Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Composition of Banana Peels as Influenced by Microwave Drying Methods
The influence of microwave drying methods on the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition and physical characteristics of banana peels was investigated. Banana peels were assessed for physical properties such as yield, pH value, bulk density, water holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC). The results showed that, the yield of banana peels and pH value was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by microwave drying (11.20% and pH 5.08, respectively) compared with control. Bulk density was increased by microwave drying and recorded 62.03 g/100 ml. The banana peels flour demonstrated that the highest WHC was 8.65 g water/g dry sample and OHC was 6.73 g oil/g dry sample compared to control. The results observed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in moisture, fiber and total carbohydrates content of banana peels; whereas, the rates of ash, protein and fat content were increased after drying by microwave compared with control. The lignin content of banana peels was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by microwave drying and the recorded value was 8.31% dw. The results also revealed that the ascorbic acid content was significantly decreased by microwave drying and recorded 18.32 mg/100 g dw vis. 23.51 mg/100 g dw for control. With regarding the anti-nutrients, phytates, alkaloids, oxalates and hydrogen cyanides levels in banana peels, it was in the threshold value mentioned as safety restrict. These results demonstrated that the levels of phytates, alkaloids, oxalates and hydrogen cyanides were decreased by microwave drying methods which recorded 4.07%, 5.45%, 0.85% and 32.15%, respectively.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1317334Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1387
 B.A. Anhwange, T. J. Ugye, and T. D. Nyiaatagher. "Chemical composition of Musa sapientum (banana) peels". Electronical J. of Environ., Agric. and Food Chem., 8 (6), 2009, pp. 437- 442
 M. Z. Imam, and S. Akter. "Musa Paradisiaca L. and Musa Sapientum L.: A phytochemical and pharmacological review". J. Appl. Pharm. Sci., 1 (5), 2011, pp. 14–20.
 T. H. Emaga, R. H. Andrianaivo, B. Wathelet, J. T. Tchango, and M. Paquot. "Effects of the stage of maturation and varieties on the chemical composition of banana and plantain peels". Food Chem., 103(2), 2007, pp. 590–600.
 N. Shadma, S. Shanthy, and G. K. Rai. "Nutraceutical application and value addition of banana (Musa paradisica L.) Variety "Bhusawa L Keli" peel: A Review". International J. of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sci., (6), 2014, pp.10: 81-85.
 S. W. Jyotsna, and H. K. Ankeeta. "GC-MS analysis of bioactive components from banana peel (Musa sapientum peel)". European J. of Experimental Biology, 4(5), 2014, pp. 10-15.
 T.B.T. Nguyen, S. Ketsa, and W.G. Van Doorn. "Relationship between browning and the activities of polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in banana peel during low temperature storage". Postharvest Biology and Technol., 30 (2), 2003, pp. 187–193.
 S. Someya, Y. Yoshiki, and K. Okubo. "Antioxidant compounds from banana (Musa Cavendish)". Food Chem., 79, 2002, pp. 351-354.
 A. Scalbert, I. T. Johnson, and M. Salmarsh. "Polyphenols: Antioxidants and beyond". The American J. of Clinical Nutr., 81, 2005, pp. 215–217.
 R. Arslan, and M.M. Õzcan. "Study the effect of sun, oven and microwave drying on quality of onion slices". LWT-Food Sci., Technol., 43, 2010, pp. 1121-1127.
 M. Maskan. "Microwave /air and microwave finished drying of banana". J. Food Eng., 44, 2000, pp. 70-78.
 K. Hayat, X. Zhang, U. Farooq, S. Abbas, S. Xia Jia, F. Zhang, and J. Zhang." Effect of microwave treatment on phenolic content and antioxidant activity of citrus mandarin pomace". Food Chem., 123, 2010, pp. 423-429.
 W. A. M. Babiker, A. M. E. Sulieman, S. B. Elhardallou, and E. A. Khalifa. "Physicochemical properties of wheat bread supplemented with orange peel by-products". International J. of Nutr. and Food Sci., 2(1), 2013, pp. 1- 4.
 F.M. Abbas, S. R. Alkarkhi, S. Yeoh Yong, and M. Azhar Easa. "Comparing physicochemical properties of banana pulp and peel flours prepared from green and ripe fruits". Food Chem., 129, 2011, pp. 312–318.
 S. Suntharalingtam, and G. Ravindran. "Physical and biochemical properties of green banana flour". Plant Foods for Human Nutr., 43, 1993, pp. 19–27.
 D. M. Horsfall, E. Lucy, and S.U. Nwaojigwa. "Chemical Composition, Functional And Baking Properties Of Wheat-Plantain Composite Flours". 2005, p.8.
 S. L. Rodriguez-Ambriz, J. J. Islas-Hernández, E. Agama-Acevedo, J. Tovar, and L. A. Bello- Pérez. "Characterization of a fiber-rich powder prepared by liquefaction of unripe banana flour". Food Chem., 107, 2008, pp. 1515–1521.
 A.O.A.C. "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists" 17 th Ed. Published by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. USA, 2000.
 FAO. "Natural additives from industrial wastes". Research Continues, Ain Shams University, 31(1), 1982, pp. 567- 577.
 G. Aravantinos-Zafiris, V. Oreopoulou, C. Tzia, and C.D. Thomopoulos. "Fiber fraction from orange peel residues after pectin extraction". Lebensm-Wissu-Technol., 27, 1994, pp. 468-471.
 T. Ramful, Bahorun, E. Bourdon, E. Tarnus, and O.I. Aruoma. "Bioactive phenolics and antioxidant propensity of flavedo extracts of Mauritian citrus fruits: Potential prophylactic ingredients for functional foods application". Toxicology, 278, 2010, pp.75–87.
 N. R. Reddy, S. K. Sathe, and D. K. Salunkhe. "Phytates in legumes and cereals". Advances in Food Res., 28, 1982, pp. 1-92.
 J. B. Harborne. "Phytochemical Methods", Chapman and Hall, London, 1973, pp.11-21.
 O. L. Oke. "Chemical studies on some Nigerian vegetables", Tropical Science., 8(3), 1966, pp. 128-132.
 A.O.A.C. "Official Methods of Analysis (16th ed.), Association of Official Analytical Chemists", Arlington, VA., USA, 1995.
 G.W. Snedecor, and W.G. Cochran, “Statistical Methods”, 7th Ed. Oxford and IBIT, 1980.
 B. N. Shyamala, and P. Jamuna. "Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of peels from three varieties of banana". As. J. Food Ag-Ind., 4(01), 2011, pp.31-46.
 B. Suresh, T. Mohammed, and P. Vishal. "Utilization of banana and pomegranate peel flour in fortification of bread". Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol. (IJERT) 3 (7), 2014, pp.1100–1105.
 A.M. Sharoba, M.A. Farrag, and A.M. Abd El-Salam. "Utilization of some fruits and vegetables waste as a source of dietary fiber and its effect on the cake making and its quality attributes". J. Agroaliment. Process. Technol., 19 (4), 2013, pp.429–444.
 S.L. Ferreira, Mariana, Santos, C.P. Moˆnica, Moro, M.A. J. Thaı´sa, Basto, Gabriela, M.S. Andrade, R. Goncalves, and C.B. A. Edira. "Formulation and characterization of functional foods based on fruit and vegetable residue flour". J. Food Sci. Tech., 13197,013, 2013, pp. 1061-1064.
 S. Nareman Eshak. "Sensory evaluation and nutritional value of balady flat bread supplemented with banana peels as a natural source of dietary fiber". Annals of Agric. Sci., 61 (2), 2016, pp.299-235.
 U. S. Abubakar, K. M. Yusuf, I. Safiyanu, S. Abdullahi, S. R. Saidum, G. T. Abdu, and A. M. Indee. "Proximate and mineral composition of corn cob, banana and plantain peels". International J. of Food Sci., and Nut., 1 (6), 2016, pp. 25-27.
 D. I. Sànchez-Machado, J. López-Hernàndez, and P. Paseiro- Losadas. "Fatty acids, total lipids, protein and ash contents of processed edible seaweeds". Food Chem., 85, 2004, pp. 439-444.
 J. M. Munguti, D. M. Liti, H. Waidbacher, M. Straif, and W. Zollitsch. "Proximate composition of selected potential feedstuffs for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) production in Kenya", Die Bodenkultur., 57 (3), 2006, pp. 131-141.
 P. Wachirasiri, S. Julakarangka, and S. Wanlapa. "The effects of banana peel preparations on the properties of banana peel dietary fibre concentrate". Songklanakarin J. of Sci. and Technol., 31 (6), 2009, pp. 605-611.
 J.P. Essien, E.J. Akpan, and E.P. Essien. "Studies on mold growth and biomass production using waste banana peel". Bioresource Technol., 96, 2005, pp. 451-456.
 D.R. Feumba, R. P. Ashwini, and S. M. Ragu. "Chemical composition of some selected fruit peels". European J. of Food Sci. and Techn., 4 (4), 2016, pp.12-21.
 R. S. Johnson. "Key Nutrients. Cooperative Extension Service". Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa, 1996.
 S. U. Okorie, and E. N. Onyeneke. "Production and quality evaluation of baked from blend of sweet potatoes and wheat flour". Nat. Appl. Sci., 3 (2), 2012, pp. 171-177.
 M.C. Garau, S. Simal, C. Rossello, and Femenia, A. "Effect of air-drying temperature on physico-chemical properties of dietary ﬁbre and antioxidant capacity of orange (Citrus aurantium v. Canoneta) by-products". Food Chem. , 104, 2007, pp. 1014–1024.
 T.H. Emaga, R. H. Andrianaivo, B. Wathelet, J. T. Tchango, and M. Paquot. "Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties". Bioresour. Technol., 99(10), 2008, pp. 4346--4354.
 M. M. Almeida, P. H. Sousa, A. M. Arriaga, G. M. Prado, C. E. Magalhaes, G. A. Maia. "Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh exotic fruits northeastern Brazil". Food Res. International, 44, 2011, pp. 2155–2159.
 P. S. Nagi, and S. K. Roy. "Effect of blanching and drying methods on beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll retention of leafy vegetables". Lebensm Wiss Technol., 33, 2000, pp. 295-298.
 A. M. Rincon, A. M. Vasquez, and F. C. Padilla. "Composicion quimica y compuestos bioactivos de las harinas de cascaras de naranja (Citrus sinensis), mandarina (Citrus reticulata) y toronja (Citrus paradisi) cultivadas en Venezuela". Archivos Latin-Americans de Nutriciَn., 55, 2005, pp. 1–8.
 V. V. Agte, K. V. Tarwadi, and S. A. Chiplonkar. "Phytate degradation during traditional cooking: Significance of the phytic acid profile in cereal-based vegetation meals". J. of Food Composition and Analysis, 12, 1999, pp. 161-167.
 S. A. Adeniyi, C. L. Orjiekwe, and J. E. Ehiagbonare. "Determination of alkaloids and oxalates in some selected food samples in Nigeria". African J. of Biotechnology, 8 (1), 2009. pp. 110-112.
 O. Ladeji, C. U. Akin, and H. A. Umaru" Level of antinutritional factors in vegetables commonly eaten in Nigeria". African J. of Natural Sci., 2004, pp. 71-73.
 R. Kumar. "Anti-nutritional factors, the potential risk of toxicity and methods to alleviate them". Proceedings of FAO exert consultation held at the Malaysia Agricultural Research & Development Marconi Institution Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1991.
 N. Wang, D. W. Hatcher, and E. Gawalke, "Effect of variety and processing on nutrients and certain anti-nutrients in field peas (Pisum sativum)". Food Chem., 111, 2008, pp. 132-138.
 B. K. Kala, and V. R. Mohen. "Effect of microwave treatment on the antinutrional factors of two accessions of velevt bean, Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis (Wall. ex wight) Bak.ex Burck". International Food Research, J. 19 (3), 2012, pp. 961-969.
 V. A. Aletor. "Allelochemicals in plant foods and foods and feeding stuffs. Part 3. Nutritional, Biochemical physiopothological aspects in animal production". J. of Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 35 (1) , 1993, pp. 57-67.
 P. Jaeger, and W. G. Robertson. "Role of dietary intake and intestinal absorption of oxalate in calcium stone formation". Nephron Physiology, 98, 2004, pp. 64-71.
 R. D. Montgomery. "Cyanogens: In: Liener, I. E., editor. Toxic constitutes of plant food stuffs (2 nd ed)". Academic Press. New York, 1980, pp.158-160.
 W. Meda, V. Orsat, V. Roghavan, H. Schubert, and M. Regier, "Microwave heating and the dielectric properties of foods". The microwave processing of foods, 2005, pp. 61-75.
 I. Bowrery, R. G .Buckle, K. A. Hamey, and P. Pavenayotin, "Use of solar energy for banana drying". Food Technology in Australia, 32, 1980, pp. 290-291.
 K. Ashok, ,L. Aditya and A. D. Semwal." Effect of Microwave Drying on Nutritional and Antinutritional Factors of Dolichod Lablab Beans". International J. of Sci., Engineering and Technology, 41 (5), 2016, pp. 711-715.
 O.A. Idowu, O.A. Olaoye, C.M. Sogotemi, and B. Ajayi. "Quality Assessment of Flours and Amala Produced from Three Varieties of Sweet Potato Ipomea Batatas, 2013.
 O.S Lawal, and K.O .Adewale. "Effect of acetalation and succinylation on solubility profile, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying properties of municina bean (Mucuna prilens) protein concentrate". Nahrung/Food, 48(2), 2004, pp. 129 –136.
 S. Nilnakara, N. Chiechan, and S. Devahastin. "Production of antioxidant dietary fiber powder from cabbage outer leaves". Food and Bioproducts Processing, 87(2009), pp. 301-307.
 H. Mirhosseini, and B. T. Amid. "Effect of different drying techniques on flowability characteristics and chemical properties of natural carbohydrate-protein gum from durian fruit seed". Mirhosseini and Amid Chemistry Central Journal, 7(1), 2013, pp.1-14.
 Y. Lario, E. Sendra, J. García-Pérez, C. Fuentes, and E. Sayas-Barberá." Preparation of high dietary fiber powder from lemon juice by-products". Innovative Food Sci and Emerging Technologies, 5, (2004), pp. 113-117.
 M.C. Garau, S. Simal, A. Femenia, and C. Rosselló. "Drying of orange skin: drying kinetics modelling and functional properties". Journal of Food Eng., 75, 2006, pp.288-295.
 K . B. Asma, K. Nabil , and B. M. Nourhène. "Effect of Microwave Treatment On Physical and Functional Properties of Orange (Citrus Sinensis) Peel and Leaves". Food Processing & Technology, 2 (2 ), 2011, 1000109
 P. D. Emperatriz, R. Maldonado, E. Pérez, and M. Schroeder. Production and characterization of unrip plantian (Musa paradisiaca L.) flours. APR 2008, 33, (4), 2008, pp. 290-296.