Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

solubility Related Publications

11 Simulation Study of Asphaltene Deposition and Solubility of CO2 in the Brine during Cyclic CO2 Injection Process in Unconventional Tight Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Sun Lu, Syed Jamal-Ud-Din, Xinzhe Zhao

Abstract:

A compositional reservoir simulation model (CMG-GEM) was used for cyclic CO2 injection process in unconventional tight reservoir. Cyclic CO2 injection is an enhanced oil recovery process consisting of injection, shut-in, and production. The study of cyclic CO2 injection and hydrocarbon recovery in ultra-low permeability reservoirs is mainly a function of rock, fluid, and operational parameters. CMG-GEM was used to study several design parameters of cyclic CO2 injection process to distinguish the parameters with maximum effect on the oil recovery and to comprehend the behavior of cyclic CO2 injection in tight reservoir. On the other hand, permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation is one of the major issues in the oil industry due to its plugging onto the porous media which reduces the oil productivity. In addition to asphaltene deposition, solubility of CO2 in the aquifer is one of the safest and permanent trapping techniques when considering CO2 storage mechanisms in geological formations. However, the effects of the above uncertain parameters on the process of CO2 enhanced oil recovery have not been understood systematically. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to study the most significant parameters which dominate the process. The main objective of this study is to improve techniques for designing cyclic CO2 injection process while considering the effects of asphaltene deposition and solubility of CO2 in the brine in order to prevent asphaltene precipitation, minimize CO2 emission, optimize cyclic CO2 injection, and maximize oil production.

Keywords: reservoir simulation, Tight Reservoirs, solubility, asphaltene, cyclic O₂ injection

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10 Using Phase Equilibrium Theory to Calculate Solubility of γ-Oryzanol in Supercritical CO2

Authors: Boy Arief Fachri

Abstract:

Even its content is rich in antioxidants ϒ-oryzanol, rice bran is not used properly as functional food. This research aims to (1) extract ϒ-oryzanol; (2) determine the solubility of ϒ-oryzanol in supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium theory; and (3) study the effect of process variables on solubility. Extraction experiments were carried out for rice bran (5 g) at various extraction pressures, temperatures and reaction times. The flowrate of supercritical fluid through the extraction vessel was 25 g/min. The extracts were collected and analysed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conclusion based on the experiments are as: (1) The highest experimental solubility was 0.303 mcg/mL RBO at T= 60°C, P= 90 atm, t= 30 min; (2) Solubility of ϒ-oryzanol was influenced by pressure and temperature. As the pressure and temperature increase, the solubility increases; (3) The solubility data of supercritical extraction can be successfully determined using phase equilibrium theory. Meanwhile, tocopherol was found and slightly investigated in this work.

Keywords: solubility, supercritical CO2, rice bran, ϒ-orizanol

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9 Thermo-Physical Properties and Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine Activated Aqueous Solutions of β-Alanine

Authors: Ghulam Murshid

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gas (GHG) contributors. It is an obligation of the industry to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emission to the acceptable limits. Tremendous research and studies are reported in the past and still the quest to find the suitable and economical solution of this problem needed to be explored in order to develop the most plausible absorber for carbon dioxide removal. Amino acids can be potential alternate solvents for carbon dioxide capture from gaseous streams. This is due to its ability to resist oxidative degradation, low volatility and its ionic structure. In addition, the introduction of promoter-like piperazine to amino acid helps to further enhance the solubility. In this work, the effect of piperazine on thermo physical properties and solubility of β-Alanine aqueous solutions were studied for various concentrations. The measured physicochemical properties data was correlated as a function of temperature using least-squares method and the correlation parameters are reported together with it respective standard deviations. The effect of activator piperazine on the CO2 loading performance of selected amino acid under high-pressure conditions (1bar to 10bar) at temperature range of (30 to 60)oC was also studied. Solubility of CO2 decreases with increasing temperature and increases with increasing pressure. Quadratic representation of solubility using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) shows that the most important parameter to optimize solubility is system pressure. The addition of promoter increases the solubility effect of the solvent.

Keywords: Global Warming, CO2, Amino Acids, solubility

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8 Ferrites of the MeFe2O4 System (Me – Zn, Cu, Cd) and Their Two Faces

Authors: B. S. Boyanov, A. B. Peltekov, K. I. Ivanov

Abstract:

The ferrites ZnFe2O4, CdFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 are synthesized in laboratory conditions using ceramic technology. Their homogeneity and structure are proven by X-Ray diffraction analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The synthesized ferrites are subjected to strong acid and high temperature leaching with solutions of H2SO4, HCl and HNO3. The results indicate that the highest degree of leaching of Zn, Cd and Cu from the ferrites is achieved by use of HCl. The charging of five zinc sulfide concentrates was optimized using the criterion of minimal amount of zinc ferrite produced when roasting the concentrates in a fluidized bed. The results obtained are interpreted in terms of the hydrometallurgical zinc production and maximum recovery of zinc, copper and cadmium from initial zinc concentrates after their roasting.

Keywords: Hydrometallurgy, solubility, inorganic acids, zinc ferrite

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7 Studies on the Applicability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in Prediction of Thermodynamic Behavior of Sodium Chloride Aqueous System Containing a Non-Electrolytes

Authors: Dariush Jafari, S. Mostafa Nowee

Abstract:

In this study a ternary system containing sodium chloride as solute, water as primary solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent was considered to investigate the application of artificial neural network (ANN) in prediction of sodium solubility in the mixture of water as the solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent. The system was previously studied using by Extended UNIQUAC model by the authors of this study. The comparison between the results of the two models shows an excellent agreement between them (R2=0.99), and also approves the capability of ANN to predict the thermodynamic behavior of ternary electrolyte systems which are difficult to model.

Keywords: Thermodynamic Modeling, solubility, ANN, ternary electrolyte system

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6 Prediction of the Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Supercritical CO2 Using the PC-SAFT EoS

Authors: Alireza Shariati, Hamidreza Bagheri

Abstract:

There are many difficulties in the purification of raw components and products. However, researchers are seeking better ways for purification. One of the recent methods is extraction using supercritical fluids. In this study, the phase equilibria of benzoic acid -supercritical carbon dioxide system were investigated. Regarding the phase equilibria of this system, the modeling of solid-supercritical fluid behavior was performed using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) and Peng-Robinson equations of state (PR EoS). For this purpose, five PC-SAFT EoS parameters for pure benzoic acid were obtained using its experimental vapor pressure. Benzoic acid has association sites and the behavior of the benzoic acid-supercritical fluid system was well predicted using both equations of state, while the binary interaction parameter values for PR EoS were negative. Genetic algorithm, which is one of the most accurate global optimization algorithms, was also used to optimize the pure benzoic acid parameters and the binary interaction parameters. The AAD% value for the PC-SAFT EoS, were 0.22 for the carbon dioxide-benzoic acid system.

Keywords: Solid, Genetic Algorithm, solubility, supercritical fluids, PC-SAFT EoS

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5 Influence of Natural Gum on Curcumin Supersaturation in Gastrointestinal Fluids

Authors: Patcharawalai Jaisamut, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee, Kamonthip Wiwattanawongsa

Abstract:

Supersaturation of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract is one approach to increase the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The stabilization of a supersaturated state was achieved by adding precipitation inhibitors that may act through a variety of mechanisms. In this study, the effect of the natural gums, acacia, gelatin, pectin and tragacanth on curcumin supersaturation in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) (pH 1.2), fasted state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) (pH 1.6), and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) (pH 6.8) was investigated. The results indicated that all natural gums significantly increased the curcumin solubility (about 1.2-6-fold) when compared to the absence of gum, and assisted in maintaining the supersaturated drug solution. Among the tested gums, pectin at 3% w/w was the best precipitation inhibitor with a significant increase in the degree of supersaturation about 3-fold in SGF, 2.4-fold in FaSSGF and 2-fold in SIF.

Keywords: Curcumin, Supersaturation, solubility, precipitation inhibitor

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4 Intermolecular Dynamics between Alcohols and Fatty Acid Ester Solvents

Authors: Edison Muzenda, Jacques J. Scheepers

Abstract:

This work focused on the interactions which occur between ester solvents and alcohol solutes. The alcohols selected ranged from the simplest alcohol (methanol) to C10-alcohols, and solubility predictions in the form of infinite dilution activity coefficients were made using the Modified UNIFAC Dortmund group contribution model. The model computation was set up on a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet specifically designed for this purpose. It was found that alcohol/ ester interactions yielded an increase in activity coefficients (i.e. became less soluble) with an increase in the size of the ester solvent molecule. Furthermore, activity coefficients decreased with an increase in the size of the alcohol solute. The activity coefficients also decreased with an increase in the degree of unsaturation of the ester hydrocarbon tail. Tertiary alcohols yielded lower activity coefficients than primary alcohols. Finally, cyclic alcohols yielded higher activity coefficients than straight-chain alcohols until a point is reached where the trend is reversed, referred to as the ‘crossover’ point.

Keywords: Alcohols, solubility, esters, activity coefficients, UNIFAC, van der Waals

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3 Investigation of Dimethyl Ether Solubility in Liquid Hexadecane by UNIFAC Method

Authors: F. Raouf, M. Taghizadeh

Abstract:

It is shown that a modified UNIFAC model can be applied to predict solubility of hydrocarbon gases and vapors in hydrocarbon solvents. Very good agreement with experimental data has been achieved. In this work we try to find best way for predicting dimethyl ether solubility in liquid paraffin by using group contribution theory.

Keywords: solubility, UNIFAC, Henry's law, Group contribution theory

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2 Solubility of CO2 in Aqueous Solutions of 2- Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol at High Pressure

Authors: Ghulam Murshid, Azmi Mohd Shariff, K.K. Lau, Mohammad Azmi Bustam, Faizan Ahamd

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is one of the major green house gases. It is removed from different streams using amine absorption process. Sterically hindered amines are suggested as good CO2 absorbers. Solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured in aqueous solutions of 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) at temperatures 30 oC, 40 oC and 60 oC. The effect of pressure and temperature was studied over various concentrations of AMP. It has been found that pressure has positive effect on CO2 solubility where as solubility decreased with increasing temperature. Absorption performance of AMP increased with increasing pressure. Solubility of aqueous AMP was compared with mo-ethanolamine (MEA) and the absorption capacity of aqueous solutions of AMP was found to be better.

Keywords: Global Warming, Carbon Dioxide, solubility, amine

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1 Release of Elements in Bottom Ash and Fly Ash from Incineration of Peat- and Wood-Residues using a Sequential Extraction Procedure

Authors: Kati Manskinen, Risto Pöykiö, Hannu Nurmesniemi, Olli Dahl, Mikko Mäkelä

Abstract:

When the results of the total element concentrations using USEPA method 3051A are compared to the sequential extraction analyses (i.e. the sum of fractions BCR1, BCR2 and BRC3), it can be calculated that the recovery values of elements varied between 56.8-% and 69.4-% in the bottom ash, and between 11.3-% and 70.9-% in the fly ash. This indicates that most of the elements in the ashes do not occur as readily soluble forms.

Keywords: Waste, Leaching, solubility, ash, BCR

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