins A and B, and zearalenone". Food Addit. Contam. 18: 730- 738, 2001.
[37] P. Krogh, N.H. Axelsen, N. Gyrd-Hansen, J. Hald, Hyldgaard-Jensen, A. E. Larsen, A. Madsen, and H.P.Mortensen, "Experimental porcine nephropathy". Acta Path. Microb. Scand. Sect. A, 246: 1- 21, 1974.
[38] P. Krogh, F. Elling, B. Hald, A. E. Larsen, E. B. Lillehøj, A. Madsen, and H.P.Mortensen "Time- dependent disappearance of ochratoxin A residues in tissues of bacon pigs". Toxicol. 6: 235- 242, 1976.
[39] H.P.Mortensen, B. Hald, A. E. Larsen, and A. Madsen "Ochratoxin A contaminated barley for sows and piglets. Pig performance and residues in milk and pigs". Acta Agric. Scand., 33: 349-352, 1983.
[40] D. Milicevic, M. Skrinjar and T. Baltic "Real and perceived risks for mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds: challenges for food safety control". Toxins 2: 572–592, 2010.