Evaluation of Prevalence of the Types of Thyroid Disorders Using Ultrasound and Pathology of One Humped Camel in Iran (Camelus dromedarius)
Authors: M. Yadegari
The thyroid gland is the largest classic endocrine organ that effects many organs of the body and plays a significant role in the process of Metabolism in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid disorders diagnosed by ultrasound and microscopic Lesions of the thyroid during the slaughter of apparently healthy One Humped Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran. Randomly, 520 male camels (With an age range of 4 to 8 years), were studied in 2012 to 2013. The Camels’ thyroid glands were evaluated by sonographic examination. In both longitudinal and transverse view and then tissue sections were provide and stained with H & E and finally examined by light microscopy. The results obtained indicated the following: hyperplastic goiter (21%), degenerative changes (12%), follicular cysts (8%), follicular atrophy (4%), nodular hyperplasia (3%), adenoma (1%), carcinoma (1%) and simple goiter colloid (1%). Ultrasound evaluation of thyroid gland in adenoma and carcinoma showed enlargement and irregular of the gland, decreased echogenicity, and the heterogeneous thyroid parenchyma. Also, in follicular cysts were observed in the enlarged gland with no echo structures of different sizes and decreased echogenicity as a local or general. In nodular hyperplasia, increase echogenicity and heterogeneous parenchymal were seen. These findings suggest the use of sonography and pathology as a screening test in the diagnosis of complications of thyroid disorders.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1099094Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1830
 N. Gritzmann, D. Koishwitz, and T. Rettenbacher, “Sonography of the thyroid and parathyroid glands”, Radiol. Clin. North. Am, vol. 38, 2000: 1131-1145.
 I. U. I. Bazhenov, and B. K Sydykov, “Role of thyroid gland hormones in thermoregulatory reactions during adaptation to high altitude”, Vet. Physio. Jou,vol. 67, 1981: 294-298.
 E. R. Wisner, and T. G. Nyland, “Ultrasonography of the thyroid and parathyroid Glands”, Small. Anim. Pract, vol. 28, 1998: 973-991.
 M. Mirzadeh, M. Nouri, G. H. Khwaja, and B. Mohammadian, “Environmental Effects of age and sex on levels of T4, T3, T3 uptake and FTI sheep in Ahvaz”, Tehran. Univ. Vet. J, vol. 60, 2006: 388-383.
 M. Sayari, K. Mardomi, and M. Hoshyar, “Comparative study of macroscopic and microscopic on thyroid gland of apparently healthy ruminants (Cow, sheep and goat)” J. Anim. Health. Dis, vol. 3, 2010: 77-76, (In Persian).
 A. P. R. Saber, M.T. Jalali, D. Mohjeri , A. A. Akhoole , and H. Z. N. Teymourluei, “The effect of ambient temperature on thyroid hormones concentration and histopathological changes of thyroid gland in cattle in Tabriz”, Asian. J. Anim. Vet. Adv, vol. 4, 2009: 28-33.
 V. Barberet, Y. Baeumlin, O. Taeymans, L. Duchateau, and K. Peremans, “Pre- and post-treatment ultrasonography of the thyroid gland in hyperthyroid cats” Vet. Radiol. Ultrasound, vol. 51, 2010: 324-330.
 P. Vejbjerg, N. Knudsen, H. Perrild, P. Laurberg, and I.B. Pedersen, “The association between hypoechogenicity or irregular echo pattern at thyroid ultrasonography and thyroid function in the general population”, Eur. J. Endocrinol, vol. 155, 2006: 547-552.
 S. J. Ahmadpanahi, and M. H. Yousefi, “Anatomical and histological study on thyroid gland in one humped camel (Camelusdromedarious)”, J. Vet. Res, vol. 67, 2012: 273-278.
 D. W. Brammer,P.L. Juneau, C.E. Chrisp, and D.M. Altrogge, “Spontaneous hyperthyroidism in an aged male and female Macacamulatta”, J. Med. Primatol, vol. 27, 1998: 273-277.
 R. Kausar, and R.U. Shahid, “Gross and microscopic anatomy of thyroid gland of one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries)”, Pakistan .Vet. J, vol. 25, 2006:205-206.
 C.C. Capen, K.V.F. Jubb, P.C. Kennedy “The endocrine glands, nodular thyroid hyperplasia”. In, K.V.F. Jubb, P.C. Kennedy, ‘Pathology of Domestic Animals”. 4th ed., Vol. 3, 1993, 317-318, Academic Press, London.
 T.C. Jones, R.D. Hunt, N.W. King “Veterinary Pathology”. 6th ed., p.1236, 1997, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
 M.D. McGavin, J.F. Zachary: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. Penny Radulph, 4th ed., 698-700 &720-728, 2007, Elsevier Mosby, London.
 D. Mohajeri, G.H.Mousavi, and M. Nazeri, “Histopathological study on thyroid gland of goat in East Azerbaijan province of Iran”, Res. J. Biol. Sci, vol. 7, 2012:17-22.
 S. Alipourzamani, M.H. Movassagh, and M. Nouri, “Goiter in the sheep slaughtered in Tabriz slaughterhouse in Iran”, Ann. Biol. Res, vol. 2, 2011: 242-246.
 M. Nouri, K.H. Mirzadeh, and B. Mohammadian, “The effect of ambient temperature on thyroid hormones concentration and histological changes of thyroid gland in sheep”, Pakistan. J. Biol. Sci, vol. 9, 2006:: 2308- 2312.
 Hefco E, Krulich L, Illner P, Larsen PR “Effect of acute exposure to cold on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system”. Endocrinology. 97, 1975, 1185-1195.
 M.P. Sandler, J.A. Patton, “Recent advances in thyroid imaging”. OtolaryngolClin North Am, 23, 1990, 251-70.
 E. Hefco, L. Krulich, P. Illner, and P.R. Larsen PR, “Effect of acute exposure to cold on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system”, Endocrinology.J, vol. 97, 1997: 1185-1195.
 R.L. Sutherland, and C.H. Irvine, “Effect of season and pregnancy on total plasma thyroxine concentration in sheep”, Am. J. Vet. Res, vol. 35, 1998: 311-312.
 G.A. Gooding, “Sonography of the thyroid and parathyroid”, Radiol.Clin. North. Am, vol. 5, 1993: 967-989.
 C.R. Barb, R.R Kraeling, J.B. Barrett, “ Serum glucose and free fatty acids modulate growth hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion in the pig”. ProcSocExpBiol Med, vol. 198, 1991, 636.
 S.E. Evans, and D.L. Ingram, “The effect of ambient temperature upon the secretion of thyroxin in the young pig”, J. Physiol, vol. 264, 1999: 511-521.
 L. Todini, “Thyroid hormones in small ruminants: effects of endogenous, environmental and nutritional factors”, Animal, vol.81, 2007: 997-1008.