Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Sport Related Publications

8 Social Media as a ‘Service’ for Value Co-Creation by Integrating Sponsoring Companies, Sports Entities and Fans

Authors: Harri Jalonen

Abstract:

Social media has changed the ways we communicate, collaborate and connect with each other. It has also influenced our habits of consuming sports. Social media has allowed direct interaction between sponsoring companies, athletes/players and fans. Drawing on the service dominant logic of value co-creation, the conceptual paper identifies three operant resources which are beneficial for value co-creation: i) social identity and sense of community, ii) congruence and brand personality, and iii) participatory culture and fan activation. The paper contributes to the theoretical discussion on how social can be media used for value co-creation purposes in the sports industry.

Keywords: Social Media, Sport, Service, value co-creation

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7 An Investigation into the Social Factors that Influence Sport Participation: A Case of Gymnastics in the Western Cape

Authors: W. C. Lucas, S. Titus, M. E. M. Young

Abstract:

Gymnastics is the umbrella term that represents seven different and unique disciplines of gymnastics. Men and women of all ages and abilities practice this sport, and participation in gymnastics can develop both gross and fine motor skills, strength, flexibility, coordination and balance. There are various social factors, such as a family’s socioeconomic status or accessibility to sports facilities that may play a role in affecting levels of participation. The aim of this study is to investigate the social factors that have an influence on gymnastics participation in the Western Cape. To this end, a qualitative approach is adopted to collect data. This study also adopts the ecological systems theory as the theoretical framework, and is used to analyze and interpret current social factors that directly or indirectly influence participation in gymnastics. The study’s objectives were to ascertain which social factors hinder participation, and which social factors promote participation, thus, coaches, parents and gymnasts participated in focus group discussions. Key informant interviews took place with experts in the field of gymnastics in the Western Cape. A thematic analysis was conducted on transcriptions from the focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Social factors investigated in this study occurred in the chronosystem, macrosystem, exosystem, mesosystem, and microsystem, and had both a direct and indirect influence on the gymnast’s continued participation. These systems are defined as the environment of the individual, in which they grow and develop. The research findings of this paper are used to draw conclusions and make specific recommendations for practice and further research. The information gathered in this study can assist all stakeholders within the field of gymnastics, such as parents, judges, coaches, gymnasts, and the supporting community which surround the participating gymnast.

Keywords: Facilities, Sport, Participation, Socioeconomic Status, ecological systems theory, Gymnastics, influence, social factors, developing child, federation

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6 Modern Problems of Russian Sport Legislation

Authors: Yurlov Sergey

Abstract:

The author examines modern problems of Russian sport legislation and whether it need to be changed in order to allow all sportsmen to participate, train and have another sportsmen’s rights as Russian law mandates. The article provides an overview of Russian sport legislation problems, provides examples of foreign countries. In addition, the author suggests solutions for existing legal problems.

Keywords: Sport, amendment, legal problem, right

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5 Perceived Constraints on Sport Participation among Young Koreans in Australia

Authors: Jae Won Kang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine a broader range of sport constraints perceived by young Koreans in Australia who may need to adjust to changing behavioral expectations due to the socio-cultural transitions. Regardless of gender, in terms of quantitative findings, the most important participation constraints within the seven categories were resources, access, interpersonal, affective, religious, socio-cultural, and physical in that order. The most important constraining items were a lack of time, access, information, adaptive skills, and parental and family support in that order. Qualitative research found young Korean’s participation constraints among three categories (time, parental control and interpersonal constraints). It is possible that different ethnic groups would be constrained by different factors; however, this is outside the scope of this study.

Keywords: Sport, Constraints, cultural adjustment, Young Koreans in Australia

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4 An Investigation into the Application of Artificial Neural Networks to the Prediction of Injuries in Sport

Authors: J. McCullagh, T. Whitfort

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been used successfully in many scientific, industrial and business domains as a method for extracting knowledge from vast amounts of data. However the use of ANN techniques in the sporting domain has been limited. In professional sport, data is stored on many aspects of teams, games, training and players. Sporting organisations have begun to realise that there is a wealth of untapped knowledge contained in the data and there is great interest in techniques to utilise this data. This study will use player data from the elite Australian Football League (AFL) competition to train and test ANNs with the aim to predict the onset of injuries. The results demonstrate that an accuracy of 82.9% was achieved by the ANNs’ predictions across all examples with 94.5% of all injuries correctly predicted. These initial findings suggest that ANNs may have the potential to assist sporting clubs in the prediction of injuries.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Sport, Data, injuries

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3 Rapid Development of Sport and Sport Management at the Beginning of the Third Millennium

Authors: Irena Durdová

Abstract:

Most people know through experience and intuition what the word „sport“ means. Sport includes a combination of these configurations when it involves team competitions, tournaments, or matches in dual sports or individual sports. Sport management - it is an area of professional endeavor in which a variety of sport-related managerial careers exist and it is also an area of academic professional preparation. Exists three unique aspects of sport management: sport marketing, sport enterprise financial structures and sport industry career paths. The aim of the paper was to highlight the growing importance of sport in contemporary society, especially to emphasize its socio-economic benefits and refer to the development of sport management and marketing. The article has shown that sport contributes 2-3% to gross domestic product in the Czech Republic and that the demand for experts, specialists educated for the sports manager profession is growing.

Keywords: Marketing, Management, Sport, Sport Management

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2 The Loess Regression Relationship Between Age and BMI for both Sydney World Masters Games Athletes and the Australian National Population

Authors: Joe Walsh, Mike Climstein, Ian Timothy Heazlewood, Stephen Burke, Jyrki Kettunen, Kent Adams, Mark DeBeliso

Abstract:

Thousands of masters athletes participate quadrennially in the World Masters Games (WMG), yet this cohort of athletes remains proportionately under-investigated. Due to a growing global obesity pandemic in context of benefits of physical activity across the lifespan, the BMI trends for this unique population was of particular interest. The nexus between health, physical activity and aging is complex and has raised much interest in recent times due to the realization that a multifaceted approach is necessary in order to counteract the obesity pandemic. By investigating age based trends within a population adhering to competitive sport at older ages, further insight might be gleaned to assist in understanding one of many factors influencing this relationship.BMI was derived using data gathered on a total of 6,071 masters athletes (51.9% male, 48.1% female) aged 25 to 91 years ( =51.5, s =±9.7), competing at the Sydney World Masters Games (2009). Using linear and loess regression it was demonstrated that the usual tendency for prevalence of higher BMI increasing with age was reversed in the sample. This trend in reversal was repeated for both male and female only sub-sets of the sample participants, indicating the possibility of improved prevalence of BMI with increasing age for both the sample as a whole and these individual sub-groups.This evidence of improved classification in one index of health (reduced BMI) for masters athletes (when compared to the general population) implies there are either improved levels of this index of health with aging due to adherence to sport or possibly the reduced BMI is advantageous and contributes to this cohort adhering (or being attracted) to masters sport at older ages.

Keywords: Sport, Aging, masters athlete, Quetelet Index

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1 Variations of Body Mass Index with Age in Masters Athletes (World Masters Games)

Authors: Walsh Joe, Climstein Mike, Heazlewood Ian Timothy, Burke Stephen, Kettunen Jyrki, Adams Kent, DeBeliso Mark

Abstract:

Whilst there is growing evidence that activity across the lifespan is beneficial for improved health, there are also many changes involved with the aging process and subsequently the potential for reduced indices of health. The nexus between health, physical activity and aging is complex and has raised much interest in recent times due to the realization that a multifaceted approached is necessary in order to counteract a growing obesity epidemic. By investigating age based trends within a population adhering to competitive sport at older ages, further insight might be gleaned to assist in understanding one of many factors influencing this relationship. BMI was derived using data gathered on a total of 6,071 masters athletes (51.9% male, 48.1% female) aged 25 to 91 years ( =51.5, s =±9.7), competing at the Sydney World Masters Games (2009). Using linear and loess regression it was demonstrated that the usual tendency for prevalence of higher BMI increasing with age was reversed in the sample. This trend in reversal was repeated for both male and female only sub-sets of the sample participants, indicating the possibility of improved prevalence of BMI with increasing age for both the sample as a whole and these individual subgroups. This evidence of improved classification in one index of health (reduced BMI) for masters athletes (when compared to the general population) implies there are either improved levels of this index of health with aging due to adherence to sport or possibly the reduced BMI is advantageous and contributes to this cohort adhering (or being attracted) to masters sport at older ages. Demonstration of this proportionately under-investigated World Masters Games population having an improved relationship between BMI and increasing age over the general population is of particular interest in the context of the measures being taken globally to curb an obesity epidemic.

Keywords: Sport, Aging, masters athlete, Quetelet Index

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