Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Texture Related Publications

24 Compression Study on Velvet and Termeh in Iranian Brocade

Authors: R. Moosazadeh

Abstract:

From ancient times, in some cultures, the way of choosing the colour and pattern of the fabric, and its decoration, represents a message about their beliefs, traditions and ethnical origins. Due to the diversity of clothing in the Middle East, two special types of Iranian fabrics have been investigated. The process of knitting with a weaving-loom is always accompanied by passing the fibres of the warp in different ways. This study presented the historical investigation of brocades and explanation about traditional Iranian brocades in terms of fabric, shape, and patterns. Moreover, the compression results between characteristics of Termeh and velvet have been reported. The aim of the study was to focus on the history of fabric texture in Iran and general information about brocades and Termeh fabrics in expressions of their historical traditions. In conclusion, it is attempted to introduce knitting techniques and designed models which have been presented for this traditional and expensive Iranian fabric.

Keywords: Texture, brocade, Termeh, Velvet Braid

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23 Texture and Twinning in Selective Laser Melting Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: N. Kazantseva, P. Krakhmalev, I. Yadroitsev, A. Fefelov, N. Vinogradova, I. Ezhov, T. Kurennykh

Abstract:

Martensitic texture-phase transition in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V (ELI) alloys was found. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed the initial cubic beta < 100 > (001) BCC texture. Such kind of texture is observed in BCC metals with flat rolling texture when axis is in the direction of rolling and the texture plane coincides with the plane of rolling. It was found that the texture of the parent BCC beta-phase determined the texture of low-temperature HCP alpha-phase limited the choice of its orientation variants. The {10-12} < -1011 > twinning system in titanium alloys after SLM was determined. Analysis of the oxygen contamination in SLM alloys was done. Comparison of the obtained results with the conventional titanium alloys is also provided.

Keywords: Texture, Ti-6Al-4V, additive technology, twins, oxygen content

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22 Polishing Machine Based on High-Pressure Water Jet

Authors: Mohammad A. Khasawneh

Abstract:

The design of high pressure water jet based polishing equipment and its fabrication conducted in this study is reported herein, together with some preliminary test results for assessing its applicability for HMA surface polishing. This study also provides preliminary findings concerning the test variables, such as the rotational speed, the water jet pressure, the abrasive agent used, and the impact angel that were experimentally investigated in this study. The preliminary findings based on four trial tests (two on large slab specimens and two on small size gyratory compacted specimens), however, indicate that both friction and texture values tend to increase with the polishing durations for two combinations of pressure and rotation speed of the rotary deck. It seems that the more polishing action the specimen is subjected to; the aggregate edges are created such that the surface texture values are increased with the accompanied increase in friction values. It may be of interest (but which is outside the scope of this study) to investigate if the similar trend exist for HMA prepared with aggregate source that is sand and gravel.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Texture, friction, polishing, high-pressure, water jet

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21 Effect of Thistle Ecotype in the Physical-Chemical and Sensorial Properties of Serra da Estrela Cheese

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Paula M. R. Correia, Marlene I. C. Tenreiro, Ana C. Correia, Paulo Barracosa

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Serra da Estrela cheese and compare these results with those of the sensory analysis. For the study were taken six samples of Serra da Estrela cheese produced with 6 different ecotypes of thistle in a dairy situated in Penalva do Castelo. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture content, protein, fat, ash, chloride and pH; the physical properties studied were color and texture; and finally a sensory evaluation was undertaken. The results showed moisture varying in the range 40- 48%, protein in the range 15-20%, fat between 41-45%, ash between 3.9-5.0% and chlorides varying from 1.2 to 3.0%. The pH varied from 4.8 to 5.4. The textural properties revealed that the crust hardness is relatively low (maximum 7.3 N), although greater than flesh firmness (maximum 1.7 N), and also that these cheeses are in fact soft paste type, with measurable stickiness and intense adhesiveness. The color analysis showed that the crust is relatively light (L* over 50), and with a predominant yellow coloration (b* around 20 or over) although with a slight greenish tone (a* negative). The results of the sensory analysis did not show great variability for most of the attributes measured, although some differences were found in attributes such as crust thickness, crust uniformity, and creamy flesh.

Keywords: Texture, Chemical Composition, Color, sensorial analysis, Serra da Estrela cheese

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20 Improved Skin Detection Using Colour Space and Texture

Authors: Medjram Sofiane, Babahenini Mohamed Chaouki, Mohamed Benali Yamina

Abstract:

Skin detection is an important task for computer vision systems. A good method of skin detection means a good and successful result of the system. The colour is a good descriptor for image segmentation and classification; it allows detecting skin colour in the images. The lighting changes and the objects that have a colour similar than skin colour make the operation of skin detection difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method using the YCbCr colour space for skin detection and lighting effects elimination, then we use the information of texture to eliminate the false regions detected by the YCbCr skin model.

Keywords: Texture, skin detection, YCbCr, GLCM, Human skin

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19 In-situ Observations Using SEM-EBSD for Bending Deformation in Single-Crystal Materials

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Jun-Ichi Koyama, Yuko Matayoshi, Ying-jun Jin

Abstract:

To elucidate the material characteristics of single crystals of pure aluminum and copper, the respective relations between crystallographic orientations and microstructures were examined, along with bending and mechanical properties. The texture distribution was also analysed. Bending tests were performed in a SEM apparatus while its behaviors were observed. Some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses.

Keywords: Microstructure, Single Crystal, Texture, Bending, pure aluminum, pure copper, SEM-EBSD analysis

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18 Statistical Estimation of Spring-back Degree Using Texture Database

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Jun-Ichi Koyama, Shinsaku Kikuta

Abstract:

Using a texture database, a statistical estimation of spring-back was conducted in this study on the basis of statistical analysis. Both spring-back in bending deformation and experimental data related to the crystal orientation show significant dispersion. Therefore, a probabilistic statistical approach was established for the proper quantification of these values. Correlation was examined among the parameters F(x) of spring-back, F(x) of the buildup fraction to three orientations after 92° bending, and F(x) at an as-received part on the basis of the three-parameter Weibull distribution. Consequent spring-back estimation using a texture database yielded excellent estimates compared with experimental values.

Keywords: Database, Texture, Bending, Weibull distribution, spring-back, Crystallographic Orientation, SEM-EBSD, Statistical analysis

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17 The Effect of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Berries on Some Quality Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages

Authors: Anna M. Salejda, Urszula Tril, Grażyna Krasnowska

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyze selected quality characteristics of cooked pork sausages manufactured with the addition of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries preparations. Stuffings of model sausages consisted of pork, backfat, water and additives such a curing salt and sodium isoascorbate. Functional additives used in production process were two preparations obtained from dried Sea buckthorn berries in form of powder and brew. Powder of dried berries was added in amount of 1 and 3 g, while water infusion as a replacement of 50 and 100% ice water included in meat products formula. Control samples were produced without functional additives. Experimental stuffings were heat treated in water bath and stored for 4 weeks under cooled conditions (4±1ºC). Physical parameters of colour, texture profile and technological parameters as acidity, weight losses and water activity were estimated. The effect of Sea buckthorn berries preparations on lipid oxidation during storage of final products was determine by TBARS method.

Studies have shown that addition of Sea buckthorn preparations to meat-fatty batters significant (P≤0.05) reduced the pH values of sausages samples after thermal treatment. Moreover, the addition of berries powder caused significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in weight losses after cooking process. Analysis of results of texture profile analysis indicated, that utilization of infusion prepared from Sea buckthorn dried berries caused increase of springiness, gumminess and chewiness of final meat products. At the same time, the highest amount of Sea buckthorn berries powder in recipe caused the decrease of all measured texture parameters. Utilization of experimental preparations significantly decreased (P≤0.05) lightness (L* parameter of color) of meat products. Simultaneously, introduction of 1 and 3 grams of Sea buckthorn berries powder to meat-fatty batter increased redness (a* parameter) of samples under investigation. Higher content of substances reacting with thiobarbituric acid was observed in meat products produced without functional additives. It was observed that powder of Sea buckthorn berries added to meat-fatty batters caused higher protection against lipid oxidation in cooked sausages.

Keywords: Texture, Meat Products, lipid oxidation, sea buckthorn, color parameters

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16 Estimation of Asphalt Pavement Surfaces Using Image Analysis Technique

Authors: Mohammad A. Khasawneh

Abstract:

Asphalt concrete pavements gradually lose their skid resistance causing safety problems especially under wet conditions and high driving speeds. In order to enact the actual field polishing and wearing process of asphalt pavement surfaces in a laboratory setting, several laboratory-scale accelerated polishing devices were developed by different agencies. To mimic the actual process, friction and texture measuring devices are needed to quantify surface deterioration at different polishing intervals that reflect different stages of the pavement life. The test could still be considered lengthy and to some extent labor-intensive. Therefore, there is a need to come up with another method that can assist in investigating the bituminous pavement surface characteristics in a practical and time-efficient test procedure.

The purpose of this paper is to utilize a well-developed image analysis technique to characterize asphalt pavement surfaces without the need to use conventional friction and texture measuring devices in an attempt to shorten and simplify the polishing procedure in the lab.

Promising findings showed the possibility of using image analysis in lieu of the labor-sensitive-variable-in-nature friction and texture measurements. It was found that the exposed aggregate surface area of asphalt specimens made from limestone and gravel aggregates produced solid evidence of the validity of this method in describing asphalt pavement surfaces. Image analysis results correlated well with the British Pendulum Numbers (BPN), Polish Values (PV) and Mean Texture Depth (MTD) values.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Image Analysis, Texture, friction, polishing

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15 Proximate Composition and Textural Properties of Cooked Sausages Formulated from Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat with Addition of Chicken Offal

Authors: Branislav V. Šojić, Vladimir M. Tomović, Snežana B. Škaljac, Marija R. Jokanović, Predrag M. Ikonić, Tatjana A. Tasić, Mihajlo T. Jović

Abstract:

Proximate composition (moisture, protein, total fat, and total ash) and textural characteristics (hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and firmness and work of shear) of cooked sausages formulated from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) with addition of chicken offal (heart, gizzard or liver) were investigated. Chicken offal replaced equal weight (15 kg) of MDCM in standard sausage formulation. Regarding proximate composition sausage with heart addition was significantly (P<0.05) lower in moisture content (70.45%) than sausage with liver addition (71.35%), and significantly (P<0.05) the highest in total ash content (2.83%). Sausage with gizzard addition was significantly higher in protein content (9.77%) than sausage with liver addition (9.42%). Total fat content didn’t significantly (P>0.05) differ among all three sausages. The effect of offal addition was more notable in Warner-Bratzler shear test results than in texture profile analysis test. Firmness and work of shear were significantly different (P<0.05) among all three sausages. Sausage with liver addition was significantly (P<0.05) lower in hardness (1672 g) and chewiness (1020 g) and numerically the lowest in springiness (0.90) and adhesiveness (–70 g*s) comparing with other two sausages. Sausage with heart addition was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cohesiveness (0.74) comparing with other two sausages.

Keywords: Texture, proximate composition, Cooked sausage, mechanically deboned chicken meat, offal

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14 In-Situ EBSD Observations of Bending for Single-Crystalline Pure Copper

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Saori Yoshikawa, Hideo Morimoto

Abstract:

To understand the material characteristics of singleand poly-crystals of pure copper, the respective relationships between crystallographic orientations and microstructures, and the bending and mechanical properties were examined. And texture distribution is also analyzed. A bending test is performed in a SEM apparatus and while its behaviors are observed in situ. Furthermore, some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from EBSD analyses.

Keywords: Microstructure, Single Crystal, Texture, Bending, pure copper, SEM-EBSD Analysis

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13 Effect of Processing Methods on Texture Evolution in AZ31 Mg Alloy Sheet

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Jung-Ho Moon

Abstract:

Textures of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets were evaluated by using neutron diffraction method in this study. The AZ31 sheets were fabricated either by conventional casting and subsequent hot rolling or strip casting. The effect of warm rolling was investigated using the AZ31 Mg alloy sheet produced by conventional casting. Warm rolling of 30% thickness reduction per pass was possible without any side-crack at temperatures as low as 200oC under the roll speed of 30 m/min. The initial microstructure of conventionally cast specimen was found to be partially recrystallized structures. Grain refinement was found to occur actively during the warm rolling. The (0002),(10-10) (10-11),and (10-12) complete pole figures were measured using the HANARO FCD (Neutron Four Circle Diffractometer) and ODF were calculated. The major texture of all specimens can be expressed by ND//(0001) fiber texture. Texture of hot rolled specimen showed the strongest fiber component, while that of strip cast sheet seemed to be similar to random distribution.

Keywords: Texture, Neutron Diffraction, Mg alloy, warm rolling, Pole figure, ODF

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12 Evaluation of Texture of Packhams Pears

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Bruno L. Marques

Abstract:

The textural parameters, together with appearance and flavor, are sensory attributes of great importance for the product to be accepted by the consumer. The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the textural attributes of Packhams pears in the fresh state, after drying in a chamber with forced convection at 50ºC, lyophilized and re-hydrated. In texture analysis it was used the method of Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). The parameters analyzed were hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, elasticity and chewiness. From the results obtained is possible to see that the drying operation greatly affected some textural properties of the pears, so that the hardness diminished very much with drying, for both drying methods.

Keywords: Drying, Hardness, Texture, pear

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11 Mechanical Characteristics of Spaghetti Enriched with Whole Soy Flour

Authors: Nasehi, Mortazavi, S. A., Razavi

Abstract:

The influence of full-fat soy flour (FFSF) and extrusion conditions on the mechanical characteristics of dry spaghetti were evaluated. Process was performed with screw speed of 10-40rpm and water circulating temperature of 35-70°C. Data analysis using mixture design showed that this enrichment resulted in significant differences in mechanical strength.

Keywords: Texture, Enrichment, pasta, Mixture design

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10 Springback Property and Texture Distribution of Grained Pure Copper

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Hitoshi Omata, Jun-Ichi Koyama

Abstract:

To improve the material characteristics of single- and poly-crystals of pure copper, the respective relationships between crystallographic orientations and microstructures, and the bending and mechanical properties were examined. And texture distribution is also analyzed. A grain refinement procedure was performed to obtain a grained structure. Furthermore, some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from SEM-EBSD analyses. Results showed that these grained metallic materials have peculiar springback characteristics with various bending angles.

Keywords: Microstructure, Environmental Materials, Texture, pure copper, SEM-EBSD analysis, grain refinement

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9 Object Identification with Color, Texture, and Object-Correlation in CBIR System

Authors: Muhammad Nawaz, Muhammad Ali, Awais Adnan, Sajid Anwar, Tamleek Ali

Abstract:

Needs of an efficient information retrieval in recent years in increased more then ever because of the frequent use of digital information in our life. We see a lot of work in the area of textual information but in multimedia information, we cannot find much progress. In text based information, new technology of data mining and data marts are now in working that were started from the basic concept of database some where in 1960. In image search and especially in image identification, computerized system at very initial stages. Even in the area of image search we cannot see much progress as in the case of text based search techniques. One main reason for this is the wide spread roots of image search where many area like artificial intelligence, statistics, image processing, pattern recognition play their role. Even human psychology and perception and cultural diversity also have their share for the design of a good and efficient image recognition and retrieval system. A new object based search technique is presented in this paper where object in the image are identified on the basis of their geometrical shapes and other features like color and texture where object-co-relation augments this search process. To be more focused on objects identification, simple images are selected for the work to reduce the role of segmentation in overall process however same technique can also be applied for other images.

Keywords: Texture, Color, features, Object correlation, Geometrical shape, contents

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8 Input Textural Feature Selection By Mutual Information For Multispectral Image Classification

Authors: Driss Aboutajdine, Ahmed Hammouch, Mounir Ait kerroum

Abstract:

Texture information plays increasingly an important role in remotely sensed imagery classification and many pattern recognition applications. However, the selection of relevant textural features to improve this classification accuracy is not a straightforward task. This work investigates the effectiveness of two Mutual Information Feature Selector (MIFS) algorithms to select salient textural features that contain highly discriminatory information for multispectral imagery classification. The input candidate features are extracted from a SPOT High Resolution Visible(HRV) image using Wavelet Transform (WT) at levels (l = 1,2). The experimental results show that the selected textural features according to MIFS algorithms make the largest contribution to improve the classification accuracy than classical approaches such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

Keywords: Feature selection, Texture, Wavelet Transform, SVM classification, mutual information, SPOT Imagery

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7 An Efficient Obstacle Detection Algorithm Using Colour and Texture

Authors: Chau Nguyen Viet, Ian Marshall

Abstract:

This paper presents a new classification algorithm using colour and texture for obstacle detection. Colour information is computationally cheap to learn and process. However in many cases, colour alone does not provide enough information for classification. Texture information can improve classification performance but usually comes at an expensive cost. Our algorithm uses both colour and texture features but texture is only needed when colour is unreliable. During the training stage, texture features are learned specifically to improve the performance of a colour classifier. The algorithm learns a set of simple texture features and only the most effective features are used in the classification stage. Therefore our algorithm has a very good classification rate while is still fast enough to run on a limited computer platform. The proposed algorithm was tested with a challenging outdoor image set. Test result shows the algorithm achieves a much better trade-off between classification performance and efficiency than a typical colour classifier.

Keywords: classification, Texture, Colour, obstacle detection

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6 Hybrid Color-Texture Space for Image Classification

Authors: Driss Aboutajdine, Hassan El Maia, Ahmed Hammouch

Abstract:

This work presents an approach for the construction of a hybrid color-texture space by using mutual information. Feature extraction is done by the Laws filter with SVM (Support Vectors Machine) as a classifier. The classification is applied on the VisTex database and a SPOT HRV (XS) image representing two forest areas in the region of Rabat in Morocco. The result of classification obtained in the hybrid space is compared with the one obtained in the RGB color space.

Keywords: Texture, Color, SVM, mutual information, laws filter, hybrid space

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5 Web Pages Aesthetic Evaluation Using Low-Level Visual Features

Authors: S. Amirhassan Monadjemi, Maryam Mirdehghani

Abstract:

Web sites are rapidly becoming the preferred media choice for our daily works such as information search, company presentation, shopping, and so on. At the same time, we live in a period where visual appearances play an increasingly important role in our daily life. In spite of designers- effort to develop a web site which be both user-friendly and attractive, it would be difficult to ensure the outcome-s aesthetic quality, since the visual appearance is a matter of an individual self perception and opinion. In this study, it is attempted to develop an automatic system for web pages aesthetic evaluation which are the building blocks of web sites. Based on the image processing techniques and artificial neural networks, the proposed method would be able to categorize the input web page according to its visual appearance and aesthetic quality. The employed features are multiscale/multidirectional textural and perceptual color properties of the web pages, fed to perceptron ANN which has been trained as the evaluator. The method is tested using university web sites and the results suggested that it would perform well in the web page aesthetic evaluation tasks with around 90% correct categorization.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Texture, Web Page Design, Web Page Aesthetic, Color Spaces

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4 Multi-algorithmic Iris Authentication System

Authors: Hunny Mehrotra, Banshidhar Majhi, Phalguni Gupta

Abstract:

The paper proposes a novel technique for iris recognition using texture and phase features. Texture features are extracted on the normalized iris strip using Haar Wavelet while phase features are obtained using LOG Gabor Wavelet. The matching scores generated from individual modules are combined using sum of score technique. The system is tested on database obtained from Bath University and Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and is giving an accuracy of 95.62% and 97.66% respectively. The FAR and FRR of the combined system is also reduced comparatively.

Keywords: Fusion, Phase, Texture, iris, Haar Wavelet, Log Gabor Wavelet

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3 Content and Resources based Mobile and Wireless Video Transcoding

Authors: Ashraf M. A. Ahmad

Abstract:

Delivering streaming video over wireless is an important component of many interactive multimedia applications running on personal wireless handset devices. Such personal devices have to be inexpensive, compact, and lightweight. But wireless channels have a high channel bit error rate and limited bandwidth. Delay variation of packets due to network congestion and the high bit error rate greatly degrades the quality of video at the handheld device. Therefore, mobile access to multimedia contents requires video transcoding functionality at the edge of the mobile network for interworking with heterogeneous networks and services. Therefore, to guarantee quality of service (QoS) delivered to the mobile user, a robust and efficient transcoding scheme should be deployed in mobile multimedia transporting network. Hence, this paper examines the challenges and limitations that the video transcoding schemes in mobile multimedia transporting network face. Then handheld resources, network conditions and content based mobile and wireless video transcoding is proposed to provide high QoS applications. Exceptional performance is demonstrated in the experiment results. These experiments were designed to verify and prove the robustness of the proposed approach. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the results of various video clips with different bit rate and frame rate have been provided.

Keywords: video, content, Texture, Object Detection, temporal, Transcoding

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2 A Multiresolution Approach for Noised Texture Classification based on the Co-occurrence Matrix and First Order Statistics

Authors: M. Ben Othmen, M. Sayadi, F. Fnaiech

Abstract:

Wavelet transform provides several important characteristics which can be used in a texture analysis and classification. In this work, an efficient texture classification method, which combines concepts from wavelet and co-occurrence matrices, is presented. An Euclidian distance classifier is used to evaluate the various methods of classification. A comparative study is essential to determine the ideal method. Using this conjecture, we developed a novel feature set for texture classification and demonstrate its effectiveness

Keywords: classification, Texture, Wavelet, classifier, co-occurrence, Euclidian Distance

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1 A Computer Aided Detection (CAD) System for Microcalcifications in Mammograms - MammoScan mCaD

Authors: Kjersti Engan, Thor Ole Gulsrud, Karl Fredrik Fretheim, Barbro Furebotten Iversen, Liv Eriksen

Abstract:

Clusters of microcalcifications in mammograms are an important sign of breast cancer. This paper presents a complete Computer Aided Detection (CAD) scheme for automatic detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms. The proposed system, MammoScan μCaD, consists of three main steps. Firstly all potential microcalcifications are detected using a a method for feature extraction, VarMet, and adaptive thresholding. This will also give a number of false detections. The goal of the second step, Classifier level 1, is to remove everything but microcalcifications. The last step, Classifier level 2, uses learned dictionaries and sparse representations as a texture classification technique to distinguish single, benign microcalcifications from clustered microcalcifications, in addition to remove some remaining false detections. The system is trained and tested on true digital data from Stavanger University Hospital, and the results are evaluated by radiologists. The overall results are promising, with a sensitivity > 90 % and a low false detection rate (approx 1 unwanted pr. image, or 0.3 false pr. image).

Keywords: classification, Detection, CAD, Texture, mammogram, dictionary learning, adaptive thresholding, microcalcifications, FTCM, MammoScan μCaD, VarMet

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