Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31225
Entomological Origin of Honey Discriminated by NMR Chloroform Extracts in Ecuadorian Honey

Authors: P. Vit, J. Uddin, V. Zuccato, F. Maza, E. Schievano


Honeys are produced by Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Meliponini) in Ecuador. We studied honey produced in beeswax combs by Apis mellifera, and honey produced in pots by Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona bees. Chloroform extracts of honey were obtained for fast NMR spectra. The 1D spectra were acquired at 298 K, with a 600 MHz NMR Bruker instrument, using a modified double pulsed field gradient spin echoes (DPFGSE) sequence. Signals of 1H NMR spectra were integrated and used as inputs for PCA, PLS-DA analysis, and labelled sets of classes were successfully identified, enhancing the separation between the three groups of honey according to the entomological origin: A. mellifera, Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona. This procedure is therefore recommended for authenticity test of honey in Ecuador.

Keywords: honey, Apis mellifera, meliponini, entomological origin

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2774


[1] Michener, C.D. The Bees of the World. 2nd. Baltimore, USA: Ed.The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007, 992 pp.
[2] Michener, C.D. “The Meliponini,” in Pot-honey: A legacy of stingless bees. Vit. P.; Pedro, S.R.M.; Roubik, D., Eds. New York: Springer, 2013, pp. 3-17
[3] Schwarz, H. Stingless bees (Meliponidae) of the Western Hemisphere. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 1948, 90, 1-546.
[4] Fijn, N. Sugarbag Dreaming: the significance of bees to Yolngu in Arnhem Land, Australia. H U MaN I M A L I A 2014, 6, 1-21.
[5] Jaffé, R.; Pope, N.; Torres Carvalho, A.; Madureira Maia, U.; Betina Blochtein, B.; Carvalho, C.A.L.; Carvalho-Zilse, G.A.; Magalhães Freitas, B.M.; Menezes, C.; Ribeiro, M.F.; Venturieri, G.C.; Imperatriz- Fonseca V.L. Bees for Development: Brazilian Survey Reveals How to optimize stingless beekeeping. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3): e0121157. Published online 2015 Mar 31.doi: 10.137.
[6] Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R.; Roubik, D.W.; Colli-Ucán1, W.; Güemez- Ricalde, F.J.; Buchmann, S.L. A Critical View of Colony Losses in Managed Mayan Honey-Making Bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in the Heart of Zona Maya. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc., 2013, 86, 352-362. doi: 10.2317.
[7] Vit, P. La miel precolombina de abejas sin aguijón (Meliponini) aún no tiene normas de calidad. Rev. Bol. Centro Investigaciones Biológicas, 2008, 42, 415-423.
[8] Instituto Colombiano de ormas Técnicas y Certificación. ICONTEC. NTC 1273. Norma Técnica Colombiana de Miel de Abejas. Bogotá: ICONTEC, 2007. pp. 1-21.
[9] Codex Alimentarius Commission. CODEX STAN 12. Norma para la Miel. Norma adoptada en 1981. Revisiones en 1987 y 2001. Roma: FAO, 1981, pp. 1-8.
[10] Vit, P., Fernández-Maeso, M.C., Ortiz-Valbuena, A. Potential use of the three frequently occurring sugars in honey to predict stingless bee entomological origin. J. Applied Entomol. 1997, 122, 5-8.
[11] Vit, P., Persano Oddo, L., Marano, M.L., Salas de Mejías, E. Venezuelan stingless bee honeys characterised by multivariate analysis of compositional factors. Apidologie, 1998, 29, 377-389.
[12] Vit, P., Deliza, R., Pérez, A. How a Huottuja (Piaroa) community perceives genuine and false honey from the Venezuelan Amazon, by free-choice profile sensory method. Rev. Bras. de Farmacogn., 2011, 21, 786-792.
[13] Schievano, E.; Mammi, S.; Menegazzo, I. “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance as a method for prediction of geographical and entomological origin of pot honey”. in Pot-honey: A legacy of stingless bees. Vit. P.; Pedro, S.R.M.; Roubik, D., Eds. New York: Springer, 2013, pp. 429-445.
[14] Truchado, P., Vit, P., Ferreres, F., Tomás-Barberán, F. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis allows the simultaneous characterization of C-glycosyl and O-glycosyl flavonoids in stingless bee honeys. J. Chromatogr. A, 2011, 1218, 7601-7607.
[15] Truchado, P., Vit, P., Heard, T., Tomás-Barberán, F.A., Ferreres, F. Determination of interglycosidic linkages in O-glycosil flavones by high-performance liquid chromatography/photodiode-array detection coupled to electrospray ionization ion trap mass. Its application to Tetragonula carbonaria honey from Australia. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 2015, 29, 948-954.
[16] Ramón-Sierra, J.M., Ruiz-Ruiz, J.C., Ortiz-Vázquez, E.L. Electrophoresis characterisation of protein as a method to establish the entomological origi of stingless bee honeys. Food Chem. 2015, 183, 43- 48.
[17] Alves, R.M.O. “Production and marketing of pot-honey”. in Pot-honey: A legacy of stingless bees. Vit. P.; Pedro, S.R.M.; Roubik, D., Eds. New York: Springer, 2013, pp. 541/556.
[18] Easter Strayer, S., Everstine, K., Kennedy, S. Economically Motivated Adulteration of Honey: Quality Control Vulnerabilities in the International Honey Market. FPT 2014, 34, 8-14.
[19] Rastrelli, F.; Schievano, E.; Bagno, A.; Mammi, S. NMR quantification of trace components in complex matrices by band-selective excitation with adiabatic pulses. Magn. Reson. Chem. 2009, 47, 868-872.
[20] Eriksson, L.; Johansson, E.; Kettaneh-Wold, N.; Trygg, J.; Wikström, C.; Wold, S.;. Umetrics, A.B.; Umeå, Sweden. 2006. 425 pp.
[21] Spiteri, M.; Jamin, E.; Thomas, F.; Rebours, A.; Lees, M.; Rogers, K.M; Rutledge, D.N. Fast and global authenticity screening on honey using 1H-NMR profiling. Food Chem., 2014 doi:10.1016 (in press).
[22] Schievano, E.; Stocchero, M.; Morelato, E.; Facchin, C.; Mammi, S. An NMR-based metabolomic approach to identify the botanical origin of honey. Metabolomics, 2012, 8, 679–690.
[23] Ohmenhaeuser, M.; Monakhova, Y.B.; Kuballa, T; Lachenmeier, D.W. Qualitative and quantitative control of honeys using NMR spectroscopy chemometrics. Anal. Chem. 2013, article ID 825318, 1-9 pp. doi:10.1155.
[24] Instituto Ecuatoriano de Normalización. Norma Miel de Abejas. Requisitos. NTE INEN 1572. Quito: INEN, 1988.
[25] Ramírez, J.A.; Ureña, J.; Camacho, A. Las abejas sin aguijón de la Región Sur del Ecuador. Loja, Ecuador: Consejo Nacional de Educación Superior, 2013, 85 pp.
[26] Rose, D. An Indigenous philosophical ecology: Situating the human. TAJA, 2009, 16, 294-305.