Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31231
Potential of γ-Polyglutamic Acid for Cadmium Toxicity Alleviation in Rice
Abstract:Cadmium (II) (Cd) is one of the major toxic elemental pollutants, which is hazardous for humans, animals and plants. γ- Polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) is an extracellular biopolymer produced by several species of Bacillus which has been reported to be an effective biosorbent for metal ions. The effect of γ-PGA on growth of rice grown under laboratory conditions was investigated. Rice seeds were germinated and then grown at 30±1°C on filter paper soaked with Cd solution and γ-PGA for 7 days. The result showed that Cd significantly inhibited the growth of roots, shoots by reducing root, and shoot lengths. Fresh and dry weights also decreased compared with control; however, the addition of 500 mg·L-1 γ-PGA alleviated rice seedlings from the adverse effects of Cd. The analysis of physiological traits revealed that Cd caused a decrease in the total chlorophyll and soluble protein contents and amylase activities in all treatments. The Cd content in seedling tissues increased for the Cd 250 μM treatment (P<0.05) but the addition of 500 mg·L-1 γ-PGA resulted in a noticeable decrease in Cd (P<0.05).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1108685Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5403
 Y. F. Yan, D. H. Choi, D. S. Kim, and B. W. Lee, “Absorption, Translocation, and Remobilization of Cadmium Supplied at Different Growth Stages of Rice,” J. Crop Sci. Biotech., vol.13, pp. 113-119, 2010.
 N. Rascio, F. D. Vecchai, N. L. Rocca, R. Barbato, C. Pagliano, M. Raviolo, C. Gonnelli, and R. Gabrielli, “Metal Accumulation and Damage in Rice (cv. Vialone nano) Seedlings Exposed to Cadmium,” Environ. Exp. Bot., vol. 62, pp. 267-278, 2008.
 J. Y. He, Y. F. Ren, C. Zhu, and D. A. Jiang, “Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice (Oryza sativa),” Rice Sci., vol. 15(4), pp. 319-325, 2008.
 W. Swaddiwudhipong, P. Limpatanachote, P. Mahasakpan, S. Krintratun, and C. Paduangtod, “Cadmium-Exposed Population in Mae Sot District, Tak Province: 1. Prevalence of High Urinary Cadmium Levels in the Adults,” Med. Assoc. Thai, vol. 90, pp. 143-148, 2007.
 R. W. Simmons, P. Pongsakul, D. Saiyasitpanich, and S. Klinphoklap, “Elevated Levels of Cadmium and Zinc in Paddy Soils and Elevated Levels of Cadmium in Rice Grain Downstream of a Zinc Mineralized Area in Thailand: Implications for Public Health,” Environ. Geochem. Health, vol. 27, pp. 501-511, 2005.
 J. H. Jeong, J. N. Kim, Y. J. Wee, and H. W. Ryu, “The Statistically Optimized Production of Poly (γ-glutamic acid) by Batch Fermentation of a Newly Isolated Bacillus subtilis RKY3,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 101, pp. 4533-4539, 2010.
 I. Shih and Y. Van, “The Production of Poly-(γ-Glutamic Acid) from Microorganisms and Its Various Applications,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 79, pp. 207-225, 2001.
 R. C. McLean, D. C. Wolf, F. G. Ferris, and T. J. Beveridge, “Metal Binding Characteristics of the Gamma-Glutamyl Capsular Polymer of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 56, pp. 3671-3677, 1990.
 S. S. Mark, T. C. Crusberg, C. M. Dacunha, and D. Iorio, “A Heavy Metal Biotrap for Wastewater Remediation Using Poly-Gamma- Glutamic Acid,” Biotechnol. Prog., vol. 22, pp. 523-531, 2006.
 Y. Ogawa, F. Yamaguchi, K. Yuasa, and Y. Tahara, “Efficient Production of γ-Polyglutamic Acid by Bacillus subtilis (natto) in Jar Fermenters. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. vol. 61, pp. 1684-1687, 1997.
 S. Dere, T. Günes, and R. Sivaci, “Spectrophotometric Determination of Chlorophyll-A, B and Total Carotenoid Contents of Some Algae Species Using Different Solvents,” Tr. J. Bot., vol. 22, pp. 13-17, 1998.
 J. He, Y. Ren, X. Pan, Y. Yan, C. Zhu, and D. Jiang, “Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Toxicity Effect of Cadmium on Germination, Seedling Growth, and Amylase Activity of Rice,” J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., vol. 173, pp. 300-305, 2010.
 X. E. Yang, V. C. Baligar, D. C. Martens, and R. B. Clark, “Cadmium Effects on Influx and Transport of Mineral Nutrients in Plant Species,” J. Plant Nutr., vol. 19, pp. 643-656, 1996.
 W. H. O. Ernst, J. A. C. Verkleij, and H. Schatm, “Metal Tolerance in Plants,” Acta Botanica Neerlandica, vol. 41, pp. 229-248, 1992.
 C. S. Seth, P. K. Chaturvedi, and V. Misra, “The Role of Phytochelatins and Antioxidants in Tolerance to Cd Accumulation in Brassica juncea L.,” Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., vol. 71, pp. 76-85, 2008.
 S. Hayat, B. Ali, A. Hansan, and A. Ahmad, “Brassinosteroid Enhanced the Level of Antioxidant under Cadmium Stress in Brassica juncea.,” Environ. Exp. Bot., vol. 60, pp. 33-41, 2007.
 C. L. Ge, X. Y. Yang, J. H. Sun, and Z. G. Wang, “Effect of Heavy Metal Stress on the Amylase Activity in Germination Rice Seeds,” J. Northwest Sci. Tech. Univ., vol. 30(3), pp. 47-52, 2002.
 F. Y. Siao, J. F. Lu, J. S. Wang, B. S. Inbaraj, and B. H. Chen, “In vitro Binding of Heavy Metals by an Edible Biopolymer Poly (γ-glutamic acid) ,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 57, pp. 777-784, 2009.
 G. H. Ho, T. I. Ho, K. H. Hsieh, Y.C. Su, P.Y. Lin, and J. Yang, “γ- Polyglutamic Acid Produced by Bacillus subtilis (natto): Structural Characteristics, Chemical Properties and Biological Functionalities,” J. Chinese Chem. Society, vol. 53, pp. 1363-1384, 2006.
 B. P. Shaw, S. K. Sahu, and R. K. Mishra, “Heavy Metal Induced Oxidative Damage in Terrestrial Plants. In Heavy Metal Stress in Plants from Biomolecules to Ecosystems”, edited by Prasad, M.N.V. New Delhi: Narosa publishing house. pp. 84-126, 2004.