Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Watermarking Related Publications

29 Medical Image Watermark and Tamper Detection Using Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum Watermarking

Authors: Peter U. Eze, P. Udaya, Robin J. Evans

Abstract:

Data hiding can be achieved by Steganography or invisible digital watermarking. For digital watermarking, both accurate retrieval of the embedded watermark and the integrity of the cover image are important. Medical image security in Teleradiology is one of the applications where the embedded patient record needs to be extracted with accuracy as well as the medical image integrity verified. In this research paper, the Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum digital watermarking for medical image tamper detection and accurate embedded watermark retrieval is introduced. In the proposed method, a watermark bit from a patient record is spread in a medical image sub-block such that the correlation of all watermarked sub-blocks with a spreading code, W, would have a constant value, p. The constant correlation p, spreading code, W and the size of the sub-blocks constitute the secret key. Tamper detection is achieved by flagging any sub-block whose correlation value deviates by more than a small value, ℇ, from p. The major features of our new scheme include: (1) Improving watermark detection accuracy for high-pixel depth medical images by reducing the Bit Error Rate (BER) to Zero and (2) block-level tamper detection in a single computational process with simultaneous watermark detection, thereby increasing utility with the same computational cost.

Keywords: Medical Image, Watermarking, Spread spectrum, tamper detection, Constant Correlation

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28 Improved Processing Speed for Text Watermarking Algorithm in Color Images

Authors: Hamza A. Al-Sewadi, Akram N. A. Aldakari

Abstract:

Copyright protection and ownership proof of digital multimedia are achieved nowadays by digital watermarking techniques. A text watermarking algorithm for protecting the property rights and ownership judgment of color images is proposed in this paper. Embedding is achieved by inserting texts elements randomly into the color image as noise. The YIQ image processing model is found to be faster than other image processing methods, and hence, it is adopted for the embedding process. An optional choice of encrypting the text watermark before embedding is also suggested (in case required by some applications), where, the text can is encrypted using any enciphering technique adding more difficulty to hackers. Experiments resulted in embedding speed improvement of more than double the speed of other considered systems (such as least significant bit method, and separate color code methods), and a fairly acceptable level of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with low mean square error values for watermarking purposes.

Keywords: Watermarking, Steganography, time complexity measurements, private keys

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27 Digital Cinema Watermarking State of Art and Comparison

Authors: H. Kelkoul, Y. Zaz

Abstract:

Nowadays, the vigorous popularity of video processing techniques has resulted in an explosive growth of multimedia data illegal use. So, watermarking security has received much more attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore some watermarking techniques in order to observe their specificities and select the finest methods to apply in digital cinema domain against movie piracy by creating an invisible watermark that includes the date, time and the place where the hacking was done. We have studied three principal watermarking techniques in the frequency domain: Spread spectrum, Wavelet transform domain and finally the digital cinema watermarking transform domain. In this paper, a detailed technique is presented where embedding is performed using direct sequence spread spectrum technique in DWT transform domain. Experiment results shows that the algorithm provides high robustness and good imperceptibility.

Keywords: Watermarking, Spread spectrum, Wavelet, JPEG2000, digital cinema

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26 An Additive Watermarking Technique in Gray Scale Images Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation and Its Analysis on Watermark Strength

Authors: Kamaldeep Joshi, Rajkumar Yadav, Ashok Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

Digital Watermarking is a procedure to prevent the unauthorized access and modification of personal data. It assures that the communication between two parties remains secure and their communication should be undetected. This paper investigates the consequence of the watermark strength of the grayscale image using a Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) additive technique. In this method, the gray scale host image is divided into four sub bands: LL (Low-Low), HL (High-Low), LH (Low-High), HH (High-High) and the watermark is inserted in an LL sub band using DWT technique. As the image is divided into four sub bands, a watermark of equal size of the LL sub band has been inserted and the results are discussed. LL represents the average component of the host image which contains the maximum information of the image. Two kinds of experiments are performed. In the first, the same watermark is embedded in different images and in the later on the strength of the watermark varies by a factor of s i.e. (s=10, 20, 30, 40, 50) and it is inserted in the same image.

Keywords: Watermarking, Steganography, discrete wavelet transform, Scaling factor

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25 Exploration of Least Significant Bit Based Watermarking and Its Robustness against Salt and Pepper Noise

Authors: Kamaldeep Joshi, Rajkumar Yadav, Sachin Allwadhi

Abstract:

Image steganography is the best aspect of information hiding. In this, the information is hidden within an image and the image travels openly on the Internet. The Least Significant Bit (LSB) is one of the most popular methods of image steganography. In this method, the information bit is hidden at the LSB of the image pixel. In one bit LSB steganography method, the total numbers of the pixels and the total number of message bits are equal to each other. In this paper, the LSB method of image steganography is used for watermarking. The watermarking is an application of the steganography. The watermark contains 80*88 pixels and each pixel requirs 8 bits for its binary equivalent form so, the total number of bits required to hide the watermark are 80*88*8(56320). The experiment was performed on standard 256*256 and 512*512 size images. After the watermark insertion, histogram analysis was performed. A noise factor (salt and pepper) of 0.02 was added to the stego image in order to evaluate the robustness of the method. The watermark was successfully retrieved after insertion of noise. An experiment was performed in order to know the imperceptibility of stego and the retrieved watermark. It is clear that the LSB watermarking scheme is robust to the salt and pepper noise.

Keywords: Watermarking, PSNR, lsb, salt and pepper

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24 An Interlacing Technique-Based Blind Video Watermarking Using Wavelet

Authors: B. Sridhar, C. Arun

Abstract:

The rapid growth of multimedia technology demands the secure and efficient access to information. This fast growing lose the confidence of unauthorized duplication. Henceforth the protection of multimedia content is becoming more important. Watermarking solves the issue of unlawful copy of advanced data. In this paper, blind video watermarking technique has been proposed. A luminance layer of selected frames is interlaced into two even and odd rows of an image, further it is deinterlaced and equalizes the coefficients of the two shares. Color watermark is split into different blocks, and the pieces of block are concealed in one of the share under the wavelet transform. Stack the two images into a single image by introducing interlaced even and odd rows in the two shares. Finally, chrominance bands are concatenated with the watermarked luminance band. The safeguard level of the secret information is high, and it is undetectable. Results show that the quality of the video is not changed also yields the better PSNR values.

Keywords: Data Security, Authentication, Watermarking, deinterlaced, wavelet transform

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23 Adaptive Digital Watermarking Integrating Fuzzy Inference HVS Perceptual Model

Authors: Sherin M. Youssef, Ahmed Abouelfarag, Noha M. Ghatwary

Abstract:

An adaptive Fuzzy Inference Perceptual model has been proposed for watermarking of digital images. The model depends on the human visual characteristics of image sub-regions in the frequency multi-resolution wavelet domain. In the proposed model, a multi-variable fuzzy based architecture has been designed to produce a perceptual membership degree for both candidate embedding sub-regions and strength watermark embedding factor. Different sizes of benchmark images with different sizes of watermarks have been applied on the model. Several experimental attacks have been applied such as JPEG compression, noises and rotation, to ensure the robustness of the scheme. In addition, the model has been compared with different watermarking schemes. The proposed model showed its robustness to attacks and at the same time achieved a high level of imperceptibility.

Keywords: Watermarking, Local Binary Pattern (LBP), The human visual system (HVS), Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)

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22 Graphic Watermarking, Security Feature in Cadastral Content Management

Authors: Manole Velicanu, Emanuil Rednic

Abstract:

The paper shows the necessity to increase the security level for paper management in the cadastral field by using specific graphical watermarks. Using the graphical watermarking will increase the security in the cadastral content management; furthermore any altered document will be validated afterwards of its originality by checking the graphic watermark. If, by any reasons the document is changed for counterfeiting, it is invalidated and found that is an illegal copy due to the graphic check of the watermarking, check made at pixel level

Keywords: Identity Management, Watermarking, Database Security, Content Management, cadastral system, security standards

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21 An Artificial Intelligent Technique for Robust Digital Watermarking in Multiwavelet Domain

Authors: P. Kumsawat, K. Pasitwilitham, K. Attakitmongcol, A. Srikaew

Abstract:

In this paper, an artificial intelligent technique for robust digital image watermarking in multiwavelet domain is proposed. The embedding technique is based on the quantization index modulation technique and the watermark extraction process does not require the original image. We have developed an optimization technique using the genetic algorithms to search for optimal quantization steps to improve the quality of watermarked image and robustness of the watermark. In addition, we construct a prediction model based on image moments and back propagation neural network to correct an attacked image geometrically before the watermark extraction process begins. The experimental results show that the proposed watermarking algorithm yields watermarked image with good imperceptibility and very robust watermark against various image processing attacks.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, Watermarking, Multiwavelet, Quantization index modulation

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20 High Capacity Spread-Spectrum Watermarking for Telemedicine Applications

Authors: Basant Kumar, Animesh Anand, S.P. Singh, Anand Mohan

Abstract:

This paper presents a new spread-spectrum watermarking algorithm for digital images in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain. The algorithm is applied for embedding watermarks like patient identification /source identification or doctors signature in binary image format into host digital radiological image for potential telemedicine applications. Performance of the algorithm is analysed by varying the gain factor, subband decomposition levels, and size of watermark. Simulation results show that the proposed method achieves higher watermarking capacity.

Keywords: Telemedicine, Watermarking, spread-spectrum, discrete wavelettransform

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19 Web Page Watermarking: XML files using Synonyms and Acronyms

Authors: Nighat Mir, Sayed Afaq Hussain

Abstract:

Advent enhancements in the field of computing have increased massive use of web based electronic documents. Current Copyright protection laws are inadequate to prove the ownership for electronic documents and do not provide strong features against copying and manipulating information from the web. This has opened many channels for securing information and significant evolutions have been made in the area of information security. Digital Watermarking has developed into a very dynamic area of research and has addressed challenging issues for digital content. Watermarking can be visible (logos or signatures) and invisible (encoding and decoding). Many visible watermarking techniques have been studied for text documents but there are very few for web based text. XML files are used to trade information on the internet and contain important information. In this paper, two invisible watermarking techniques using Synonyms and Acronyms are proposed for XML files to prove the intellectual ownership and to achieve the security. Analysis is made for different attacks and amount of capacity to be embedded in the XML file is also noticed. A comparative analysis for capacity is also made for both methods. The system has been implemented using C# language and all tests are made practically to get the results.

Keywords: Watermarking, synonyms, copyright protection, acronyms, Extensible Markup Language (XML)

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18 Quality Estimation of Video Transmitted overan Additive WGN Channel based on Digital Watermarking and Wavelet Transform

Authors: Mohamed S. El-Mahallawy, Attalah Hashad, Hazem Hassan Ali, Heba Sami Zaky

Abstract:

This paper presents an evaluation for a wavelet-based digital watermarking technique used in estimating the quality of video sequences transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel in terms of a classical objective metric, such as Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) without the need of the original video. In this method, a watermark is embedded into the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain of the original video frames using a quantization method. The degradation of the extracted watermark can be used to estimate the video quality in terms of PSNR with good accuracy. We calculated PSNR for video frames contaminated with AWGN and compared the values with those estimated using the Watermarking-DWT based approach. It is found that the calculated and estimated quality measures of the video frames are highly correlated, suggesting that this method can provide a good quality measure for video frames transmitted over AWGN channel without the need of the original video.

Keywords: Watermarking, PSNR, DWT, AWGN, VideoQuality

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17 Secure Block-Based Video Authentication with Localization and Self-Recovery

Authors: Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Bernd Michaelis, Ammar M. Hassan, Yassin M. Y. Hasan, Mohamed A. A. Wahab

Abstract:

Because of the great advance in multimedia technology, digital multimedia is vulnerable to malicious manipulations. In this paper, a public key self-recovery block-based video authentication technique is proposed which can not only precisely localize the alteration detection but also recover the missing data with high reliability. In the proposed block-based technique, multiple description coding MDC is used to generate two codes (two descriptions) for each block. Although one block code (one description) is enough to rebuild the altered block, the altered block is rebuilt with better quality by the two block descriptions. So using MDC increases the ratability of recovering data. A block signature is computed using a cryptographic hash function and a doubly linked chain is utilized to embed the block signature copies and the block descriptions into the LSBs of distant blocks and the block itself. The doubly linked chain scheme gives the proposed technique the capability to thwart vector quantization attacks. In our proposed technique , anyone can check the authenticity of a given video using the public key. The experimental results show that the proposed technique is reliable for detecting, localizing and recovering the alterations.

Keywords: Authentication, Watermarking, Hash Function, public key encryption, multiple descriptioncoding

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16 A DCT-Based Secure JPEG Image Authentication Scheme

Authors: Mona F. M. Mursi, Ghazy M.R. Assassa, Hatim A. Aboalsamh, Khaled Alghathbar

Abstract:

The challenge in the case of image authentication is that in many cases images need to be subjected to non malicious operations like compression, so the authentication techniques need to be compression tolerant. In this paper we propose an image authentication system that is tolerant to JPEG lossy compression operations. A scheme for JPEG grey scale images is proposed based on a data embedding method that is based on a secret key and a secret mapping vector in the frequency domain. An encrypted feature vector extracted from the image DCT coefficients, is embedded redundantly, and invisibly in the marked image. On the receiver side, the feature vector from the received image is derived again and compared against the extracted watermark to verify the image authenticity. The proposed scheme is robust against JPEG compression up to a maximum compression of approximately 80%,, but sensitive to malicious attacks such as cutting and pasting.

Keywords: Authentication, Watermarking, JPEG, DCT

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15 A Novel Steganographic Method for Gray-Level Images

Authors: Ahmad T. Al-Taani, Abdullah M. AL-Issa

Abstract:

In this work we propose a novel Steganographic method for hiding information within the spatial domain of the gray scale image. The proposed approach works by dividing the cover into blocks of equal sizes and then embeds the message in the edge of the block depending on the number of ones in left four bits of the pixel. The proposed approach is tested on a database consists of 100 different images. Experimental results, compared with other methods, showed that the proposed approach hide more large information and gave a good visual quality stego-image that can be seen by human eyes.

Keywords: Cryptography, Watermarking, Information Hiding, Steganography, least significant bit, data embedding

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14 A Novel Digital Watermarking Technique Basedon ISB (Intermediate Significant Bit)

Authors: Akram M. Zeki, Azizah A. Manaf

Abstract:

Least Significant Bit (LSB) technique is the earliest developed technique in watermarking and it is also the most simple, direct and common technique. It essentially involves embedding the watermark by replacing the least significant bit of the image data with a bit of the watermark data. The disadvantage of LSB is that it is not robust against attacks. In this study intermediate significant bit (ISB) has been used in order to improve the robustness of the watermarking system. The aim of this model is to replace the watermarked image pixels by new pixels that can protect the watermark data against attacks and at the same time keeping the new pixels very close to the original pixels in order to protect the quality of watermarked image. The technique is based on testing the value of the watermark pixel according to the range of each bit-plane.

Keywords: Robustness, Watermarking, lsb, ISB

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13 Authentication and Data Hiding Using a Reversible ROI-based Watermarking Scheme for DICOM Images

Authors: Osamah M. Al-Qershi, Khoo Bee Ee

Abstract:

In recent years image watermarking has become an important research area in data security, confidentiality and image integrity. Many watermarking techniques were proposed for medical images. However, medical images, unlike most of images, require extreme care when embedding additional data within them because the additional information must not affect the image quality and readability. Also the medical records, electronic or not, are linked to the medical secrecy, for that reason, the records must be confidential. To fulfill those requirements, this paper presents a lossless watermarking scheme for DICOM images. The proposed a fragile scheme combines two reversible techniques based on difference expansion for patient's data hiding and protecting the region of interest (ROI) with tamper detection and recovery capability. Patient's data are embedded into ROI, while recovery data are embedded into region of non-interest (RONI). The experimental results show that the original image can be exactly extracted from the watermarked one in case of no tampering. In case of tampered ROI, tampered area can be localized and recovered with a high quality version of the original area.

Keywords: Watermarking, DICOM, reversible, ROI-based

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12 Support Vector Machine based Intelligent Watermark Decoding for Anticipated Attack

Authors: Asifullah Khan, Anwar M. Mirza, Abdul Majid, Syed Fahad Tahir

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an innovative scheme of blindly extracting message bits from an image distorted by an attack. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to nonlinearly classify the bits of the embedded message. Traditionally, a hard decoder is used with the assumption that the underlying modeling of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients does not appreciably change. In case of an attack, the distribution of the image coefficients is heavily altered. The distribution of the sufficient statistics at the receiving end corresponding to the antipodal signals overlap and a simple hard decoder fails to classify them properly. We are considering message retrieval of antipodal signal as a binary classification problem. Machine learning techniques like SVM is used to retrieve the message, when certain specific class of attacks is most probable. In order to validate SVM based decoding scheme, we have taken Gaussian noise as a test case. We generate a data set using 125 images and 25 different keys. Polynomial kernel of SVM has achieved 100 percent accuracy on test data.

Keywords: Watermarking, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Bit Correct Ratio (BCR), Grid Search, Intelligent Decoding, Jackknife Technique

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11 A Nonoblivious Image Watermarking System Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Texture Segmentation

Authors: Mehran Yazdi, Soroosh Rezazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, a robust digital image watermarking scheme for copyright protection applications using the singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed. In this scheme, an entropy masking model has been applied on the host image for the texture segmentation. Moreover, the local luminance and textures of the host image are considered for watermark embedding procedure to increase the robustness of the watermarking scheme. In contrast to all existing SVD-based watermarking systems that have been designed to embed visual watermarks, our system uses a pseudo-random sequence as a watermark. We have tested the performance of our method using a wide variety of image processing attacks on different test images. A comparison is made between the results of our proposed algorithm with those of a wavelet-based method to demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm.

Keywords: Watermarking, copyright protection, singular value decomposition, entropy masking, texture segmentation

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10 A Hyper-Domain Image Watermarking Method based on Macro Edge Block and Wavelet Transform for Digital Signal Processor

Authors: Yi-Pin Hsu, Shin-Yu Lin

Abstract:

In order to protect original data, watermarking is first consideration direction for digital information copyright. In addition, to achieve high quality image, the algorithm maybe can not run on embedded system because the computation is very complexity. However, almost nowadays algorithms need to build on consumer production because integrator circuit has a huge progress and cheap price. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm which efficient inserts watermarking on digital image and very easy to implement on digital signal processor. In further, we select a general and cheap digital signal processor which is made by analog device company to fit consumer application. The experimental results show that the image quality by watermarking insertion can achieve 46 dB can be accepted in human vision and can real-time execute on digital signal processor.

Keywords: Watermarking, Digital signal processor, embedded system

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9 A Robust Image Watermarking Scheme using Image Moment Normalization

Authors: Latha Parameswaran, K. Anbumani

Abstract:

Multimedia security is an incredibly significant area of concern. A number of papers on robust digital watermarking have been presented, but there are no standards that have been defined so far. Thus multimedia security is still a posing problem. The aim of this paper is to design a robust image-watermarking scheme, which can withstand a different set of attacks. The proposed scheme provides a robust solution integrating image moment normalization, content dependent watermark and discrete wavelet transformation. Moment normalization is useful to recover the watermark even in case of geometrical attacks. Content dependent watermarks are a powerful means of authentication as the data is watermarked with its own features. Discrete wavelet transforms have been used as they describe image features in a better manner. The proposed scheme finds its place in validating identification cards and financial instruments.

Keywords: Benchmarking, Watermarking, Wavelets, moments, content-based

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8 A Robust Watermarking using Blind Source Separation

Authors: Anil Kumar, K. Negrat, Abdelsalam Almarimi, A. M. Negrat

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a robust and secure algorithm for watermarking, the watermark is first transformed into the frequency domain using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Then the entire DWT coefficient except the LL (Band) discarded, these coefficients are permuted and encrypted by specific mixing. The encrypted coefficients are inserted into the most significant spectral components of the stego-image using a chaotic system. This technique makes our watermark non-vulnerable to the attack (like compression, and geometric distortion) of an active intruder, or due to noise in the transmission link.

Keywords: Watermarking, DWT, chaotic system, Blind source separation (BSS)

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7 Digital Image Watermarking in the Wavelet Transform Domain

Authors: S.A.M. Gilani, Kamran Hameed, Adeel Mumtaz

Abstract:

In this paper, we start by first characterizing the most important and distinguishing features of wavelet-based watermarking schemes. We studied the overwhelming amount of algorithms proposed in the literature. Application scenario, copyright protection is considered and building on the experience that was gained, implemented two distinguishing watermarking schemes. Detailed comparison and obtained results are presented and discussed. We concluded that Joo-s [1] technique is more robust for standard noise attacks than Dote-s [2] technique.

Keywords: Digital Image, Watermarking, Wavelet Transform, copyright protection

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6 Entropy Based Data Hiding for Document Images

Authors: Sridhar G., Sridhar V., Swetha Kurup

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel technique for data hiding in binary document images. We use the concept of entropy in order to identify document specific least distortive areas throughout the binary document image. The document image is treated as any other image and the proposed method utilizes the standard document characteristics for the embedding process. Proposed method minimizes perceptual distortion due to embedding and allows watermark extraction without the requirement of any side information at the decoder end.

Keywords: Watermarking, Entropy, Steganography

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5 A Copyright Protection Scheme for Color Images using Secret Sharing and Wavelet Transform

Authors: Shang-Lin Hsieh, Lung-Yao Hsu, I-Ju Tsai

Abstract:

This paper proposes a copyright protection scheme for color images using secret sharing and wavelet transform. The scheme contains two phases: the share image generation phase and the watermark retrieval phase. In the generation phase, the proposed scheme first converts the image into the YCbCr color space and creates a special sampling plane from the color space. Next, the scheme extracts the features from the sampling plane using the discrete wavelet transform. Then, the scheme employs the features and the watermark to generate a principal share image. In the retrieval phase, an expanded watermark is first reconstructed using the features of the suspect image and the principal share image. Next, the scheme reduces the additional noise to obtain the recovered watermark, which is then verified against the original watermark to examine the copyright. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme can resist several attacks such as JPEG compression, blurring, sharpening, noise addition, and cropping. The accuracy rates are all higher than 97%.

Keywords: Watermarking, Secret sharing, color image, discrete wavelet transform, copyright protection

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4 A Robust Wavelet-Based Watermarking Algorithm Using Edge Detection

Authors: John N. Ellinas

Abstract:

In this paper, a robust watermarking algorithm using the wavelet transform and edge detection is presented. The efficiency of an image watermarking technique depends on the preservation of visually significant information. This is attained by embedding the watermark transparently with the maximum possible strength. The watermark embedding process is carried over the subband coefficients that lie on edges, where distortions are less noticeable, with a subband level dependent strength. Also, the watermark is embedded to selected coefficients around edges, using a different scale factor for watermark strength, that are captured by a morphological dilation operation. The experimental evaluation of the proposed method shows very good results in terms of robustness and transparency to various attacks such as median filtering, Gaussian noise, JPEG compression and geometrical transformations.

Keywords: Watermarking, Wavelet Transform, Edge Detection

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3 Self Watermarking based on Visual Cryptography

Authors: Mahmoud A. Hassan, Mohammed A. Khalili

Abstract:

We are proposing a simple watermarking method based on visual cryptography. The method is based on selection of specific pixels from the original image instead of random selection of pixels as per Hwang [1] paper. Verification information is generated which will be used to verify the ownership of the image without the need to embed the watermark pattern into the original digital data. Experimental results show the proposed method can recover the watermark pattern from the marked data even if some changes are made to the original digital data.

Keywords: Watermarking, visual cryptography, visualthreshold

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2 Cellular Automata Based Robust Watermarking Architecture towards the VLSI Realization

Authors: V. H. Mankar, T. S. Das, S. K. Sarkar

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed a novel blind watermarking architecture towards its hardware implementation in VLSI. In order to facilitate this hardware realization, cellular automata (CA) concept is introduced. The CA has been already accepted as an attractive structure for VLSI implementation because of its modularity, parallelism, high performance and reliability. The hardware realizable multiresolution spread spectrum watermarking techniques are very few in numbers in spite of their best ever resiliency against signal impairments. This is because of the computational cost and complexity associated with their different filter banks and lifting techniques. The concept of cellular automata theory in order to form a new transform domain technique i.e. Cellular Automata Transform (CAT) have been incorporated. Since CA provides spreading sequences having very low cross-correlation properties, the CA based pseudorandom sequence generator is considered in the present work. Considering the watermarking technique as a digital communication process, an error control coding (ECC) must be incorporated in the data hiding schemes. Besides the hardware implementation of entire CA based data hiding technique, the individual blocks of the algorithm using CA provide the best result than that of some other methods irrespective of the hardware and software technique. The Cellular Automata Transform, CA based PN sequence generator, and CA ECC are the requisite blocks that are developed not only to meet the reliable hardware requirements but also for the basic spread spectrum watermarking features. The proposed algorithm shows statistical invisibility and resiliency against various common signal-processing operations. This algorithmic design utilizes the existing allocated bandwidth in the data transmission channel in a more efficient manner.

Keywords: Watermarking, VLSI, cellular automata, Error Control Coding, PN sequence

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1 Attack Detection through Image Adaptive Self Embedding Watermarking

Authors: S. M. Deshpande, S. Shefali, S. G. Tamhankar

Abstract:

Now a days, a significant part of commercial and governmental organisations like museums, cultural organizations, libraries, commercial enterprises, etc. invest intensively in new technologies for image digitization, digital libraries, image archiving and retrieval. Hence image authorization, authentication and security has become prime need. In this paper, we present a semi-fragile watermarking scheme for color images. The method converts the host image into YIQ color space followed by application of orthogonal dual domains of DCT and DWT transforms. The DCT helps to separate relevant from irrelevant image content to generate silent image features. DWT has excellent spatial localisation to help aid in spatial tamper characterisation. Thus image adaptive watermark is generated based of image features which allows the sharp detection of microscopic changes to locate modifications in the image. Further, the scheme utilises the multipurpose watermark consisting of soft authenticator watermark and chrominance watermark. Which has been proved fragile to some predefined processing like intentinal fabrication of the image or forgery and robust to other incidental attacks caused in the communication channel.

Keywords: Cryptography, Watermarking, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)

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