Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

solid state fermentation Related Publications

6 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation

Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid

Abstract:

This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, immobilization, tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification

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5 Industrial Production and Clinical Application of L-Asparaginase: A Chemotherapeutic Agent

Authors: Ajay Kumar, Jitendra Singh, Sitansu Kumar Verma, Soni Yadav

Abstract:

This article comprises detail information about L-asparaginase, encompassing topic such as various sources of L-asparaginase, mechanism and properties of L-asparaginase. Also describe the production, cultivation and purification of L-asparaginase along with information about the application of L-asparaginase. L-asparaginase catalyzes the conversion reaction to convert asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. Asparagine is a nutritional requirement for both normal and tumor cell. Present scenario has found that L-asparaginase has been found to be a best anti tumor or antileukemic agent. In the recent years this enzyme gained application in the field of clinical research pharmacologic and food industry. It has been characterized based on the enzyme assay principle hydrolyzing L-asparagine into L-aspartic acid and ammonia. It has been observed that eukaryotic microorganisms such as yeast and filamentous fungi have a potential for L-asparaginase production. L-asparaginase has been and is still one of the most lengthily studied therapeutic enzymes by scientist and researchers worldwide.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, antitumor, l-asparaginase, chemotherapeutic

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4 Solid-State Bioconversion of Pineapple Residues into Kojic Acid by Aspergillus flavus: A Prospective Study

Authors: S. Nurashikin, E. Z. Rusley, A. Husaini

Abstract:

Kojic acid is an organic acid that is widely used as an ingredient for dermatological products, precursor for flavor enhancer and also as anti-inflammatory drug. The present study was undertaken to test the feasibility of pineapple residues as substrate for kojic acid production by Aspergillus flavus Link 44-1 via solid-state fermentation. The effect of initial moisture content, pH and incubation time on kojic acid fermentation was investigated. The best initial moisture content for kojic acid production from pineapple residues was observed at 70% (v/w) whereas initial culture pH 2.5 was identified to give high production of kojic acid. The optimal range of incubation time was identified between 8 and 14 days of incubation which corresponded to highest range of kojic acid produced. The results from this study pronounce the promising usability of pineapple residues as alternative substrate for kojic acid production by A. flavus Link 44-1.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Aspergillus flavus, kojic acid, pineapple residues

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3 Solid State Fermentation of Cassava Peel with Trichoderma viride (ATCC 36316) for Protein Enrichment

Authors: Olufunke O. Ezekiel, Ogugua C. Aworh

Abstract:

Solid state fermentation of cassava peel with emphasis on protein enrichment using Trichoderma viride was evaluated. The effect of five variables: moisture content, pH, particle size (p), nitrogen source and incubation temperature; on the true protein and total sugars of cassava peel was investigated. The optimum fermentation period was established to be 8 days. Total sugars were 5-fold higher at pH 6 relative to pH 4 and 7-fold higher when cassava peels were fermented at 30oC relative to 25oC as well as using ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source relative to urea or a combination of both. Total sugars ranged between 123.21mg/g at 50% initial moisture content to 374mg/g at 60% and from 190.59mg/g with particle size range of 2.00>p>1.41mm to 310.10mg/g with 4.00>p>3.35mm.True protein ranged from 229.70 mg/g at pH 4 to 284.05 mg/g at pH 6; from 200.87 mg/g with urea as nitrogen source and to 254.50mg/g with ammonium sulfate; from 213.82mg/g at 50% initial moisture content to 254.50mg/g at 60% moisture content, from 205.75mg/g in cassava peel with 5.6>p> 4.75mm to 268.30 in cassava peel with particle size 4.00>p>3.35mm, from 207.57mg/g at 25oC to 254.50mg/g at 30oC Cassava peel with particle size 4.00>p>3.35 mm and initial moisture content of 60% at pH 6.0, 30oC incubation temperature with ammonium sulfate (10g N / kg substrate) was most suitable for protein enrichment with Trichoderma viride. Crude protein increased from 4.21 % in unfermented cassava peel samples to 10.43 % in fermented samples.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Trichoderma viride, Cassava peel, Total sugars, True protein

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2 Optimization of Growth Conditions for Acidic Protease Production from Rhizopus oligosporus through Solid State Fermentation of Sunflower Meal

Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Abdul Rauf, Muhammad Nadeem, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal

Abstract:

Rhizopus oligosporus was used in the present study for the production of protease enzyme under SSF. Sunflower meal was used as by-product of oil industry incorporated with organic salts was employed for the production of protease enzyme. The main purpose of the present was to study different parameters of protease productivity, its yields and to optimize basal fermentation conditions. The optimal conditions found for protease production using sunflower meal as a substrate in the present study were inoculum size (1%), substrate (Sunflower meal), substrate concentration (20 g), pH (3), cultivation period (72 h), incubation temperature (35oC), substrate to diluent-s ratio (1:2) and tween 81 (1 mL). The maximum production of protease in the presence of cheaper substrate at low concentration and stability at acidic pH, these characteristics make the strain and its enzymes useful in different industry.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Acidic protease, Rhizopus oligosporus, Mediaoptimization

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1 Production of Milk Clotting Protease by Rhizopus Stolonifer through Optimization of Culture Conditions

Authors: S. Gais, F. Fazouane, A. Mechakra

Abstract:

The present study describes the biosynthesis of a milkclotting protease by solid state fermentation (SSF) of a locally isolated mould, Rhizopus stolonifer. The production medium was prepared using wheat bran at 50% (w/v). The production conditions are optimized by varying 7 parameters: carbon and nitrogen sources, medium moisture, temperature, pH, fermentation time and inoculum-s size. The maximum enzyme synthesis was measured after 96 h of incubation time at temperature of 28°C. The optimum pH determined was 6 and the inoculum size was 3.106spores/ml. The optimum initial moisture content is comprised between 50 to 70%. The formation of milk clotting protease is enhanced when galactose and peptone are used at 10% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) concentrations respectively. The maximum production of milk clotting protease is 120 US/ml.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Milk clotting activity, protease production, Rhizopus stolonifer

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