Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30455
Horizontal Directivity of Pipa Radiation
Abstract:Pipa is one of the most important Chinese traditional plucked instruments, but its directivity has never been measured systematically. In western, directivity of loudness for western instruments is deeply researched through analysis of sound pressure level, whereas the directivity of timbre is seldom studied. In this paper, a new method for directivity of timbre was proposed, and horizontal directivity patterns of loudness and timbre of Pipa were measured. Directivity of Pipa radiation was measured in an anechoic room. The sound of Pipa played by a musician was recorded simultaneously by 32 microphones with Pipa in the center. The measuring results were examined through listening test. According to the measurement of Pipa directivity radiation, we put forward the best localization of Pipa in the Chinese traditional orchestra and the optimal recording region.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1100869Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1390
 J. Meyer, Acoustics and the Performance of Music (Fifth Edition). Branschweig: Springer, 2010, ch. 4.
 T. Halkosaari, M. Vaalgamaa and M. Karjalainen, “Directivity of artificial and human speech,” J Audio Eng Soc, vol. 53, no.7/8, pp.620-631, Jul. 2005.
 Ingolf Bork, “Sound Radiation from a Grand Piano,” in the 100th AES Convention, Copenhagen, 1996.
 J. Patynen, T. Lokki, “Directivities of Symphony Orchestra Instruments,” Acta Acustica united with Acustica, vol.96, pp. 138-167, 2010.
 BB Monson, EJ Hunter and BH Story, “Horizontal directivity of low- and high-frequency energy in speech and singing,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol.132, no.1, pp. 433-41, Jul. 2012.
 S. Pelzer, M. Pollow and M. Vorlander, “Auralization of a Virtual Orchestra using Directivities of Measured Symphonic Instruments,” in Proceedings of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes Conference, Nantes, 2012, pp.2379-2384.
 Gabriel Weinreich, “Directional tone color,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 101, no. 4, pp.2338 – 2346, Apr. 1997.
 Zdenek Otcenasek, Jan Stepanek, “Violin Sound Radiation - Directivity of Violin Timbre,” in DAGA, Oledenburg, 2000, pp.240-241.
 Zdeněk Otčenášek, Jan Štěpánek, “Directional Timbre Spaces of Violin Sounds,” in Proceedings of ISMA, Perugia, 2001, pp.495-498.
 Zdeněk Otčenášek, Jan Štěpánek, “Sound quality preference of violin tones and its directional dependence,” in DAGA, Bochum, 2002, pp.404-405.
 F. Otondo, J. H. Rindel, “Directional representation of a clarinet in a room,” ULTRAGARSAS, vol. 48, no. 3, pp.A1-A8, 2003.
 David Howard, Jamie Angus, Acoustics and Psychoacoustics (Fourth Edition), Oxford: Focal Press, 2009, ch.5.
 R.Plomp,W.J.M.Levelt, “Tonal consonance and critical bandwidth,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol.38, pp. 548-560, Apr. 1965.
 William A. Sethares, Tuning,Timber,Spectrum,Scale, London: Springer verlag, 1997, pp. 345-347.