Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Synchronization Related Publications

26 Time Synchronization between the eNBs in E-UTRAN under the Asymmetric IP Network

Authors: M. Kollar, A. Zieba

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a method for a time synchronization between the two eNodeBs (eNBs) in E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) network. The two eNBs are cooperating in so-called inter eNB CA (Carrier Aggregation) case and connected via asymmetrical IP network. We solve the problem by using broadcasting signals generated in E-UTRAN as synchronization signals. The results show that the time synchronization with the proposed method is possible with the error significantly less than 1 ms which is sufficient considering the time transmission interval is 1 ms in E-UTRAN. This makes this method (with low complexity) more suitable than Network Time Protocol (NTP) in the mobile applications with generated broadcasting signals where time synchronization in asymmetrical network is required.

Keywords: Synchronization, delay, IP scheduled throughput, E-UTRAN, NTP, initial burst delay, asymmetric network

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25 Synchronization of Traveling Waves within a Hollow-Core Vortex

Authors: H. Ait Abderrahmane, M. Fayed, H. D. Ng, G. H. Vatistas

Abstract:

The present paper expands details and confirms the transition mechanism between two subsequent polygonal patterns of the hollow-core vortex. Using power spectral analysis, we confirm in this work that the transition from any N-gon to (N+1)-gon pattern observed within a hollow-core vortex of shallow rotating flows occurs in two steps. The regime was quasi-periodic before the frequencies lock (synchronization). The ratios of locking frequencies were found to be equal to (N-1)/N.

Keywords: Patterns, Transition, Synchronization, swirling, quasi-periodic

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24 Synchronization of Semiconductor Laser Networks

Authors: C. Cruz-Hernández, R. M. López-Gutiérrez, L. Cardoza-Avendaño, H. Cervantes-De Ávila, J. A. Michel-Macarty, A. Arellano-Delgado, R. Carmona-Rodríguez

Abstract:

In this paper, synchronization of multiple chaotic semiconductor lasers is achieved by appealing to complex system theory. In particular, we consider dynamical networks composed by semiconductor laser, as interconnected nodes, where the interaction in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each node. An interest case is synchronized with master-slave configuration in star topology. Nodes of these networks are modeled for the laser and simulate by Matlab. These results are applicable to private communication.

Keywords: Network, Synchronization, chaotic laser

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23 Backstepping Design and Fractional Derivative Equation of Chaotic System

Authors: Ayub Khan, Net Ram Garg, Geeta Jain

Abstract:

In this paper, Backstepping method is proposed to synchronize two fractional-order systems. The simulation results show that this method can effectively synchronize two chaotic systems.

Keywords: Synchronization, backstepping method, fractional order

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22 Synchronization of a Perturbed Satellite Attitude Motion

Authors: Sadaoui Djaouida

Abstract:

In the paper, the predictive control method is proposed to control the synchronization of two perturbed satellites attitude motion. Based on delayed feedback control of continuous-time systems combines with the prediction-based method of discrete-time systems, this approach only needs a single controller to realize synchronization, which has considerable significance in reducing the cost and complexity for controller implementation.

Keywords: Predictive control, Synchronization, satellite attitude

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21 Global Chaos Synchronization of Identical and Nonidentical Chaotic Systems Using Only Two Nonlinear Controllers

Authors: ISRAR AHMAD, Azizan Bin Saaban, Adyda Binti Ibrahim, Mohammad Shehzad

Abstract:

In chaos synchronization, the main goal is to design such controller(s) that synchronizes the states of master and slave system asymptotically globally. This paper studied and investigated the synchronization problem of two identical Chen, and identical Tigan chaotic systems and two non-identical Chen and Tigan chaotic systems using Non-linear active control algorithm. In this study, based on Lyapunov stability theory and using non-linear active control algorithm, it has been shown that the proposed schemes have excellent transient performance using only two nonlinear controllers and have shown analytically as well as graphically that synchronization is asymptotically globally stable.

Keywords: Synchronization, Lyapunov stability theory, Nonlinear Active Control, Chen and Tigan Chaotic systems

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20 Synchronization of Non-Identical Chaotic Systems with Different Orders Based On Vector Norms Approach

Authors: Anis Sakly, Faouzi M'sahli, Rihab Gam

Abstract:

A new strategy of control is formulated for chaos synchronization of non-identical chaotic systems with different orders using the Borne and Gentina practical criterion associated with the Benrejeb canonical arrow form matrix, to drift the stability property of dynamic complex systems. The designed controller ensures that the state variables of controlled chaotic slave systems globally synchronize with the state variables of the master systems, respectively. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Synchronization, Non-identical chaotic systems, Different orders, Arrow form matrix

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19 A Side-Peak Cancellation Scheme for CBOC Code Acquisition

Authors: Seokho Yoon, Youngpo Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a side-peak cancellation scheme for code acquisition of composite binary offset carrier (CBOC) signals. We first model the family of CBOC signals in a generic form, and then, propose a side-peak cancellation scheme by combining correlation functions between the divided sub-carrier and received signals. From numerical results, it is shown that the proposed scheme removes the side-peak completely, and moreover, the resulting correlation function demonstrates the better power ratio performance than the CBOC autocorrelation.

Keywords: Synchronization, CBOC, side-peak, ambiguity problem

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18 Low Power Digital System for Reconfigurable Neural Recording System

Authors: Minkyu Je, Xin Liu, Peng Li, Jun Zhou, Chee Keong Ho, Xiaodan Zou

Abstract:

A digital system is proposed for low power 100- channel neural recording system in this paper, which consists of 100 amplifiers, 100 analog-to-digital converters (ADC), digital controller and baseband, transceiver for data link and RF command link. The proposed system is designed in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and 65 nm CMOS process.

Keywords: Synchronization, transceiver, Multiplex, neural recording

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17 A Robust Frequency Offset Estimation Scheme for OFDM System with Cyclic Delay Diversity

Authors: Young-Hwan You, Won-Jae Shin

Abstract:

Cyclic delay diversity (CDD) is a simple technique to intentionally increase frequency selectivity of channels for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).This paper proposes a residual carrier frequency offset (RFO) estimation scheme for OFDMbased broadcasting system using CDD. In order to improve the RFO estimation, this paper addresses a decision scheme of the amount of cyclic delay and pilot pattern used to estimate the RFO. By computer simulation, the proposed estimator is shown to benefit form propoerly chosen delay parameter and perform robustly.

Keywords: OFDM, Synchronization, cyclic delay diversity, FM system

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16 Some Remarkable Properties of a Hopfield Neural Network with Time Delay

Authors: Kelvin Rozier, Vladimir E. Bondarenko

Abstract:

It is known that an analog Hopfield neural network with time delay can generate the outputs which are similar to the human electroencephalogram. To gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of rhythm generation by the Hopfield neural networks and to study the effects of noise on their activities, we investigated the behaviors of the networks with symmetric and asymmetric interneuron connections. The neural network under the study consists of 10 identical neurons. For symmetric (fully connected) networks all interneuron connections aij = +1; the interneuron connections for asymmetric networks form an upper triangular matrix with non-zero entries aij = +1. The behavior of the network is described by 10 differential equations, which are solved numerically. The results of simulations demonstrate some remarkable properties of a Hopfield neural network, such as linear growth of outputs, dependence of synchronization properties on the connection type, huge amplification of oscillation by the external uniform noise, and the capability of the neural network to transform one type of noise to another.

Keywords: Chaos, Noise, Synchronization, Hopfield neural network

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15 Synchronization of 0.1 Hz Oscillations in Heart Rate and Blood Pressure: Application to Treatment of Myocardial Infarction Patients

Authors: M. D. Prokhorov, A. R. Kiselev, A. S. Karavaev, O. M. Posnenkova, V. I. Gridnev, V. I. Ponomarenko

Abstract:

Synchronization between 0.1 Hz oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure is studied and its change during vertical tilt is evaluated in 37 myocardial infarction patients. Two groups of patients are identified with decreased and increased, respectively, synchronization of the studied oscillations as a response to a tilt test. It is shown that assessment of synchronization of 0.1 Hz oscillations as a response to vertical tilt can be used as a guideline for selecting optimal dose of beta-blocker treatment in post-myocardial infarction patients.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, Synchronization, heart rate variability

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14 Controlled Synchronization of an Array of Nonlinear System with Time Delays

Authors: S.M. Lee, J.H. Koo, J.H. Park, S.C. Won

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose synchronization of an array of nonlinear systems with time delays. The array of systems is decomposed into isolated systems to establish appropriate Lyapunov¬Krasovskii functional. Using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a sufficient condition for the synchronization is derived in terms of LMIs(Linear Matrix Inequalities). Delayed feedback control gains are obtained by solving the sufficient condition. Numerical examples are given to show the validity the proposed method.

Keywords: Synchronization, delay, Lyapunov method, LMI

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13 Encrypted Audio Communication Based On Synchronized Unified Chaotic Systems

Authors: C. Cruz-Hernández, E.E.García-Guerrero, E. Inzunza-González, R.M. López-Gutiérrez H. Serrano-Guerrero

Abstract:

In this paper, encrypted audio communications based on synchronization of coupled unified chaotic systems in master-slave configuration is numerically studied. We transmit the encrypted audio messages by using two unsecure channels. Encoding, transmission, and decoding audio messages in chaotic communication is presented.

Keywords: Chaos, Synchronization, Audio encrypted

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12 Observer Design for Chaos Synchronization of Time-delayed Power Systems

Authors: Jui-Sheng Lin, Yi-Sung Yang, Meei-Ling Hung, Teh-Lu Liao, Jun-Juh Yan

Abstract:

The global chaos synchronization for a class of time-delayed power systems is investigated via observer-based approach. By employing the concepts of quadratic stability theory and generalized system model, a new sufficient criterion for constructing an observer is deduced. In contrast to the previous works, this paper proposes a theoretical and systematic design procedure to realize chaos synchronization for master-slave power systems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the applicability of the obtained scheme.

Keywords: Chaos, Synchronization, observer, Quadratic stability theory

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11 A Two-Channel Secure Communication Using Fractional Chaotic Systems

Authors: Long Jye Sheu, Wei Ching Chen, Yen Chu Chen, Wei Tai Weng

Abstract:

In this paper, a two-channel secure communication using fractional chaotic systems is presented. Conditions for chaos synchronization have been investigated theoretically by using Laplace transform. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a numerical example is presented. The keys, key space, key selection rules and sensitivity to keys are discussed in detail. Results show that the original plaintexts have been well masked in the ciphertexts yet recovered faithfully and efficiently by the present schemes.

Keywords: Synchronization, fractional chaotic systems, securecommunication

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10 Chaos-based Secure Communication via Continuous Variable Structure Control

Authors: Meei-Ling Hung, Teh-Lu Liao, Jun-Juh Yan, Cheng-Fang Huang, Her-Terng Yau

Abstract:

The design of chaos-based secure communication via synchronized modified Chua-s systems is investigated in this paper. A continuous control law is proposed to ensure synchronization of the master and slave modified Chua-s systems by using the variable structure control technique. Particularly, the concept of extended systems is introduced such that a continuous control input is obtained to avoid chattering phenomenon. Then, it becomes possible to ensure that the message signal embedded in the transmitter can be recovered in the receiver.

Keywords: Chaos, Synchronization, Secure Communication, Variable structure control (VSC)

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9 Synchronization Between Two Chaotic Systems: Numerical and Circuit Simulation

Authors: J. H. Park, T. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, H. Y. Jung

Abstract:

In this paper, a generalized synchronization scheme, which is called function synchronization, for chaotic systems is studied. Based on Lyapunov method and active control method, we design the synchronization controller for the system such that the error dynamics between master and slave chaotic systems is asymptotically stable. For verification of our theory, computer and circuit simulations for a specific chaotic system is conducted.

Keywords: Simulation, Chaotic systems, Synchronization, Lyapunov method

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8 Delay-range-Dependent Exponential Synchronization of Lur-e Systems with Markovian Switching

Authors: Shouming Zhong, Xia Zhou

Abstract:

The problem of delay-range-dependent exponential synchronization is investigated for Lur-e master-slave systems with delay feedback control and Markovian switching. Using Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional and nonsingular M-matrix method, novel delayrange- dependent exponential synchronization in mean square criterions are established. The systems discussed in this paper is advanced system, and takes all the features of interval systems, Itˆo equations, Markovian switching, time-varying delay, as well as the environmental noise, into account. Finally, an example is given to show the validity of the main result.

Keywords: Synchronization, Markov Chain, Brownian motion, M-matrix, delay-range-dependent, generalized Itō's formula

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7 Aspect based Reusable Synchronization Schemes

Authors: Nathar Shah

Abstract:

Concurrency and synchronization are becoming big issues as every new PC comes with multi-core processors. A major reason for Object-Oriented Programming originally was to enable easier reuse: encode your algorithm into a class and thoroughly debug it, then you can reuse the class again and again. However, when we get to concurrency and synchronization, this is often not possible. Thread-safety issues means that synchronization constructs need to be entangled into every class involved. We contributed a detailed literature review of issues and challenges in concurrent programming and present a methodology that uses the Aspect- Oriented paradigm to address this problem. Aspects will allow us to extract the synchronization concerns as schemes to be “weaved in" later into the main code. This allows the aspects to be separately tested and verified. Hence, the functional components can be weaved with reusable synchronization schemes that are robust and scalable.

Keywords: Aspect-Orientation, Synchronization, development methodologysoftware concurrency

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6 Interaction between Respiration and Low-Frequency Cardiovascular Rhythms

Authors: Vladimir I. Ponomarenko, Mikhail D. Prokhorov, Anatoly S. Karavaev

Abstract:

The interaction between respiration and low-frequency rhythms of the cardiovascular system is studied. The obtained results count in favor of the hypothesis that low-frequency rhythms in blood pressure and R-R intervals are generated in different central neural structures involved in the autonomic control of the cardiovascular systems.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, Synchronization, Blood Pressure, R-R intervals

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5 Synchronization between the Slow Oscillations in the Human Cardiovascular System

Authors: M. D. Prokhorov, A. R. Kiselev, A. S. Karavaev, V. I. Gridnev, V. I. Ponomarenko

Abstract:

Synchronization between the slow oscillations of heart rate and blood pressure having in humans a basic frequency close to 0.1 Hz is investigated. A method is proposed for quantitative estimation of synchronization between these oscillating processes based on calculation of relative time of phase synchronization of oscillations. It is shown that healthy subjects exhibit in average substantially longer epochs of synchronization between the slow oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure than patients after acute myocardial infarction

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, Synchronization, slow oscillating processes

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4 Encrypted Audio Transmission Using Synchronized Nd: YAG Lasers

Authors: R.M. López-Gutiérrez, C. Cruz-Hernández, C. Posadas-Castillo, E.E.García-Guerrero

Abstract:

Encoded information based on synchronization of coupled chaotic Nd:YAG lasers in master-slave configuration is numerically studied. Encoding, transmission, and decoding of information in optical chaotic communication with a single channel is presented. We analyze the robustness of the encrypted audio transmission in a channel noise. In order to illustrate this synchronization robustness, we present two cases of study: synchronization and transmission with a single channel without and with noise in the channel.

Keywords: Complex Networks, Chaos, Encryption, Synchronization, Nd:YAG laser, Secure coomunication

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3 A New Technique for Progressive ECG Transmission using Discrete Radon Transform

Authors: Amine Naït-Ali

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present a new method which can be used for progressive transmission of electrocardiogram (ECG). The idea consists in transforming any ECG signal to an image, containing one beat in each row. In the first step, the beats are synchronized in order to reduce the high frequencies due to inter-beat transitions. The obtained image is then transformed using a discrete version of Radon Transform (DRT). Hence, transmitting the ECG, leads to transmit the most significant energy of the transformed image in Radon domain. For decoding purpose, the receptor needs to use the inverse Radon Transform as well as the two synchronization frames. The presented protocol can be adapted for lossy to lossless compression systems. In lossy mode we show that the compression ratio can be multiplied by an average factor of 2 for an acceptable quality of reconstructed signal. These results have been obtained on real signals from MIT database.

Keywords: Synchronization, ECG compression, Discrete Radon Transform

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2 The Performance of Genetic Algorithm for Synchronized Chaotic Chen System in CDMA Satellite Channel

Authors: Salah Salmi, Karim Kemih, Malek Benslama

Abstract:

Synchronization is a difficult problem in CDMA satellite communications. Due to the influence of additive noise and fading in the mobile channel, it is not easy to keep up with the attenuation and offset. This paper considers a recently proposed approach to solve the problem of synchronization chaotic Chen system in CDMA satellite communication in the presence of constant attenuation and offset. An analytic algorithm that provides closed form channel and carrier offset estimates is presented. The principle of this approach is based on adding a compensation block before the receiver to compensate the distortion of the imperfect channel by using genetic algorithm. The resultants presented, show that the receiver is able to recover rapidly the synchronization with the transmitter.

Keywords: CDMA, Genetic Algorithm, Synchronization, Chaotic Chen system

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1 Performance of Chaotic Lu System in CDMA Satellites Communications Systems

Authors: M. Benslama, K. Kemih

Abstract:

This paper investigates the problem of spreading sequence and receiver code synchronization techniques for satellite based CDMA communications systems. The performance of CDMA system depends on the autocorrelation and cross-correlation properties of the used spreading sequences. In this paper we propose the uses of chaotic Lu system to generate binary sequences for spreading codes in a direct sequence spread CDMA system. To minimize multiple access interference (MAI) we propose the use of genetic algorithm for optimum selection of chaotic spreading sequences. To solve the problem of transmitter-receiver synchronization, we use the passivity controls. The concept of semipassivity is defined to find simple conditions which ensure boundedness of the solutions of coupled Lu systems. Numerical results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Synchronization, About Chaotic Lu system, Spreading sequence, Genetic Algorithm. Passive System

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