Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Wireless Sensor Network Related Publications

45 A Study about the Distribution of the Spanning Ratios of Yao Graphs

Authors: Maryam Hsaini, Mostafa Nouri-Baygi

Abstract:

A critical problem in wireless sensor networks is limited battery and memory of nodes. Therefore, each node in the network could maintain only a subset of its neighbors to communicate with. This will increase the battery usage in the network because each packet should take more hops to reach its destination. In order to tackle these problems, spanner graphs are defined. Since each node has a small degree in a spanner graph and the distance in the graph is not much greater than its actual geographical distance, spanner graphs are suitable candidates to be used for the topology of a wireless sensor network. In this paper, we study Yao graphs and their behavior for a randomly selected set of points. We generate several random point sets and compare the properties of their Yao graphs with the complete graph. Based on our data sets, we obtain several charts demonstrating how Yao graphs behave for a set of randomly chosen point set. As the results show, the stretch factor of a Yao graph follows a normal distribution. Furthermore, the stretch factor is in average far less than the worst case stretch factor proved for Yao graphs in previous results. Furthermore, we use Yao graph for a realistic point set and study its stretch factor in real world.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, spanner graph, Yao Graph

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44 Modified Energy and Link Failure Recovery Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: M. Jayekumar, V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network finds role in environmental monitoring, industrial applications, surveillance applications, health monitoring and other supervisory applications. Sensing devices form the basic operational unit of the network that is self-battery powered with limited life time. Sensor node spends its limited energy for transmission, reception, routing and sensing information. Frequent energy utilization for the above mentioned process leads to network lifetime degradation. To enhance energy efficiency and network lifetime, we propose a modified energy optimization and node recovery post failure method, Energy-Link Failure Recovery Routing (E-LFRR) algorithm. In our E-LFRR algorithm, two phases namely, Monitored Transmission phase and Replaced Transmission phase are devised to combat worst case link failure conditions. In Monitored Transmission phase, the Actuator Node monitors and identifies suitable nodes for shortest path transmission. The Replaced Transmission phase dispatches the energy draining node at early stage from the active link and replaces it with the new node that has sufficient energy. Simulation results illustrate that this combined methodology reduces overhead, energy consumption, delay and maintains considerable amount of alive nodes thereby enhancing the network performance.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Energy Efficient Routing, Link Utilization, Actuator node, energy hole, link failure recovery

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43 The Security Trade-Offs in Resource Constrained Nodes for IoT Application

Authors: Sultan Alharby, Nick Harris, Alex Weddell, Jeff Reeve

Abstract:

The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) has received much attention over the last five years. It is predicted that the IoT will influence every aspect of our lifestyles in the near future. Wireless Sensor Networks are one of the key enablers of the operation of IoTs, allowing data to be collected from the surrounding environment. However, due to limited resources, nature of deployment and unattended operation, a WSN is vulnerable to various types of attack. Security is paramount for reliable and safe communication between IoT embedded devices, but it does, however, come at a cost to resources. Nodes are usually equipped with small batteries, which makes energy conservation crucial to IoT devices. Nevertheless, security cost in terms of energy consumption has not been studied sufficiently. Previous research has used a security specification of 802.15.4 for IoT applications, but the energy cost of each security level and the impact on quality of services (QoS) parameters remain unknown. This research focuses on the cost of security at the IoT media access control (MAC) layer. It begins by studying the energy consumption of IEEE 802.15.4 security levels, which is followed by an evaluation for the impact of security on data latency and throughput, and then presents the impact of transmission power on security overhead, and finally shows the effects of security on memory footprint. The results show that security overhead in terms of energy consumption with a payload of 24 bytes fluctuates between 31.5% at minimum level over non-secure packets and 60.4% at the top security level of 802.15.4 security specification. Also, it shows that security cost has less impact at longer packet lengths, and more with smaller packet size. In addition, the results depicts a significant impact on data latency and throughput. Overall, maximum authentication length decreases throughput by almost 53%, and encryption and authentication together by almost 62%.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Energy Consumption, Wireless Sensor Network, IEEE 802.15.4, security cost evaluation

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42 Development and Range Testing of a LoRaWAN System in an Urban Environment

Authors: N. R. Harris, J. Curry

Abstract:

This paper describes the construction and operation of an experimental LoRaWAN network surrounding the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom. Following successful installation, an experimental node design is built and characterised, with particular emphasis on radio range. Several configurations are investigated, including different data rates, and varying heights of node. It is concluded that although range can be great (over 8 km in this case), environmental topology is critical. However, shorter range implementations, up to about 2 km in an urban environment, are relatively insensitive although care is still needed. The example node and the relatively simple base station reported demonstrate that LoraWan can be a very low cost and practical solution to Internet of Things type applications for distributed monitoring systems with sensors spread over distances of several km.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Wireless Sensor Network, propagation, LORA

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41 Solar-Inducted Cluster Head Relocation Algorithm

Authors: Goran Djukanovic, Goran Popovic

Abstract:

A special area in the study of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is how to move sensor nodes, as it expands the scope of application of wireless sensors and provides new opportunities to improve network performance. On the other side, it opens a set of new problems, especially if complete clusters are mobile. Node mobility can prolong the network lifetime. In such WSN, some nodes are possibly moveable or nomadic (relocated periodically), while others are static. This paper presents an idea of mobile, solar-powered CHs that relocate themselves inside clusters in such a way that the total energy consumption in the network reduces, and the lifetime of the network extends. Positioning of CHs is made in each round based on selfish herd hypothesis, where leader retreats to the center of gravity. Based on this idea, an algorithm, together with its modified version, has been presented and tested in this paper. Simulation results show that both algorithms have benefits in network lifetime, and prolongation of network stability period duration.

Keywords: Sensors, Wireless Sensor Network, CH-active algorithm, mobile cluster head

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40 Energy Management System and Interactive Functions of Smart Plug for Smart Home

Authors: Win Thandar Soe, Innocent Mpawenimana, Mathieu Di Fazio, Cécile Belleudy, Aung Ze Ya

Abstract:

Intelligent electronic equipment and automation network is the brain of high-tech energy management systems in critical role of smart homes dominance. Smart home is a technology integration for greater comfort, autonomy, reduced cost, and energy saving as well. These services can be provided to home owners for managing their home appliances locally or remotely and consequently allow them to automate intelligently and responsibly their consumption by individual or collective control systems. In this study, three smart plugs are described and one of them tested on typical household appliances. This article proposes to collect the data from the wireless technology and to extract some smart data for energy management system. This smart data is to quantify for three kinds of load: intermittent load, phantom load and continuous load. Phantom load is a waste power that is one of unnoticed power of each appliance while connected or disconnected to the main. Intermittent load and continuous load take in to consideration the power and using time of home appliances. By analysing the classification of loads, this smart data will be provided to reduce the communication of wireless sensor network for energy management system.

Keywords: Energy Management, Wireless Sensor Network, load profile, smart plug

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39 Performance Analysis of Deterministic Stable Election Protocol Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sumanpreet Kaur, Harjit Pal Singh, Vikas Khullar

Abstract:

In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the sensor containing motes (nodes) incorporate batteries that can lament at some extent. To upgrade the energy utilization, clustering is one of the prototypical approaches for split sensor motes into a number of clusters where one mote (also called as node) proceeds as a Cluster Head (CH). CH selection is one of the optimization techniques for enlarging stability and network lifespan. Deterministic Stable Election Protocol (DSEP) is an effectual clustering protocol that makes use of three kinds of nodes with dissimilar residual energy for CH election. Fuzzy Logic technology is used to expand energy level of DSEP protocol by using fuzzy inference system. This paper presents protocol DSEP using Fuzzy Logic (DSEP-FL) CH by taking into account four linguistic variables such as energy, concentration, centrality and distance to base station. Simulation results show that our proposed method gives more effective results in term of a lifespan of network and stability as compared to the performance of other clustering protocols.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Wireless Sensor Network, energy model, Deterministic stable election protocol

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38 C-LNRD: A Cross-Layered Neighbor Route Discovery for Effective Packet Communication in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: K. Kalaikumar, E. Baburaj

Abstract:

One of the problems to be addressed in wireless sensor networks is the issues related to cross layer communication. Cross layer architecture shares the information across the layer, ensuring Quality of Services (QoS). With this shared information, MAC protocol adapts effective functionality maintenance such as route selection on changeable sensor network environment. However, time slot assignment and neighbour route selection time duration for cross layer have not been carried out. The time varying physical layer communication over cross layer causes high traffic load in the sensor network. Though, the traffic load was reduced using cross layer optimization procedure, the computational cost is high. To improve communication efficacy in the sensor network, a self-determined time slot based Cross-Layered Neighbour Route Discovery (C-LNRD) method is presented in this paper. In the presented work, the initial process is to discover the route in the sensor network using Dynamic Source Routing based Medium Access Control (MAC) sub layers. This process considers MAC layer operation with dynamic route neighbour table discovery. Then, the discovered route path for packet communication employs Broad Route Distributed Time Slot Assignment method on Cross-Layered Sensor Network system. Broad Route means time slotting on varying length of the route paths. During packet communication in this sensor network, transmission of packets is adjusted over the different time with varying ranges for controlling the traffic rate. Finally, Rayleigh fading model is developed in C-LNRD to identify the performance of the sensor network communication structure. The main task of Rayleigh Fading is to measure the power level of each communication under MAC sub layer. The minimized power level helps to easily reduce the computational cost of packet communication in the sensor network. Experiments are conducted on factors such as power factor, on packet communication, neighbour route discovery time, and information (i.e., packet) propagation speed.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Rayleigh fading, Medium Access Control, neighbour route discovery, distributed time slot assignment

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37 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using a Line-Topology Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Dae Il Kim, Jungho Moon, Tae Yun Chung

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using a wireless sensor network. The presented sensor network has a line-shaped topology and adopts a TDMA-based protocol for allowing multi-hop communications. Sensor nodes are deployed in the ground of an outdoor parking lot in such a way that a sensor node monitors a parking space. Each sensor node detects the availability of the associated parking space and transmits the detection result to a sink node via intermediate sensor nodes existing between the source sensor node and the sink node. We evaluate the feasibility of the presented sensor network and the TDMA-based communication protocol through experiments using 11 sensor nodes deployed in a real parking lot. The result shows that the presented car parking monitoring system is robust to changes in the communication environments and efficient for monitoring parking spaces of outdoor parking lots.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Multi-Hop Communication, TDMA, parking monitoring system

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36 Condition Monitoring System of Mine Air Compressors Based on Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sheng Fu, Yinbo Gao, Hao Lin

Abstract:

In the current mine air compressors monitoring system, there are some difficulties in the installation and maintenance because of the wired connection. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new air compressors monitoring system based on ZigBee in which the monitoring parameters are transmitted wirelessly. The collecting devices are designed to form a cluster network to collect vibration, temperature, and pressure of air cylinders and other parameters. All these devices are battery-powered. Besides, the monitoring software in PC is developed using MFC. Experiments show that the designed wireless sensor network works well in the site environmental condition and the system is very convenient to be installed since the wireless connection. This monitoring system will have a wide application prospect in the upgrade of the old monitoring system of the air compressors.

Keywords: Condition Monitoring, Wireless Sensor Network, ZigBee, air compressor, data collecting

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35 Sleep Scheduling Schemes Based on Location of Mobile User in Sensor-Cloud

Authors: N. Mahendran, R. Priya

Abstract:

The mobile cloud computing (MCC) with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology gets more attraction by research scholars because its combines the sensors data gathering ability with the cloud data processing capacity. This approach overcomes the limitation of data storage capacity and computational ability of sensor nodes. Finally, the stored data are sent to the mobile users when the user sends the request. The most of the integrated sensor-cloud schemes fail to observe the following criteria: 1) The mobile users request the specific data to the cloud based on their present location. 2) Power consumption since most of them are equipped with non-rechargeable batteries. Mostly, the sensors are deployed in hazardous and remote areas. This paper focuses on above observations and introduces an approach known as collaborative location-based sleep scheduling (CLSS) scheme. Both awake and asleep status of each sensor node is dynamically devised by schedulers and the scheduling is done purely based on the of mobile users’ current location; in this manner, large amount of energy consumption is minimized at WSN. CLSS work depends on two different methods; CLSS1 scheme provides lower energy consumption and CLSS2 provides the scalability and robustness of the integrated WSN.

Keywords: Mobile Cloud Computing, Integration, Wireless Sensor Network, location, network lifetime, Sleep scheduling

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34 An Energy Aware Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network Using Connected Dominant Set

Authors: M. Santhalakshmi, P Suganthi

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have many advantages. Their deployment is easier and faster than wired sensor networks or other wireless networks, as they do not need fixed infrastructure. Nodes are partitioned into many small groups named clusters to aggregate data through network organization. WSN clustering guarantees performance achievement of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes energy consumption is reduced by eliminating redundant energy use and balancing energy sensor nodes use over a network. The aim of such clustering protocols is to prolong network life. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a popular protocol in WSN. LEACH is a clustering protocol in which the random rotations of local cluster heads are utilized in order to distribute energy load among all sensor nodes in the network. This paper proposes Connected Dominant Set (CDS) based cluster formation. CDS aggregates data in a promising approach for reducing routing overhead since messages are transmitted only within virtual backbone by means of CDS and also data aggregating lowers the ratio of responding hosts to the hosts existing in virtual backbones. CDS tries to increase networks lifetime considering such parameters as sensors lifetime, remaining and consumption energies in order to have an almost optimal data aggregation within networks. Experimental results proved CDS outperformed LEACH regarding number of cluster formations, average packet loss rate, average end to end delay, life computation, and remaining energy computation.

Keywords: Clustering, Wireless Sensor Network, data aggregation, connected dominant set

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33 Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated Data for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Krishna Veni, R.Geetha

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are suitable for many scenarios in the real world. The retrieval of data is made efficient by the data aggregation techniques. Many techniques for the data aggregation are offered and most of the existing schemes are not energy efficient and secure. However, the existing techniques use the traditional clustering approach where there is a delay during the packet transmission since there is no proper scheduling. The presented system uses the Velocity Energy-efficient and Link-aware Cluster-Tree (VELCT) scheme in which there is a Data Collection Tree (DCT) which improves the lifetime of the network. The VELCT scheme and the construction of DCT reduce the delay and traffic. The network lifetime can be increased by avoiding the frequent change in cluster topology. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated data (SETA) improves the security of the data transmission via the trust value of the nodes prior the aggregation of data. Since SETA considers the data only from the trustworthy nodes for aggregation, it is more secure in transmitting the data thereby improving the accuracy of aggregated data.

Keywords: Network Security, Wireless Sensor Network, aggregation, lifetime

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32 A Spanning Tree for Enhanced Cluster Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: M. Saravanan, M. Madheswaran

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) clustering architecture enables features like network scalability, communication overhead reduction, and fault tolerance. After clustering, aggregated data is transferred to data sink and reducing unnecessary, redundant data transfer. It reduces nodes transmitting, and so saves energy consumption. Also, it allows scalability for many nodes, reduces communication overhead, and allows efficient use of WSN resources. Clustering based routing methods manage network energy consumption efficiently. Building spanning trees for data collection rooted at a sink node is a fundamental data aggregation method in sensor networks. The problem of determining Cluster Head (CH) optimal number is an NP-Hard problem. In this paper, we combine cluster based routing features for cluster formation and CH selection and use Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) for intra-cluster communication. The proposed method is based on optimizing MST using Simulated Annealing (SA). In this work, normalized values of mobility, delay, and remaining energy are considered for finding optimal MST. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the packet delivery ratio and reducing the end to end delay.

Keywords: Clustering, simulated annealing, Wireless Sensor Network, Genetic Algorithm, minimum spanning tree, low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy

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31 Enhancement of Environmental Security by the Application of Wireless Sensor Network in Nigeria

Authors: Ahmadu Girgiri, Lawan Gana Ali, Mamman M. Baba

Abstract:

Environmental security clearly articulates the perfections and developments of various communities around the world irrespective of the region, culture, religion or social inclination. Although, the present state of insecurity has become serious issue devastating the peace, unity, stability and progress of man and his physical environment particularly in developing countries. Recently, measure of security and it management in Nigeria has been a bottle-neck to the effectiveness and advancement of various sectors that include; business, education, social relations, politics and above all an economy. Several measures have been considered on mitigating environment insecurity such as surveillance, demarcation, security personnel empowerment and the likes, but still the issue remains disturbing. In this paper, we present the application of new technology that contributes to the improvement of security surveillance known as “Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)”. The system is new, smart and emerging technology that provides monitoring, detection and aggregation of information using sensor nodes and wireless network. WSN detects, monitors and stores information or activities in the deployed area such as schools, environment, business centers, public squares, industries, and outskirts and transmit to end users. This will reduce the cost of security funding and eases security surveillance depending on the nature and the requirement of the deployment.

Keywords: Environment, monitoring, Wireless Sensor Network, Application, Node, insecurity

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30 Design and Implementation of Active Radio Frequency Identification on Wireless Sensor Network-Based System

Authors: Che Z. Zulkifli, Nursyahida M. Noor, Siti N. Semunab, Shafawati A. Malek

Abstract:

Wireless sensors, also known as wireless sensor nodes, have been making a significant impact on human daily life. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are two complementary technologies; hence, an integrated implementation of these technologies expands the overall functionality in obtaining long-range and real-time information on the location and properties of objects and people. An approach for integrating ZigBee and RFID networks is proposed in this paper, to create an energy-efficient network improved by the benefits of combining ZigBee and RFID architecture. Furthermore, the compatibility and requirements of the ZigBee device and communication links in the typical RFID system which is presented with the real world experiment on the capabilities of the proposed RFID system.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, RFID, ZigBee, mesh network

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29 Structural Health Monitoring of Offshore Structures Using Wireless Sensor Networking under Operational and Environmental Variability

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Thailammai Chithambaram, Shihas A. Khader

Abstract:

The early-stage damage detection in offshore structures requires continuous structural health monitoring and for the large area the position of sensors will also plays an important role in the efficient damage detection. Determining the dynamic behavior of offshore structures requires dense deployment of sensors. The wired Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems are highly expensive and always needs larger installation space to deploy. Wireless sensor networks can enhance the SHM system by deployment of scalable sensor network, which consumes lesser space. This paper presents the results of wireless sensor network based Structural Health Monitoring method applied to a scaled experimental model of offshore structure that underwent wave loading. This method determines the serviceability of the offshore structure which is subjected to various environment loads. Wired and wireless sensors were installed in the model and the response of the scaled BLSRP model under wave loading was recorded. The wireless system discussed in this study is the Raspberry pi board with Arm V6 processor which is programmed to transmit the data acquired by the sensor to the server using Wi-Fi adapter, the data is then hosted in the webpage. The data acquired from the wireless and wired SHM systems were compared and the design of the wireless system is verified.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, damage detection, Structural Response, Condition Assessment, structural health monitoring

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28 Improved Network Construction Methods Based on Virtual Rails for Mobile Sensor Network

Authors: Noritaka Shigei, Kazuto Matsumoto, Yoshiki Nakashima, Hiromi Miyajima

Abstract:

Although Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs), which consist of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs), can cover a wide range of observation region by using a small number of sensor nodes, they need to construct a network to collect the sensing data on the base station by moving the MSNs. As an effective method, the network construction method based on Virtual Rails (VRs), which is referred to as VR method, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose two types of effective techniques for the VR method. They can prolong the operation time of the network, which is limited by the battery capabilities of MSNs and the energy consumption of MSNs. The first technique, an effective arrangement of VRs, almost equalizes the number of MSNs belonging to each VR. The second technique, an adaptive movement method of MSNs, takes into account the residual energy of battery. In the simulation, we demonstrate that each technique can improve the network lifetime and the combination of both techniques is the most effective.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, mobile sensor node, relay of sensing data, residual energy, virtual rail

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27 Tree Based Data Aggregation to Resolve Funneling Effect in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: G. Rajesh, B. Vinayaga Sundaram, C. Aarthi

Abstract:

In wireless sensor network, sensor node transmits the sensed data to the sink node in multi-hop communication periodically. This high traffic induces congestion at the node which is present one-hop distance to the sink node. The packet transmission and reception rate of these nodes should be very high, when compared to other sensor nodes in the network. Therefore, the energy consumption of that node is very high and this effect is known as the “funneling effect”. The tree based-data aggregation technique (TBDA) is used to reduce the energy consumption of the node. The throughput of the overall performance shows a considerable decrease in the number of packet transmissions to the sink node. The proposed scheme, TBDA, avoids the funneling effect and extends the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. The average case time complexity for inserting the node in the tree is O(n log n) and for the worst case time complexity is O(n2).

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, data aggregation, Funneling Effect, Traffic Congestion

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26 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Network Protocol, car parking monitoring, sensor node

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25 An Intelligent WSN-Based Parking Guidance System

Authors: Sheng-Shih Wang, Wei-Ting Wang

Abstract:

This paper designs an intelligent guidance system, based on wireless sensor networks, for efficient parking in parking lots. The proposed system consists of a parking space allocation subsystem, a parking space monitoring subsystem, a driving guidance subsystem, and a vehicle detection subsystem. In the system, we propose a novel and effective virtual coordinate system for sensing and displaying devices to determine the proper vacant parking space and provide the precise guidance to the driver. This study constructs a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network on Arduino platform and implements the prototype of the proposed system using Arduino-based complements. Experimental results confirm that the proposed prototype can not only work well, but also provide drivers the correct parking information.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, ZigBee, Arduino, parking guidance

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24 Review of Trust Models in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: V. Uma Rani, K. Soma Sundaram

Abstract:

The major challenge faced by wireless sensor networks is security. Because of dynamic and collaborative nature of sensor networks the connected sensor devices makes the network unusable. To solve this issue, a trust model is required to find malicious, selfish and compromised insiders by evaluating trust worthiness sensors from the network. It supports the decision making processes in wireless sensor networks such as pre key-distribution, cluster head selection, data aggregation, routing and self reconfiguration of sensor nodes. This paper discussed the kinds of trust model, trust metrics used to address attacks by monitoring certain behavior of network. It describes the major design issues and their countermeasures of building trust model. It also discusses existing trust models used in various decision making process of wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: Security, Trust, Wireless Sensor Network, Attacks, Trust model

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23 Cluster Based Energy Efficient and Fault Tolerant n-Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: D. Satish Kumar, N. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Coverage conservation and extend the network lifetime are the primary issues in wireless sensor networks. Due to the large variety of applications, coverage is focus to a wide range of interpretations. The applications necessitate that each point in the area is observed by only one sensor while other applications may require that each point is enclosed by at least sensors (n>1) to achieve fault tolerance. Sensor scheduling activities in existing Transparent and non- Transparent relay modes (T-NT) Mobile Multi-Hop relay networks fails to guarantee area coverage with minimal energy consumption and fault tolerance. To overcome these issues, Cluster based Energy Competent n- coverage scheme called (CEC n-coverage scheme) to ensure the full coverage of a monitored area while saving energy. CEC n-coverage scheme uses a novel sensor scheduling scheme based on the n-density and the remaining energy of each sensor to determine the state of all the deployed sensors to be either active or sleep as well as the state durations. Hence, it is attractive to trigger a minimum number of sensors that are able to ensure coverage area and turn off some redundant sensors to save energy and therefore extend network lifetime. In addition, decisive a smallest amount of active sensors based on the degree coverage required and its level. A variety of numerical parameters are computed using ns2 simulator on existing (T-NT) Mobile Multi-Hop relay networks and CEC n-coverage scheme. Simulation results showed that CEC n-coverage scheme in wireless sensor network provides better performance in terms of the energy efficiency, 6.61% reduced fault tolerant in terms of seconds and the percentage of active sensors to guarantee the area coverage compared to exiting algorithm.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, fault tolerant, Mobile Multi-Hop relay networks, n-coverage, Cluster based Energy Competent, Transparent and non- Transparent relay modes, sensor scheduling

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22 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using wireless sensor networks. Multiple sensor nodes and a sink node, a gateway, and a server constitute a wireless network for monitoring a parking lot. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. Each sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The sensor nodes and sink node use the 448 MHz band for wireless communication. Since RF transmission only occurs when sensor values show abrupt changes, the number of RF transmission operations is reduced and battery power can be conserved. The data from the sensor nodes reach the server via the sink node and gateway. The server determines which parking spaces are taken by cars based upon the received sensor data and reference values. The reference values are average sensor values measured by each sensor node when the corresponding parking spot is not occupied by a vehicle. Because the decision making is done by the server, the computational burden of the sensor node is relieved, which helps reduce the duty cycle of the sensor node.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, car parking monitoring, sensor node, magnetometer

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21 Sensor Network Based Emergency Response and Navigation Support Architecture

Authors: Dilusha Weeraddana, Ashanie Gunathillake, Samiru Gayan

Abstract:

In an emergency, combining Wireless Sensor Network's data with the knowledge gathered from various other information sources and navigation algorithms, could help safely guide people to a building exit while avoiding the risky areas. This paper presents an emergency response and navigation support architecture for data gathering, knowledge manipulation, and navigational support in an emergency situation. At normal state, the system monitors the environment. When an emergency event detects, the system sends messages to first responders and immediately identifies the risky areas from safe areas to establishing escape paths. The main functionalities of the system include, gathering data from a wireless sensor network which is deployed in a multi-story indoor environment, processing it with information available in a knowledge base, and sharing the decisions made, with first responders and people in the building. The proposed architecture will act to reduce risk of losing human lives by evacuating people much faster with least congestion in an emergency environment. 

Keywords: Navigation, Wireless Sensor Network, Emergency Response, firefighters

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20 Greedy Geographical Void Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Chiang Tzu-Chiang, Chang Jia-Lin, Tsai Yue-Fu, Li Sha-Pai

Abstract:

With the advantage of wireless network technology, there are a variety of mobile applications which make the issue of wireless sensor networks as a popular research area in recent years. As the wireless sensor network nodes move arbitrarily with the topology fast change feature, mobile nodes are often confronted with the void issue which will initiate packet losing, retransmitting, rerouting, additional transmission cost and power consumption. When transmitting packets, we would not predict void problem occurring in advance. Thus, how to improve geographic routing with void avoidance in wireless networks becomes an important issue. In this paper, we proposed a greedy geographical void routing algorithm to solve the void problem for wireless sensor networks. We use the information of source node and void area to draw two tangents to form a fan range of the existence void which can announce voidavoiding message. Then we use source and destination nodes to draw a line with an angle of the fan range to select the next forwarding neighbor node for routing. In a dynamic wireless sensor network environment, the proposed greedy void avoiding algorithm can be more time-saving and more efficient to forward packets, and improve current geographical void problem of wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: Wireless Network, Wireless Sensor Network, internet routing, greedy void avoiding algorithm, bypassing void

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19 Energy Efficient Clustering and Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Surender Kumar Soni

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are wireless networks consisting of number of tiny, low cost and low power sensor nodes to monitor various physical phenomena like temperature, pressure, vibration, landslide detection, presence of any object, etc. The major limitation in these networks is the use of nonrechargeable battery having limited power supply. The main cause of energy consumption WSN is communication subsystem. This paper presents an efficient grid formation/clustering strategy known as Grid based level Clustering and Aggregation of Data (GCAD). The proposed clustering strategy is simple and scalable that uses low duty cycle approach to keep non-CH nodes into sleep mode thus reducing energy consumption. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed GCAD protocol performs better in various performance metrics.

Keywords: Cluster, Wireless Sensor Network, ad hoc network, Grid base clustering

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18 Wavelet-Based Data Compression Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: P. Kumsawat, N. Pimpru, K. Attakitmongcol, A.Srikaew

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed an efficient data compression strategy exploiting the multi-resolution characteristic of the wavelet transform. We have developed a sensor node called “Smart Sensor Node; SSN". The main goals of the SSN design are lightweight, minimal power consumption, modular design and robust circuitry. The SSN is made up of four basic components which are a sensing unit, a processing unit, a transceiver unit and a power unit. FiOStd evaluation board is chosen as the main controller of the SSN for its low costs and high performance. The software coding of the implementation was done using Simulink model and MATLAB programming language. The experimental results show that the proposed data compression technique yields recover signal with good quality. This technique can be applied to compress the collected data to reduce the data communication as well as the energy consumption of the sensor and so the lifetime of sensor node can be extended.

Keywords: Data Compression, Wireless Sensor Network, Wavelet Transform, ZigBee, skipped high-pass sub-band

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17 A Nobel Approach for Campus Monitoring

Authors: Rashmi Priyadarshini, S. R. N. Reddy, R. M. Mehra

Abstract:

This paper presents one of the best applications of wireless sensor network for campus Monitoring. With the help of PIR sensor, temperature sensor and humidity sensor, effective utilization of energy resources has been implemented in one of rooms of Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. The RISC microcontroller is used here for analysis of output of sensors and providing proper control using ZigBee protocol. This wireless sensor module presents a tremendous power saving method for any campus

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, ZigBee, PIC microcontroller

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16 Wireless Sensor Network: Characteristics and Architectures

Authors: Muhammad R Ahmed, Xu Huang, Dharmandra Sharma, Hongyan Cui

Abstract:

An information procuring and processing emerging technology wireless sensor network (WSN) Consists of autonomous nodes with versatile devices underpinned by applications. Nodes are equipped with different capabilities such as sensing, computing, actuation and wireless communications etc. based on application requirements. A WSN application ranges from military implementation in the battlefield, environmental monitoring, health sector as well as emergency response of surveillance. The nodes are deployed independently to cooperatively monitor the physical and environmental conditions. The architecture of WSN differs based on the application requirements and focus on low cost, flexibility, fault tolerance capability, deployment process as well as conserve energy. In this paper we have present the characteristics, architecture design objective and architecture of WSN

Keywords: Architecture, Wireless Sensor Network, Characteristics

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