Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31754
Impact of Ship Traffic to PM2.5 and Particle Number Concentrations in Three Port-Cities of the Adriatic/Ionian Area

Authors: Daniele Contini, Antonio Donateo, Andrea Gambaro, Athanasios Argiriou, Dimitrios Melas, Daniela Cesari, Anastasia Poupkou, Athanasios Karagiannidis, Apostolos Tsakis, Eva Merico, Rita Cesari, Adelaide Dinoi

Abstract:

Emissions of atmospheric pollutants from ships and harbour activities are a growing concern at international level given their potential impacts on air quality and climate. These close-to-land emissions have potential impact on local communities in terms of air quality and health. Recent studies show that the impact of maritime traffic to atmospheric particulate matter concentrations in several coastal urban areas is comparable with the impact of road traffic of a medium size town. However, several different approaches have been used for these estimates making difficult a direct comparison of results. In this work, an integrated approach based on emission inventories and dedicated measurement campaigns has been applied to give a comparable estimate of the impact of maritime traffic to PM2.5 and particle number concentrations in three major harbours of the Adriatic/Ionian Seas. The influences of local meteorology and of the logistic layout of the harbours are discussed.

Keywords: Ship emissions, PM2.5, particle number concentrations, impact of shipping to atmospheric aerosol.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1100044

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2228

References:


[1] M. Zhao, Y. Zhang, W. Maa, Q. Fu, X. Yang, C. Li, B. Zhou, Q. Yua, L. Chen, “Characteristics and ship traffic source identification of air pollutants in China’s largest port,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 64, pp. 277–286, 2013.
[2] V. Eyring, I.S.A. Isaksen, T. Berntsen, W.J. Collins, J.J. Corbett, O. Endresen, R.G. Grainger, J. Moldanova, H. Schlager, D.S. Stevenson, “Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: shipping.”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 44, pp. 4735–4771, 2010.
[3] H. Saxe, T. Larsen, “Air pollution from ships in three Danish ports”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 38, pp. 4057–4067, 2004.
[4] A.J. Dore, M. Vieno, Y.S. Tang, U. Dragosits, A. Dosio, K.J. Weston, M.A. Sutton, A. McCreddin, “Modelling the atmospheric transport and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen over the United Kingdom and assessment of the influence of SO2 emissions from international shipping”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, pp. 2355–2367, 2007.
[5] S.B. Dalsøren, M.S. Eide, Ø. Endresen, A. Mjelde, G. Gravir, I.S.A. Isaksen, “Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports”, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 9, pp. 2171–2194, 2009.
[6] C. Trozzi, R. Vaccaro, L. Nicolo, “Air pollutants emissions estimate from maritime traffic in the Italian harbours of Venice and Piombino”, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 169, pp. 257–263, 1995.
[7] C. Gariazzo, V. Papaleo, A. Pelliccioni, G. Calori, P. Radice, G. Tinarelli, “Application of a Lagrangian particle model to assess the impact of harbour, industrial and urban activities on air quality in the Taranto area, Italy”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, pp. 6432-6444, 2007.
[8] E. Marmer, F. Dentener, J. Van Aardenne, F. Cavalli, E. Vignati, K. Velchev, J. Hjorth, F. Boersma, G. Vinken, N. Mihalopoulos, F. Raes, “What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?”, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 9, pp. 6815–6831, 2009.
[9] D. Cesari, A. Genga, P. Ielpo, M. Siciliano, G. Mascolo, F.M. Grasso, D. Contini, “Source apportionment of PM2.5 in the harbour–industrial area of Brindisi (Italy): Identification and estimation of the contribution of in-port ship emissions”, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 497, pp. 392-400, 2014.
[10] M. C. Minguillon, M. Arhami, J. J. Schauer, C. Sioutas,“Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Sources of Fine and Quasi-Ultrafine Particulate Matter in Neighborhoods Near the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42 (32), pp. 7317–7328, 2008.
[11] A. M. Stortini, A. Freda, D. Cesari, W. R. L. Cairns, D. Contini, C. Barbante, F. Prodi, P. Cescon, A. Gambaro, “An evaluation of the PM2.5 trace elemental composition in the Venice Lagoon area and an analysis of the possible sources”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 43, pp. 6296-6304, 2009.
[12] M. Viana, F. Amato, A. Alastuey, X. Querol, T. Moreno, S. G. Dos Santos, M. D. Herce, R. Fernandez-Patier, “Chemical tracers of particulate emissions from commercial shipping”, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 43, pp. 7472-7477, 2009.
[13] M. Pandolfi, Y. Gonzalez-Castanedo, A. Alastuey, J. de la Rosa, E. Mantilla, A. Sanchez de la Campa, X. Querol, J. Pey, F. Amato, T. Moreno, “Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 at multiple sites in the strait of Gibraltar by PMF: impact of shipping emissions”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 28, pp. 260-269, 2011.
[14] M. D. Gibson, J. R. Pierce, D. Waugh, J. S. Kuchta, L. Chisholm, T. J. Duck, J. T. Hopper, S. Beauchamp, G. H. King, J. E. Franklin, W. R. Leaitch, A. J. Wheeler, Z. Li, G. A. Gagnon, P. I. Palmer, “Identifying the sources driving observed PM2.5 temporal variability over Halifax, Nova Scotia, during BORTAS-B”, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, pp. 7199-7213, 2013.
[15] C. Samara, D. Voutsa, “Size distribution of airborne particulate matter and associated heavy metals in the roadside environment”, Chemosphere, Vol. 59, pp. 1197–1206, 2005.
[16] G. Lu, J. R. Brook, M. R. Alfarra, K. Anlauf, W. R. Leaitch, S. Sharma, D. Wang, D. R. Worsnop, L. Phinney, “Identification and characterisation of inland ship plumes over Vancouver, BC”. Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, pp. 2767-2782, 2006.
[17] R. M. Healy, S. Hellebust, I. Kourtchev, A. Allanic, I. P. O'Connor, J. M. Bell, D. A. Healy, J. R. Sodeau, J. C. Wenger, “Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Cork Harbour, Ireland using a combination of single particle mass spectrometry and quantitative semi-continuous measurements”, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, pp. 9593- 9613, 2010.
[18] D. Contini, A. Gambaro, F. Belosi, S. De Pieri, W. R. L. Cairns, A. Donateo, E. Zanotto, M. Citron, “The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric PM2.5, PM10 and PAH in Venice”, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 92, pp. 2119-2129, 2011.
[19] A. Donateo, E. Gregoris, A. Gambaro, E. Merico, R. Giua, A. Nocioni, D. Contini, “Contribution of harbour activities and ship traffic to PM2.5, particle number concentrations and PAHs in a port city of the Mediterranean Sea (Italy)”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 21, pp. 9415-9429, 2014.
[20] M. Viana, P. Hammingh, A. Colette, X. Querol, B. Degraeuwe, I. de Vlieger, J. Van Aardenne, “Impact of maritime transport emissions on coastal air quality in Europe”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 90, pp. 96–105, 2014.
[21] A. Donateo, D. Contini, F. Belosi, A. Gambaro, G. Santachiara, D. Cesari, F. Prodi, “Characterization of PM2.5 concentrations and turbulent fluxes on a island in the Venice lagoon using high temporal resolution measurements”, Meteorology Zeitschrift, Vol. 21, pp. 385- 398, 2012.
[22] ARPAV, “Metodi e modelli per l’indagine scientifica su emissioni e concentrazioni in atmosfera: risultati principali per la laguna di Venezia”, APICE Project Report, www.apice-project.eu, Febbraio 2013.
[23] A. Poupkou, N. Liora, A. Karagiannidis, T. Giannaros, C. Giannaros, D. Melas, A Argiriou, “Maritime Sector Emissions Contribution to the Particulate Matter Pollution in a Mediterranean City-Port: A Modeling Approach”, in Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXIII, Springer Proceedings in Complexity, pp. 307-310, 2014.
[24] R. Giua, A. Nocioni, T. Pastore, S. Spagnolo, “The ARPA Puglia tools within the project CESAPO: a contribute to the study of atmospheric pollution in Brindisi port”, In Proceedings of the Workshop “Characterisation of atmospheric pollution in harbor areas” (www.cesapo.upatras.gr), pp. 51-57, 2013.
[25] A. Donateo, D. Contini, F. Belosi, “Real time measurements of PM2.5 concentrations and vertical turbulent fluxes using an optical detector”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, pp. 1346-1360, 2006.
[26] R.M. Healy, I.P. O’Connor, S. Hellebust, A. Allanic, J.R. Sodeau, J.C. Wenger JC, “Characterisation of single particles from in-port ship emissions”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 43, pp. 6408-6414, 2009.
[27] C. Reche, M. Viana, T. Moreno, X. Querol, A. Alastuey, J. Pey, M. Pandolfi, A. Prévôt, C. Mohr, A. Richard, B. Artiñano, F.J. Gomez- Moreno, N. Cots, “Peculiarities in atmospheric particle number and sizeresolved speciation in an urban area in the western Mediterranean: results from the DAURE campaign”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 45, pp. 5282-5293, 2011.
[28] D. Contini, A. Gambaro, A. Donateo, P. Cescon, D. Cesari, E. Merico, F. Belosi, M. Citron, “Inter-annual trend of the primary contribution of ship emissions to PM2.5 concentrations in Venice (Italy): Efficiency of emissions mitigation strategies”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 102, pp. 183-190, 2015.