Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30054
Utilization of Mustard Leaves (Brassica juncea) Powder for the Development of Cereal Based Extruded Snacks
Abstract:Mustard leaves are rich in folates, vitamin A, K and B-complex. Mustard greens are low in calories and fats and rich in dietary fiber. They are rich in potassium, manganese, iron, copper, calcium, magnesium and low in sodium. It is very rich in antioxidants and Phytonutrients. For the optimization of process variables (moisture content and mustard leave powder), the experiments were conducted according to central composite Face Centered Composite design of RSM. The mustard leaves powder was replaced with composite flour (a combination of rice, chickpea and corn in the ratio of 70:15:15). The extrudate was extruded in a twin screw extruder at a barrel temperature of 120°C. The independent variables were mustard leaves powder (2-10 %) and moisture content (12-20 %). Responses analyzed were bulk density, water solubility index, water absorption index, lateral expansion, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and overall acceptability. The optimum conditions obtained were 7.19 g mustard leaves powder in 100g premix having 16.8% moisture content (w.b).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1107595Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 S. Ragaee, Abdel-Aal E.M. and M. Noaman, “Antioxidant activity and nutrient composition of selected cereals for food use,” Food Chemistry, vol. 98, pp.32-38, 2006
 V. Baskaran and S. Bhattacharaya, “Nutritional status of the protein of corn-soy based extruded products evaluated by rat bioassay”, Plant Foods for Humane Nutrition, vol. 59: pp. 101-104, 2004.
 ] J.M. Harper, “Extrusion of foods” CRC Press, Florida, USA. Vol. 1, pp. 212, 1981.
 I. L. Goni, Garcia-Diz, E. Manas and C. Saura, Analysis of resistant starch: a method for foods and food products. Food Chemistry, vol. 56, pp 445-449, 1995.
 M.E. Camire, M.P. Dougherty and J.L. Briggs, “Functionality of fruit powders in extruded corn breakfast cereals”, Food Chemistry, Vol. 101, pp. 765-770, 2007.
 N.R. Dlamini, J.R.N. Taylor and L.W. Rooney, The effect of sorghum type and processing on the antioxidant properties of African sorghumbased foods”, Food Chemistry, Vol. 105: pp. 412-1419, 2007
 A.F.A. Razis and N.M. Noor, “Crusiferous Vegetables: Dietary Phytochemicals for cancer prevention”, Asian Pacific Journal of cancer prevention, vol. 14(3), pp. 1565-1570, 2013.
 N. A. Anjum, A. Umar, A. Ahmad, Iqbal M. and N. A. Khan, “Sulpher protects mustard (Brassica compestris L.) from cadmium toxicity by improving leaf ascorbate and glutathione”, Plant growth Regulation, vol. 54, pp. 271-279, 2008.
 J. L. Kokini, C.N. Chang, and L.S. Lai, “The role of rheological properties on extrudate expansion”, Food extrusion science and technology, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 631- 652, 1992
 J. Hashimoto and M. V. Grossman, “Effects of extrusion conditions on cassava bran/ cassava starch extrudates”, International Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 38 (5) pp.511-517, 2003.
 R. Guy, “Raw materials for extrusion cooking, Extrusion Cooking Technologies and Applications”. Guy, R., ed. Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, England, Pages 5-28, 2001.
 Q.B. Ding, A. Ainsworth, G. Tucker and H. Marson, “The effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of rice-based expanded snacks”, Journal of Food Engineering, vol.66, pp.283–289, 2005.
 R. A. Anderson, H. F. Conway and E. L. Griffin, “Gelatinization of corn grits by roll and extrusion cooking”, Cereal Science Today, vol. 14, pp. 4–12, 1969.
 P. Rayas, K. Majewska and C. Doetkott, “Effect of extrusion process parameters on the quality of buckwheat flour mixes”, Journal of cereal chemistry, vol. 75(3), pp. 338-345, 1998.
 T. Lawton and A. Handerson “The effects of extruder variables on the gelatinization of corn starch”, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 50, pp. 168-172, 1972.
 H.B. Li, K.W. Cheng, C.C. Wong, K.W. Fan, F. Chen and Y. Jiang, “Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of different fractions of selected microalgae”, Food Chemestry, vol. 102, pp. 771-776, 2007.
 S. Yuliani, J. Peter, D. Bruce, T. Nicholson and B. Bhandari, “Effect of extrusion parameters on flavor retention, functional and physical properties of mixture of starch and D-limonene encapsulated in milk protein”, International Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 41, pp. 83-94, 2006.
 A. Sawant, J. Thakor, B. Swami and D. Divate, “Physical and sensory characteristics of Ready-To-Eat food prepared from finger millet based composite mixer by extrusion cooking” Agriculrural Engineering International CIGR Journal, vol. 15(1), pp. 100－105, 2013.
 S. Pathania, B. Singh, S. Sharma, V. Sharma and S. Singla S. “Optimization of extrusion processing conditions for preparation of an instant grain base for use in weaning foods”, Journal of Engineering research and Application., Vol.3, Issue 3, pp.1040-1049, 2013.
 P. Sharma, H. S.Gujral, B. Singh, “Antioxidant activity of barley as affected by extrusion cooking”, Food Chemistry, vol. 131, pp.1406- 1413, 2012.