Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Spectroscopy Related Publications

7 Polyvinyl Alcohol Processed Templated Polyaniline Films: Preparation, Characterization and Assessment of Tensile Strength

Authors: J. Subbalakshmi, G. Dhruvasamhith, S. M. Hussain

Abstract:

Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most extensively studied material among the conducting polymers due to its simple synthesis by chemical and electrochemical routes. PANIs have advantages of chemical stability and high conductivity making their commercial applications quite attractive. However, to our knowledge, very little work has been reported on the tensile strength properties of templated PANIs processed with polyvinyl alcohol and also, detailed study has not been carried out. We have investigated the effect of small molecule and polymers as templates on PANI. Stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of trisodium citrate (TSC), poly(ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) templated PANIs were prepared through chemical synthesis, processed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and were fabricated into films by solution casting. Absorption and infra-red spectra were studied to gain insight into the possible molecular interactions. Surface morphology was studied through scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. Interestingly, tensile testing studies revealed least strain for pure PVA when compared to the blends of templated PANI. Furthermore, among the blends, TSC templated PANI possessed maximum elasticity. The ultimate tensile strength for PVA processed, PEG-templated PANI was found to be five times more than other blends considered in this study. We establish structure–property correlation with morphology, spectral characterization and tensile testing studies.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Surface Morphology, tensile test, polyvinyl alcohol, processed films, templated polyanilines

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6 Reflectance Imaging Spectroscopy Data (Hyperspectral) for Mineral Mapping in the Orientale Basin Region on the Moon Surface

Authors: V. Sivakumar, R. Neelakantan

Abstract:

Mineral mapping on the Moon surface provides the clue to understand the origin, evolution, stratigraphy and geological history of the Moon. Recently, reflectance imaging spectroscopy plays a significant role in identifying minerals on the planetary surface in the Visible to NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard Chandrayaan-1 provides unprecedented spectral data of lunar surface to study about the Moon surface. Here we used the M3 sensor data (hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy) for analysing mineralogy of Orientale basin region on the Moon surface. Reflectance spectrums were sampled from different locations of the basin and continuum was removed using ENvironment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software. Reflectance spectra of unknown mineral composition were compared with known Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) spectra for discriminating mineralogy. Minerals like olivine, Low-Ca Pyroxene (LCP), High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) and plagioclase were identified. In addition to these minerals, an unusual type of spectral signature was identified, which indicates the probable Fe-Mg-spinel lithology in the basin region.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Moon, Hyperspectral, moon mineralogy mapper, Chandrayaan-1, orientale basin

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5 Growth and Characterization of L-Asparagine (LAS) Crystal Admixture of Paranitrophenol (PNP): A NLO Material

Authors: Grace Sahaya Sheba, P. Omegala Priyakumari, M. Gunasekaran

Abstract:

L-asparagine admixture Paranitrophenol (LAPNP) single crystals were grown successfully by solution method with slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Crystals of size 12mm×5 mm×3mm have been obtained in 15 days. The grown crystals were Brown color and transparent. The solubility of the grown samples has been found out at various temperatures. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction technique. The reflection planes of the sample were confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction study and diffraction peaks were indexed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the crystals. UV–visible absorption spectrum was recorded to study the optical transparency of grown crystal. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz–Perry powder technique and a study of its second harmonic generation efficiency in comparison with potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) has been made. The mechanical strength of the crystal was estimated by Vickers hardness test. The grown crystals were subjected to thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The dielectric behavior of the sample was also studied

Keywords: Characterization, Spectroscopy, XRD, Microhardnes, Non-linear optical materials, Solution growth

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4 Identification and Classification of Plastic Resins using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

Authors: Hamed Masoumi, Seyed Mohsen Safavi, Zahra Khani

Abstract:

In this paper, an automated system is presented for identification and separation of plastic resins based on near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. For identification and separation among resins, a "Two-Filter" identification method is proposed that is capable to distinguish among polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). Through surveying effects of parameters such as surface contamination, sample thickness, label and cap existence, it was obvious that the "Two-Filter" method has a high efficiency in identification of resins. It is shown that accurate identification and separation of five major resins can be obtained through calculating the relative reflectance at two wavelengths in the NIR region.

Keywords: separation, Identification, Plastic, Spectroscopy, near infrared

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3 Rigorous Electromagnetic Model of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging Applied to Automated Histology of Prostate Tissue Specimens

Authors: Rohith K Reddy, David Mayerich, Michael Walsh, P Scott Carney, Rohit Bhargava

Abstract:

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging technique that provides both chemically and spatially resolved information. The rich chemical content of data may be utilized for computer-aided determinations of structure and pathologic state (cancer diagnosis) in histological tissue sections for prostate cancer. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of prostate tissue has shown that tissue type (histological) classification can be performed to a high degree of accuracy [1] and cancer diagnosis can be performed with an accuracy of about 80% [2] on a microscopic (≈ 6μm) length scale. In performing these analyses, it has been observed that there is large variability (more than 60%) between spectra from different points on tissue that is expected to consist of the same essential chemical constituents. Spectra at the edges of tissues are characteristically and consistently different from chemically similar tissue in the middle of the same sample. Here, we explain these differences using a rigorous electromagnetic model for light-sample interaction. Spectra from FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of chemically heterogeneous samples are different from bulk spectra of individual chemical constituents of the sample. This is because spectra not only depend on chemistry, but also on the shape of the sample. Using coupled wave analysis, we characterize and quantify the nature of spectral distortions at the edges of tissues. Furthermore, we present a method of performing histological classification of tissue samples. Since the mid-infrared spectrum is typically assumed to be a quantitative measure of chemical composition, classification results can vary widely due to spectral distortions. However, we demonstrate that the selection of localized metrics based on chemical information can make our data robust to the spectral distortions caused by scattering at the tissue boundary.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Imaging, Infrared, Tissue classification

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2 Efficient Preparation and Characterization of Carbohydrate Based Monomers. D-mannose Derivatives

Authors: L. M. Stefan, A. M. Pana, M. Silion, M. Balan, G. Bandur, L. M. Rusnac

Abstract:

The field of polymeric biomaterials is very important from the socio-economical viewpoint. Synthetic carbohydrate polymers are being increasingly investigated as biodegradable, biocompatible and biorenewable materials. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize some derivatives based on D-mannose. D-mannose was chemically modified to obtain 1-O-allyl-2,3:5,6-di- O-isopropylidene-D-mannofuranose and 1-O-(2-,3--epoxy-propyl)- 2,3:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannofuranose. The chemical structure of the resulting compounds was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, and by HPLC-MS.

Keywords: Synthesis, Spectroscopy, Biopolymers, D-mannose

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1 Automatic Deactivation in Phased Array Probe for Human Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5T

Authors: Fotios N. Vlachos, Anastasios D. Garetsos, Nikolaos K. Uzunoglu, Efstathios D. Gotsis

Abstract:

A four element prototype phased array surface probe has been designed and constructed to improve clinical human prostate spectroscopic data. The probe consists of two pairs of adjacent rectangular coils with an optimum overlap to reduce the mutual inductance. The two pairs are positioned on the anterior and the posterior pelvic region and two couples of varactors at the input of each coil undertake the procedures of tuning and matching. The probe switches off and on automatically during the consecutive phases of the MR experiment with the use of an analog switch that is triggered by a microcontroller. Experimental tests that were carried out resulted in high levels of tuning accuracy. Also, the switching mechanism functions properly for various applied loads and pulse sequence characteristics, producing only 10 μs of latency.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, phased array, Automatic tuning, prostate imaging

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