Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

sphere Related Publications

2 Envelope Echo Signal of Metal Sphere in the Fresh Water

Authors: H. Ahmad, A. Mahfurdz, Sunardi

Abstract:

An envelope echo signal measurement is proposed in this paper using echo signal observation from the 200 kHz echo sounder receiver. The envelope signal without any object is compared with the envelope signal of the sphere. Two diameter size steel ball (3.1 cm & 2.2 cm) and two diameter size air filled stainless steel ball (4.8 cm & 7.4 cm) used in this experiment. The target was positioned about 0.5 m and 1.0 meter from the transducer face using nylon rope. From the echo observation in time domain, it is obviously shown that echo signal structure is different between the size, distance and type of metal sphere. The amplitude envelope voltage for the bigger sphere is higher compare to the small sphere and it confirm that the bigger sphere have higher target strength compare to the small sphere. Although the structure signal without any object are different compare to the signal from the sphere, the reflected signal from the tank floor increase linearly with the sphere size. We considered this event happened because of the object position approximately to the tank floor.

Keywords: sphere, echo sounder, target strength, echo signal

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1 Natural Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid on Solid Sphere with Newtonian Heating

Authors: A.R.M. Kasim, N.F. Mohammad, Aurangzaib, S. Sharidan

Abstract:

The present paper considers the steady free convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic fluid on solid sphere with Newtonian heating. The boundary layer equations are an order higher than those for the Newtonian (viscous) fluid and the adherence boundary conditions are insufficient to determine the solution of these equations completely. Thus, the augmentation an extra boundary condition is needed to perform the numerical computational. The governing boundary layer equations are first transformed into non-dimensional form by using special dimensionless group and then solved by using an implicit finite difference scheme. The results are displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of viscoelastic K and Prandtl Number Pr parameters on skin friction, heat transfer, velocity profiles and temperature profiles. Present results are compared with the published papers and are found to concur very well.

Keywords: boundary layer flow, viscoelastic fluid, Newtonian heating, sphere

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