Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

shear wall Related Publications

9 The Effect of Shear Wall Positions on the Seismic Response of Frame-Wall Structures

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

The configuration of shear walls in plan of building will affect the seismic design of structure. The position of these walls will change the stiffness of each floor in the structure, the diaphragm center of mass displacement, and the drift of floor. Structural engineers preferred to distribute the walls in buildings to make the center of mass almost close enough to the center of rigidity, but to make this condition satisfied, they have many choices: construct the walls on the perimeter, or use intermediate walls, or use walls as core. In this paper and by using ETABS, each case is studied and compared to other cases according to three parameters: lateral stiffness, diaphragm displacement, and drift. It is found that the core walls are the best choice for the position of the walls in the buildings to resist earthquake loads.

Keywords: Seismic, Reinforced Concrete, Stiffness, lateral loads, shear wall, drift, lateral displacement, ACI code, ASCE7-16 code

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8 Effect of Shear Wall Openings on the Fundamental Period of Shear Wall Structures

Authors: A. Touqan, Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

A common approach in resisting lateral forces is the use of reinforced concrete shear walls in buildings. These walls represent the main elements to resist the lateral forces due to their large strength and stiffness. However, such walls may contain many openings due to functional requirements, and this may largely affect the overall lateral stiffness of them. It is thus of prime importance to quantify the effect of openings on the dynamic performance of the shear walls. SAP2000 structural analysis program is used as a main source after verifying the results. This study is made by using linear elastic analysis. The results are compared to ASCE7-16 code empirical equations for estimating the fundamental period of shear wall structures. Finally, statistical regression is used to fit an equation for estimating the increase in the fundamental period of shear-walled regular structures due to windows openings in the walls.

Keywords: Concrete, modal analysis, Earthquake-Resistant Design, SAP2000, finite element, shear wall, fundamental period, linear analysis, Rayleigh, lateral stiffness, ASCE7-16

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7 The Effect of Cracking on Stiffness of Shear Walls under Lateral Loads

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

The lateral stiffness of buildings is one of the most important properties which define resistance to displacements under lateral loads. Moreover, it has a great impact on the natural period of the structures. Different stiffness’s values can ultimately affect the behavior of the structure under the seismic load and the lateral forces that will be applied to it. In this study the effect of cracking is studied on 2D shell thin cantilever shear wall by using ETABS. Multi linear elastic analysis is conducted with the ACI stiffness modifiers for each analysis step. The results showed that the cracks affect the value of the drift especially at the top of the high rise buildings and this will change the lateral stiffness and so change the fundamental period of the structures which lead to change in the applied shear force that comes from the earthquake. Finally, this study emphasizes that the finite element method can be considered as a good tool to predict the tensile stresses in the elements.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete, Cracks, Stiffness, lateral loads, shear wall, ETABS, lateral displacement, ACI code

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6 Determining Moment-Curvature Relationship of Reinforced Concrete Rectangular Shear Walls

Authors: Gokhan Dok, Hakan Ozturk, Aydin Demir

Abstract:

The behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) members is quite important in RC structures. When evaluating the performance of structures, the nonlinear properties are defined according to the cross sectional behavior of RC members. To be able to determine the behavior of RC members, its cross sectional behavior should be known well. The moment-curvature (MC) relationship is used to represent cross sectional behavior. The MC relationship of RC cross section can be best determined both experimentally and numerically. But, experimental study on RC members is very difficult. The aim of the study is to obtain the MC relationship of RC shear walls. Additionally, it is aimed to determine the parameters which affect MC relationship. While obtaining MC relationship of RC members, XTRACT which can represent robustly the MC relationship is used. Concrete quality, longitudinal and transverse reinforcing ratios, are selected as parameters which affect MC relationship. As a result of the study, curvature ductility and effective flexural stiffness are determined using this parameter. Effective flexural stiffness is compared with the values defined in design codes.

Keywords: Numerical, Reinforced Concrete, shear wall, moment-curvature

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5 Seismic Retrofitting of RC Buildings with Soft Storey and Floating Columns

Authors: Vinay Agrawal, Vinay Chandwani, Ravindra Nagar, Suyash Garg

Abstract:

Open ground storey with floating columns is a typical feature in the modern multistory constructions in urban India. Such features are very much undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas. The present study proposes a feasible solution to mitigate the effects caused due to non-uniformity of stiffness and discontinuity in load path and to simultaneously hold the functional use of the open storey particularly under the floating column, through a combination of various lateral strengthening systems. An investigation is performed on an example building with nine different analytical models to bring out the importance of recognising the presence of open ground storey and floating columns. Two separate analyses on various models of the building namely, the equivalent static analysis and the response spectrum analysis as per IS: 1893-2002 were performed. Various measures such as incorporation of Chevron bracings and shear walls, strengthening the columns in the open ground storey, and their different combinations were examined. The analysis shows that, in comparison to two short ones separated by interconnecting beams, the structural walls are most effective when placed at the periphery of the buildings and used as one long structural wall. Further, it can be shown that the force transfer from floating columns becomes less horizontal when the Chevron Bracings are placed just below them, thereby reducing the shear forces in the beams on which the floating column rests.

Keywords: equivalent static analysis, shear wall, open ground storey, response spectrum analysis, stiffness irregularity, floating column

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4 Application Problems of Anchor Dowels in Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall and Frame Connections

Authors: Musa H. Arslan

Abstract:

Strengthening of the existing seismically deficient reinforced concrete (RC) buildings is an important issue in earthquake prone regions. Addition of RC shear wall as infill or external walls into the structural system has been a commonly preferred strengthening technique since the Big Erzincan Earthquake occurred in Turkey, 1992. The newly added rigid infill walls act primarily as shear walls and relieve the non-ductile existing frames from being subjected to large shear demands providing that new RC inner or external walls are adequately anchored to the existing weak RC frame. The performance of the RC shear walls-RC weak frame connections by steel anchor dowels depends on some parameters such as compressive strength of the existing RC frame concrete, diameter and embedment length of anchored rebar, type of rebar, yielding stress of bar, properties of used chemicals, position of the anchor bars in RC. In this study, application problems of the steel anchor dowels have been checked with some field studies such as tensile test. Two different RC buildings which will be strengthened were selected, and before strengthening, some tests have been performed in the existing RC buildings. According to the field observation and experimental studies, if the concrete compressive strength is lower than 10 MPa, the performance of the anchors is reduced by 70%.

Keywords: Concrete, Reinforced Concrete, Damage, shear wall, frame, anchor dowel

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3 Experimental Behavior of Composite Shear Walls Having L Shape Steel Sections in Boundary Regions

Authors: S. Bahadır Yüksel, Alptuğ Ünal

Abstract:

The Composite Shear Walls (CSW) with steel encased profiles can be used as lateral-load resisting systems for buildings that require considerable large lateral-load capacity. The aim of this work is to propose the experimental work conducted on CSW having L section folded plate (L shape steel made-up sections) as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The study in this paper present the experimental test conducted on CSW having L section folded plate as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The tested 1/3 geometric scaled CSW has aspect ratio of 3.2. L-shape structural steel materials with 2L-19x57x7mm dimensions were placed in shear wall boundary zones. The seismic behavior of CSW test specimen was investigated by evaluating and interpreting the hysteresis curves, envelope curves, rigidity and consumed energy graphs of this tested element. In addition to this, the experimental results, deformation and cracking patterns were evaluated, interpreted and suggestions of the design recommendations were proposed.

Keywords: composite shear wall, shear wall, earthquake resistant structural design, L section, boundary reinforcement

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2 Parameters Affecting the Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Outrigger Braced Walls to Earthquakes

Authors: T. A. Sakr, Hanaa E. Abd-El- Mottaleb

Abstract:

Outrigger-braced wall systems are commonly used to provide high rise buildings with the required lateral stiffness for wind and earthquake resistance. The existence of outriggers adds to the stiffness and strength of walls as reported by several studies. The effects of different parameters on the elasto-plastic dynamic behavior of outrigger-braced wall systems to earthquakes are investigated in this study. Parameters investigated include outrigger stiffness, concrete strength, and reinforcement arrangement as the main design parameters in wall design. In addition to being significantly affect the wall behavior, such parameters may lead to the change of failure mode and the delay of crack propagation and consequently failure as the wall is excited by earthquakes. Bi-linear stress-strain relation for concrete with limited tensile strength and truss members with bi-linear stress-strain relation for reinforcement were used in the finite element analysis of the problem. The famous earthquake record, El-Centro, 1940 is used in the study. Emphasize was given to the lateral drift, normal stresses and crack pattern as behavior controlling determinants. Results indicated significant effect of the studied parameters such that stiffer outrigger, higher grade concrete and concentrating the reinforcement at wall edges enhance the behavior of the system. Concrete stresses and cracking behavior are too much enhanced while less drift improvements are observed.

Keywords: Earthquake, Nonlinear, structures, outrigger, shear wall, High rise

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1 Nonlinear Analysis of Shear Wall Using Finite Element Model

Authors: F. Rezaie Moghaddam, M. Pasbani Khiavi, M. A. Ghorbani

Abstract:

In the analysis of structures, the nonlinear effects due to large displacement, large rotation and materially-nonlinear are very important and must be considered for the reliable analysis. The non-linear fmite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of fmite element code using the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation. Two-dimensional plane stress model was carried out to present the shear wall response. Total Lagangian formulation, which is computationally more effective, is used in the formulation of stiffness matrices and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The details of the program formulation are highlighted and the results of the analyses are presented, along with a comparison of the response of the structure with Ansys software results. The presented model in this paper can be developed for nonlinear analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.

Keywords: finite element, shear wall, large displacements, materially nonlinear

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