Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Waste water Related Publications

10 Preparation of Sorbent Materials for the Removal of Hardness and Organic Pollutants from Water and Wastewater

Authors: Mahmoud Fathy, Thanaa Abdel Moghny, Mohamed Keshawy, Abdul-Raheim M. Abdul-Raheim, Khalid I. Kabel, Ahmed F. El-Kafrawy, Mahmoud Ahmed Mousa, Ahmed E. Awadallah

Abstract:

Ecological pollution is of great concern for human health and the environment. Numerous organic and inorganic pollutants usually discharged into the water caused carcinogenic or toxic effect for human and different life form. In this respect, this work aims to treat water contaminated by organic and inorganic waste using sorbent based on polystyrene. Therefore, two different series of adsorbent material were prepared; the first one included the preparation of polymeric sorbent from the reaction of styrene acrylate ester and alkyl acrylate. The second series involved syntheses of composite ion exchange resins of waste polystyrene and   amorphous carbon thin film (WPS/ACTF) by solvent evaporation using micro emulsion polymerization. The produced ACTF/WPS nanocomposite was sulfonated to produce cation exchange resins ACTF/WPSS nanocomposite. The sorbents of the first series were characterized using FTIR, 1H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography. The thermal properties of the cross-linked sorbents were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, and the morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The removal of organic pollutant was determined through absorption tests in a various organic solvent. The chemical and crystalline structure of nanocomposite of second series has been proven by studies of FTIR spectrum, X-rays, thermal analysis, SEM and TEM analysis to study morphology of resins and ACTF that assembled with polystyrene chain. It is found that the composite resins ACTF/WPSS are thermally stable and show higher chemical stability than ion exchange WPSS resins. The composite resin was evaluated for calcium hardness removal. The result is evident that the ACTF/WPSS composite has more prominent inorganic pollutant removal than WPSS resin. So, we recommend the using of nanocomposite resin as new potential applications for water treatment process.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Waste water, sorbent materials, waste polystyrene

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9 Technology Identification, Evaluation and Selection Methodology for Industrial Process Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant of 3x150 MWe Tufanbeyli Lignite-Fired Power Plant

Authors: Cigdem Safak Saglam

Abstract:

Most thermal power plants use steam as working fluid in their power cycle. Therefore, in addition to fuel, water is the other main input for thermal plants. Water and steam must be highly pure in order to protect the systems from corrosion, scaling and biofouling. Pure process water is produced in water treatment plants having many several treatment methods. Treatment plant design is selected depending on raw water source and required water quality. Although working principle of fossil-fuel fired thermal power plants are same, there is no standard design and equipment arrangement valid for all thermal power plant utility systems. Besides that, there are many other technology evaluation and selection criteria for designing the most optimal water systems meeting the requirements such as local conditions, environmental restrictions, electricity and other consumables availability and transport, process water sources and scarcity, land use constraints etc. Aim of this study is explaining the adopted methodology for technology selection for process water preparation and industrial waste water treatment plant in a thermal power plant project located in Tufanbeyli, Adana Province in Turkey. Thermal power plant is fired with indigenous lignite coal extracted from adjacent lignite reserves. This paper addresses all above-mentioned factors affecting the thermal power plant water treatment facilities (demineralization + waste water treatment) design and describes the ultimate design of Tufanbeyli Thermal Power Plant Water Treatment Plant.

Keywords: Recycling, Pre-treatment, Waste water, electrodialysis, demineralization, thermal power plant, lignite coal, process water

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8 Adverse Impacts of Poor Wastewater Management Practices on Water Quality in Gebeng Industrial Area, Pahang, Malaysia

Authors: I. M. Sujaul, M. A. Sobahan, A. A. Edriyana, F. M. Yahaya, R. M. Yunus

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate the adverse effect of industrial wastewater on surface water quality in Gebeng industrial estate, Pahang, Malaysia. Surface water was collected from six sampling stations. Physicochemical parameters were characterized based on in-situ and ex-situ analysis according to standard methods by American Public Health Association (APHA). Selected heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS). The results revealed that the concentration of heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr and Hg were high in samples. The results also showed that the value of Pb and Hg were higher in the wet season in comparison to dry season. According to Malaysia National Water Quality Standard (NWQS) and Water Quality Index (WQI) all the sampling station were categorized as class IV (highly polluted). The present study revealed that the adverse effects of careless disposal of wastes and directly discharge of effluents affected on surface water quality. Therefore, the authorities should implement the laws to ensure the proper practices of wastewater management for environmental sustainability around the study area.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Waste water, Gebeng, water quality index

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7 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter

Authors: A. Irum, S. Mumtaz, A. Rehman, I. Naz, S. Ahmed

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.

Keywords: biodegradation, Waste water, textile dyes, trickling filters

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6 GIC-Based Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment through Adsorption and Electrochemical-Regeneration

Authors: S. N. Hussain, H. M. A. Asghar, E. P. L. Roberts, N. W. Brown, H. Sattar

Abstract:

Intercalation imparts interesting features to the host graphite material. Two different types of intercalated compounds called (GIC-bisulphate or Nyex 1000 and GIC-nitrate or Nyex 3000) were tested for their adsorption capacity and ability to undergo electrochemical regeneration. It was found that Nyex 3000 showed comparatively slow kinetics along with reduced adsorption capacity to one half for acid violet 17 as adsorbate. Acid violet 17 was selected as model organic pollutant for evaluating comparative performance of said adsorbents. Both adsorbent materials showed 100% regeneration efficiency as achieved by passing a charge of 36 C g-1 at a current density of 12 mA cm-2 and a treatment time of 60 min.  

Keywords: Adsorption, Waste water, Intercalation compound of graphite, electrochemical-regeneration

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5 Development of Composite Adsorbent for Waste Water Treatment Using Adsorption and Electrochemical Regeneration

Authors: S. N. Hussain, H. M. A. Asghar, E. P. L. Roberts, N. W. Brown, H. Sattar

Abstract:

A unique combination of adsorption and electrochemical regeneration with a proprietary adsorbent material called Nyex 100 was introduced at the University of Manchester for waste water treatment applications. Nyex 100 is based on graphite intercalation compound. It is non porous and electrically conducing adsorbent material. This material exhibited very small BET surface area i.e. 2.75 m2g-1, in consequence, small adsorptive capacities for the adsorption of various organic pollutants were obtained. This work aims to develop composite adsorbent material essentially capable of electrochemical regeneration coupled with improved adsorption characteristics. An organic dye, acid violet 17 was used as standard organic pollutant. The developed composite material was successfully electrochemically regenerated using a DC current of 1 A for 60 minutes. Regeneration efficiency was maintained at around 100% for five adsorption-regeneration cycles.

Keywords: Adsorption, Waste water, electrochemical regeneration, electrically conducting adsorbent material

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4 Mercury Removal Techniques for Industrial Waste Water

Authors: Amir Shafeeq, Ayyaz Muhammad, Waqas Sarfraz, Ali Toqeer, Shazib Rashid, M. K. Rafiq

Abstract:

The current work focuses on rephrasing the harmful effects of mercury that is being released from a number of sources. Most of the sources are from the industrial waste water. Different techniques of mercury removal have been discussed and a brief comparison among these has been made. The experimental work has been conducted for two most widely used methods of mercury removal and comparison in terms of their efficiency has been made.

Keywords: Adsorption, Waste water, Mercury

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3 Preliminary Evaluation of Different Water Qualities on Leucaena Leucocephala Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

Authors: Maher J. Tadros, Naji K. Al-Mefleh

Abstract:

The evaluation of non-conventional water resources on seed germination and seedling growth performance at early growth stages is still in progress especially in forage crops. This study was designed to test the effect of four types of water qualities (treated wastewater (TWW), industrial water (IW), grey water (GW), and Distilled water (DW)) on germination and early seedling vigor of Leucaena leucocephala. The results showed that the germination was not significantly affected by the different water qualities. Seed germination reached maximum after 17, 14, 14, and 21 days under GW, IW, TWW, and DW treatments, respectively. The highest mean of shoot length was scored under the GW treatment. And, the highest mean of root length was scored under DW which was not significant from GW treatment. The means of shoot fresh was the highest under the TWW. The means of root fresh weight was not significantly different from each other's under different treatments. The growth performance was in progress with no mortality during 21 days of growth. Thus, the best non-conventional water qualities alternatives based on the cleanness, nutrients, and toxicity are the GW, TWW and IW, respectively.

Keywords: Waste water, Growth Performance, seed germination, grey water, Leucaena, Multipurpose forest trees

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2 Ammonia Removal from Nitrogenous Industrial Waste Water Using Iranian Natural Zeolite of Clinoptilolite Type

Authors: M.M. Jafarpour, Ar. Foolad, M.K. Mansouri, Z. Nikbakhsh, H. Saeedizade

Abstract:

Ammonia nitrogen is one of the most hazardous water pollutants, discharging into water receptors through industrial effluents. Negative environmental impacts of such chemical species in hydrosphere include accelerated eutrophication, water toxicity and harming the aquatics. Natural zeolite clinoptilolite has very high selectivity & capacity for ammonium cation sorption. It occurs in high abundances and rich mines of this zeolite exist in different parts of Iran and thus are available more cheaply and with different sizing. The aim of this study is to investigate ammonia nitrogen removal over this natural sorbent from real samples of high polluted wastewater discharging from a fertilizer producing plant. The experimental results showed that this natural sorbent without even any pre treatment system & with the same particle size available in Iranian markets has still high capability & selectivity in ammonia nitrogen removal both in batch and continuous tests.

Keywords: Waste water, clinoptilolite, Ammonia nitrogen removal, Naturalzeolite

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1 A Novel and Green Approach to Produce Nano- Porous Materials Zeolite A and MCM-41 from Coal Fly Ash and their Applications in Environmental Protection

Authors: K. S. Hui, K. N. Hui, Seong Kon Lee

Abstract:

Zeolite A and MCM-41 have extensive applications in basic science, petrochemical science, energy conservation/storage, medicine, chemical sensor, air purification, environmentally benign composite structure and waste remediation. However, the use of zeolite A and MCM-41 in these areas, especially environmental remediation, are restricted due to prohibitive production cost. Efficient recycling of and resource recovery from coal fly ash has been a major topic of current international research interest, aimed at achieving sustainable development of human society from the viewpoints of energy, economy, and environmental strategy. This project reported an original, novel, green and fast methods to produce nano-porous zeolite A and MCM-41 materials from coal fly ash. For zeolite A, this novel production method allows a reduction by half of the total production time while maintaining a high degree of crystallinity of zeolite A which exists in a narrower particle size distribution. For MCM-41, this remarkably green approach, being an environmentally friendly process and reducing generation of toxic waste, can produce pure and long-range ordered MCM-41 materials from coal fly ash. This approach took 24 h at 25 oC to produce 9 g of MCM-41 materials from 30 g of the coal fly ash, which is the shortest time and lowest reaction temperature required to produce pure and ordered MCM-41 materials (having the largest internal surface area) compared to the values reported in the literature. Performance evaluation of the produced zeolite A and MCM-41 materials in wastewater treatment and air pollution control were reported. The residual fly ash was also converted to zeolite Na-P1 which showed good performance in removal of multi-metal ions in wastewater. In wastewater treatment, compared to commercial-grade zeolite A, adsorbents produced from coal fly ash were effective in removing multi heavy metal ions in water and could be an alternative material for treatment of wastewater. In methane emission abatement, the zeolite A (produced from coal fly ash) achieved similar methane removal efficiency compared to the zeolite A prepared from pure chemicals. This report provides the guidance for production of zeolite A and MCM-41 from coal fly ash by a cost-effective approach which opens potential applications of these materials in environmental industry. Finally, environmental and economic aspects of production of zeolite A and MCM-41 from coal fly ash were discussed.

Keywords: methane, Waste water, Volatile Organic Compounds, metal ions

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