Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

shock wave Related Publications

11 Desktop High-Speed Aerodynamics by Shallow Water Analogy in a Tin Box for Engineering Students

Authors: Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

In this paper, we show shallow water in a tin box as an analogous simulation tool for high-speed aerodynamics education and research. It is customary that we use a water tank to create shallow water flow. While a flow in a water tank is not necessarily uniform and is sometimes wavy, we can visualize a clear supercritical flow even when we move a body manually in stationary water in a simple shallow tin box. We can visualize a blunt shock wave around a moving circular cylinder together with a shock pattern around a diamond airfoil. Another interesting analogous experiment is a hydrodynamic shock tube with water and tea. We observe the contact surface clearly due to color difference of the two liquids those are invisible in the real gas dynamics experiment. We first revisit the similarities between high-speed aerodynamics and shallow water hydraulics. Several educational and research experiments are then introduced for engineering students. Shallow water experiments in a tin box simulate properly the high-speed flows.

Keywords: Hydraulics, Gas dynamics, shock wave, aerodynamics compressible flow

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10 Hypersonic Flow of CO2-N2 Mixture around a Spacecraft during the Atmospheric Reentry

Authors: Rabah Haoui, Zineddine Bouyahiaoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the chemical and vibrational nonequilibrium flow. This work concerns the entry of spacecraft in the atmosphere of the planet Mars. Since the equations involved are non-linear partial derivatives, the volume method is the only way to solve this problem. The choice of the mesh and the CFL is a condition for the convergence to have the stationary solution.

Keywords: Hypersonic Flow, blunt body, shock wave, nonequilibrium flow

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9 Effect of Atmospheric Pressure on the Flow at the Outlet of a Propellant Nozzle

Authors: R. Haoui

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to simulate the flow at the exit of Vulcan 1 engine of European launcher Ariane 5. The geometry of the propellant nozzle is already determined using the characteristics method. The pressure in the outlet section of the nozzle is less than atmospheric pressure on the ground, causing the existence of oblique and normal shock waves at the exit. During the rise of the launcher, the atmospheric pressure decreases and the shock wave disappears. The code allows the capture of shock wave at exit of nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer to ensure convergence and avoid the calculation instabilities. The Courant, Friedrichs and Lewy coefficient (CFL) and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence. The nonlinear partial derivative equations system which governs this flow is solved by an explicit unsteady numerical scheme by the finite volume method. The accuracy of the solution depends on the size of the mesh and also the step of time used in the discretized equations. We have chosen in this study the mesh that gives us a stationary solution with good accuracy.

Keywords: Supersonic Flow, finite volume, shock wave, nozzles, Launchers

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8 Interaction between Unsteady Supersonic Jet and Vortex Rings

Authors: Kazumasa Kitazono, Hiroshi Fukuoka, Nao Kuniyoshi, Minoru Yaga, Eri Ueno, Naoaki Fukuda, Toshio Takiya

Abstract:

The unsteady supersonic jet formed by a shock tube with a small high-pressure chamber was used as a simple alternative model for pulsed laser ablation. Understanding the vortex ring formed by the shock wave is crucial in clarifying the behavior of unsteady supersonic jet discharged from an elliptical cell. Therefore, this study investigated the behavior of vortex rings and a jet. The experiment and numerical calculation were conducted using the schlieren method and by solving the axisymmetric two-dimensional compressible Navier–Stokes equations, respectively. In both, the calculation and the experiment, laser ablation is conducted for a certain duration, followed by discharge through the exit. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to demonstrate the effect of pressure ratio on the interaction among vortex rings and the supersonic jet. The interaction between the supersonic jet and the vortex rings increased the velocity of the supersonic jet up to the magnitude of the velocity at the center of the vortex rings. The interaction between the vortex rings increased the velocity at the center of the vortex ring.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, shock wave, unsteady jet, vortex ring

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7 Thrust Vectoring Control of Supersonic Flow Through an Orifice Injector

Authors: Ibrahim Mnafeg, Azgal Abichou, Lotfi Beji

Abstract:

Traditional mechanical control systems in thrust vectoring are efficient in rocket thrust guidance but their costs and their weights are excessive. The fluidic injection in the nozzle divergent constitutes an alternative procedure to achieve the goal. In this paper, we present a 3D analytical model for fluidic injection in a supersonic nozzle integrating an orifice. The fluidic vectoring uses a sonic secondary injection in the divergent. As a result, the flow and interaction between the main and secondary jet has built in order to express the pressure fields from which the forces and thrust vectoring are deduced. Under various separation criteria, the present analytical model results are compared with the existing numerical and experimental data from the literature.

Keywords: nozzle, flow separation, shock wave, fluidic thrust vectoring, secondary jet

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6 Aerodynamic Designing of Supersonic Centrifugal Compressor Stages

Authors: Y. Galerkin, A. Rekstin, K. Soldatova

Abstract:

Universal modeling method well proven for industrial compressors was applied for design of the high flow rate supersonic stage. Results were checked by ANSYS CFX and NUMECA Fine Turbo calculations. The impeller appeared to be very effective at transonic flow velocities. Stator elements efficiency is acceptable at design Mach numbers too. Their loss coefficient versus inlet flow angle performances correlates well with Universal modeling prediction. The impeller demonstrates ability of satisfactory operation at design flow rate. Supersonic flow behavior in the impeller inducer at the shroud blade to blade surface Φ des deserves additional study.

Keywords: loss coefficient, return channel, inlet flow angle, centrifugal compressor stage, supersonic impeller, shock wave, vane diffuser

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5 Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Shape Effect on Shock Wave in Natural Gas Processing

Authors: Esam I. Jassim, Mohamed M. Awad

Abstract:

Natural gas flow contains undesirable solid particles, liquid condensation, and/or oil droplets and requires reliable removing equipment to perform filtration. Recent natural gas processing applications are demanded compactness and reliability of process equipment. Since conventional means are sophisticated in design, poor in efficiency, and continue lacking robust, a supersonic nozzle has been introduced as an alternative means to meet such demands. A 3-D Convergent-Divergent Nozzle is simulated using commercial Code for pressure ratio (NPR) varies from 1.2 to 2. Six different shapes of nozzle are numerically examined to illustrate the position of shock-wave as such spot could be considered as a benchmark of particle separation. Rectangle, triangle, circular, elliptical, pentagon, and hexagon nozzles are simulated using Fluent Code with all have same cross-sectional area. The simple one-dimensional inviscid theory does not describe the actual features of fluid flow precisely as it ignores the impact of nozzle configuration on the flow properties. CFD Simulation results, however, show that nozzle geometry influences the flow structures including location of shock wave. The CFD analysis predicts shock appearance when p01/pa>1.2 for almost all geometry and locates at the lower area ratio (Ae/At). Simulation results showed that shock wave in Elliptical nozzle has the farthest distance from the throat among the others at relatively small NPR. As NPR increases, hexagon would be the farthest. The numerical result is compared with available experimental data and has shown good agreement in terms of shock location and flow structure.

Keywords: CFD, supersonic nozzle, shock wave, particle separation

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4 An Eulerian Numerical Method and its Application to Explosion Problems

Authors: Li Hao, Yan Zhang, Jingan Cui

Abstract:

The Eulerian numerical method is proposed to analyze the explosion in tunnel. Based on this method, an original software M-MMIC2D is developed by Cµ program language. With this software, the explosion problem in the tunnel with three expansion-chambers is numerically simulated, and the results are found to be in full agreement with the observed experimental data.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Tunnel, shock wave, Eulerian method

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3 Underwater Interaction of 1064 nm Laser Radiation with Metal Target

Authors: G. Toker, V. Bulatov, T. Kovalchuk, I. Schechter

Abstract:

Dynamics of laser radiation – metal target interaction in water at 1064 nm by applying Mach-Zehnder interference technique was studied. The mechanism of generating the well developed regime of evaporation of a metal surface and a spherical shock wave in water is proposed. Critical intensities of the NIR for the well developed evaporation of silver and gold targets were determined. Dynamics of shock waves was investigated for earlier (dozens) and later (hundreds) nanoseconds of time. Transparent expanding plasma-vapor-compressed water object was visualized and measured. The thickness of compressed layer of water and pressures behind the front of a shock wave for later time delays were obtained from the optical treatment of interferograms.

Keywords: laser, Underwater, shock wave, metal target

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2 Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability and Gas-Particle Interaction of Contoured Shock-Tube Flows: A Numerical Study

Authors: Yi Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is utilized to characterize a prototype biolistic delivery system, the biomedical device based on the contoured-shock-tube design (CST), with the aim at investigating shocks induced flow instabilities within the contoured shock tube. The shock/interface interactions, the growth of perturbation at an interface between two fluids of different density are interrogated. The key features of the gas dynamics and gas-particle interaction are discussed

Keywords: Supersonic, Simulation, Particle, Interface, shock wave, Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

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1 Numerical Simulation of Inviscid Transient Flows in Shock Tube and its Validations

Authors: Al-Falahi Amir, Yusoff M. Z, Yusaf T

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to develop a new two dimensional time accurate Euler solver for shock tube applications. The solver was developed to study the performance of a newly built short-duration hypersonic test facility at Universiti Tenaga Nasional “UNITEN" in Malaysia. The facility has been designed, built, and commissioned for different values of diaphragm pressure ratios in order to get wide range of Mach number. The developed solver uses second order accurate cell-vertex finite volume spatial discretization and forth order accurate Runge-Kutta temporal integration and it is designed to simulate the flow process for similar driver/driven gases (e.g. air-air as working fluids). The solver is validated against analytical solution and experimental measurements in the high speed flow test facility. Further investigations were made on the flow process inside the shock tube by using the solver. The shock wave motion, reflection and interaction were investigated and their influence on the performance of the shock tube was determined. The results provide very good estimates for both shock speed and shock pressure obtained after diaphragm rupture. Also detailed information on the gasdynamic processes over the full length of the facility is available. The agreements obtained have been reasonable.

Keywords: CFD, shock wave, shock tunnel, shock tube

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