Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31108
Effect of Thistle Ecotype in the Physical-Chemical and Sensorial Properties of Serra da Estrela Cheese

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Marlene I. C. Tenreiro, Ana C. Correia, Paulo Barracosa, Paula M. R. Correia


The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Serra da Estrela cheese and compare these results with those of the sensory analysis. For the study were taken six samples of Serra da Estrela cheese produced with 6 different ecotypes of thistle in a dairy situated in Penalva do Castelo. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture content, protein, fat, ash, chloride and pH; the physical properties studied were color and texture; and finally a sensory evaluation was undertaken. The results showed moisture varying in the range 40- 48%, protein in the range 15-20%, fat between 41-45%, ash between 3.9-5.0% and chlorides varying from 1.2 to 3.0%. The pH varied from 4.8 to 5.4. The textural properties revealed that the crust hardness is relatively low (maximum 7.3 N), although greater than flesh firmness (maximum 1.7 N), and also that these cheeses are in fact soft paste type, with measurable stickiness and intense adhesiveness. The color analysis showed that the crust is relatively light (L* over 50), and with a predominant yellow coloration (b* around 20 or over) although with a slight greenish tone (a* negative). The results of the sensory analysis did not show great variability for most of the attributes measured, although some differences were found in attributes such as crust thickness, crust uniformity, and creamy flesh.

Keywords: Texture, Chemical Composition, Color, sensorial analysis, Serra da Estrela cheese

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1766


[1] M. Tenreiro, Estudo das Propriedades Físico-Químicas do Queijo Serra da Estrela. Dissertação de Mestrado em Qualidade e Tecnologia Alimentar. Viseu: Escola Superior Agrária do Instituto Politécnico de Viseu, 2014.
[2] F. K. Tavaria, I. Franco, F. Javier Carballo, e F. Xavier Malcata, «Amino acid and soluble nitrogen evolution throughout ripening of Serra da Estrela cheese», International Dairy Journal, vol. 13, n. 7, pp. 537–545, 2003.
[3] R. C. Rodrigues, J. C. Almeida, C. D. Pereira, D. S. Gomes D. S., J. P. Madanelo, M. J. Oliveira, e M. L. Fonseca, Queijo Serra da Estrela Processos Tradicionais e Inovações Tecnológicas. Coimbra: Direcção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Litoral, 2000.
[4] P. J. M. Reis e F. X. Malcata, «Ripening-related changes in Serra da Estrela cheese: A stereological study», Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 94, n. 3, pp. 1223–1238, Mar. 2011.
[5] A. C. Macedo, T. G. Tavares, e F. X. Malcata, «Influence of native lactic acid bacteria on the microbiological, biochemical and sensory profiles of Serra da Estrela cheese», Food Microbiology, vol. 21, n. 2, pp. 233–240, Abr. 2004.
[6] S. Gunasekaran e M. M. Ak, Cheese Rheology and Texture. New York: CRC Press, 2002.
[7] J. Fuquay, P. Fox, e P. McSweeney, Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, 2nd ed., 4 vols. United kingdom: Elsevier Academic Press, 2011.
[8] F. K. Tavaria, T. G. Tavares, A. C. Silva-Ferreira, e F. X. Malcata, «Contribution of coagulant and native microflora to the volatile-free fatty acid profile of an artisanal cheese», International Dairy Journal, vol. 16, n. 8, pp. 886–894, Ago. 2006.
[9] F. K. Tavaria, A. C. Silva Ferreira, e F. X. Malcata, «Volatile Free Fatty Acids as Ripening Indicators for Serra da Estrela Cheese», Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 87, n. 12, pp. 4064–4072, Dez. 2004.
[10] P. McSweeny, Cheese Problems Solved. Boca Raton; Cambridge, England: CRC Press, 2007.
[11] AOAC, Official methods of analysis, 17th ed. Washington: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2000.
[12] NP 2105, «Queijos. Determinação do Teor de Matéria Gorda. Técnica de Van Gulik.», Instituto dos Mercados Agrícolas e da Indústria Agro Alimentar, Lisboa, NP 2105, 1983.
[13] A. Rawson, A. Koidis, A. Patras, M. G. Tuohy, e N. P. Brunton, «Modelling the effect of water immersion thermal processing on polyacetylene levels and instrumental colour of carrot disks», Food Chemistry, vol. 121, n. 1, pp. 62–68, Jul. 2010.
[14] P. Watkinson, C. Coker, R. Crawford, C. Dodds, K. Johnston, A. McKenna, e N. White, «Effect of cheese pH and ripening time on model cheese textural properties and proteolysis», International Dairy Journal, vol. 11, n. 4–7, pp. 455–464, Jul. 2001.
[15] S. Awad, «Texture and flavour development in Ras cheese made from raw and pasteurised milk», Food Chemistry, vol. 97, n. 3, pp. 394–400, Ago. 2006.
[16] S. Sandra, M. Alexander, e D. G. Dalgleish, «The rennet coagulation mechanism of skim milk as observed by transmission diffusing wave spectroscopy», J Colloid Interface Sci, vol. 308, n. 2, pp. 364–373, Abr. 2007.
[17] J. M. Poveda, L. Cabezas, e P. L. H. McSweeney, «Free amino acid content of Manchego cheese manufactured with different starter cultures and changes throughout ripening», Food Chemistry, vol. 84, n. 2, pp. 213–218, Fev. 2004.
[18] L. Tejada, R. Gómez, e J. Fernández-Salguero, «Sensory Characteristics of Ewe Milk Cheese Made with Three Types of Coagulant: Calf Rennet, Powdered Vegetable Coagulant and Crude Aqueous Extract from Cynara Cardunculus», Journal of Food Quality, vol. 30, n. 1, pp. 91– 103, Fev. 2007.
[19] J. Horne, S. Carpino, L. Tuminello, T. Rapisarda, L. Corallo, e G. Licitra, «Differences in volatiles, and chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics between artisanal and industrial Piacentinu Ennese cheeses», International Dairy Journal, vol. 15, n. 6–9, pp. 605–617, Jun. 2005.