Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Sensor Network Related Publications

15 Game Theory Based Diligent Energy Utilization Algorithm for Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: X. Mercilin Raajini, R. Raja Kumar, P. Indumathi, V. Praveen

Abstract:

Many cluster based routing protocols have been proposed in the field of wireless sensor networks, in which a group of nodes are formed as clusters. A cluster head is selected from one among those nodes based on residual energy, coverage area, number of hops and that cluster-head will perform data gathering from various sensor nodes and forwards aggregated data to the base station or to a relay node (another cluster-head), which will forward the packet along with its own data packet to the base station. Here a Game Theory based Diligent Energy Utilization Algorithm (GTDEA) for routing is proposed. In GTDEA, the cluster head selection is done with the help of game theory, a decision making process, that selects a cluster-head based on three parameters such as residual energy (RE), Received Signal Strength Index (RSSI) and Packet Reception Rate (PRR). Finding a feasible path to the destination with minimum utilization of available energy improves the network lifetime and is achieved by the proposed approach. In GTDEA, the packets are forwarded to the base station using inter-cluster routing technique, which will further forward it to the base station. Simulation results reveal that GTDEA improves the network performance in terms of throughput, lifetime, and power consumption.

Keywords: Game theory, Sensor Network, energy utilization, cluster head, LEACH

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14 Spatial Query Localization Method in Limited Reference Point Environment

Authors: Victor Krebss

Abstract:

Task of object localization is one of the major challenges in creating intelligent transportation. Unfortunately, in densely built-up urban areas, localization based on GPS only produces a large error, or simply becomes impossible. New opportunities arise for the localization due to the rapidly emerging concept of a wireless ad-hoc network. Such network, allows estimating potential distance between these objects measuring received signal level and construct a graph of distances in which nodes are the localization objects, and edges - estimates of the distances between pairs of nodes. Due to the known coordinates of individual nodes (anchors), it is possible to determine the location of all (or part) of the remaining nodes of the graph. Moreover, road map, available in digital format can provide localization routines with valuable additional information to narrow node location search. However, despite abundance of well-known algorithms for solving the problem of localization and significant research efforts, there are still many issues that currently are addressed only partially. In this paper, we propose localization approach based on the graph mapped distances on the digital road map data basis. In fact, problem is reduced to distance graph embedding into the graph representing area geo location data. It makes possible to localize objects, in some cases even if only one reference point is available. We propose simple embedding algorithm and sample implementation as spatial queries over sensor network data stored in spatial database, allowing employing effectively spatial indexing, optimized spatial search routines and geometry functions.

Keywords: Sensor Network, Localization, GIS, Intelligent Transportation System, Spatial Query, Graph Embedding

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13 Controllable Electrical Power Plug Adapters Made As A ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Toshihiko Sasama, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Using Internet communication, new home electronics have functions of monitoring and control from remote. However in many case these electronics work as standalone, and old electronics are not followed. Then, we developed the total remote system include not only new electronics but olds. This systems node is a adapter of electrical power plug that embed relay switch and some sensors, and these nodes communicate with each other. the system server was build on the Internet, and users access to this system from web browsers. To reduce the cost to set up of this system, communication between adapters are used ZigBee wireless network instead of wired LAN cable[3]. From measured RSSI(received signal strength indicator) information between each nodes, the system can estimate roughly adapters were mounted on which room, and where in the room. So also it reduces the cost of mapping nodes. Using this system, energy saving and house monitoring are expected.

Keywords: Sensor Network, Remote Control, ZigBee, outlet, remote monitor, mobile ad hocnetwork

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12 Efficient and Extensible Data Processing Framework in Ubiquitious Sensor Networks

Authors: Junghoon Lee, Gyung-Leen Park, Ho-Young Kwak, Cheol Min Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and implements the prototype of an intelligent data processing framework in ubiquitous sensor networks. Much focus is put on how to handle the sensor data stream as well as the interoperability between the low-level sensor data and application clients. Our framework first addresses systematic middleware which mitigates the interaction between the application layer and low-level sensors, for the sake of analyzing a great volume of sensor data by filtering and integrating to create value-added context information. Then, an agent-based architecture is proposed for real-time data distribution to efficiently forward a specific event to the appropriate application registered in the directory service via the open interface. The prototype implementation demonstrates that our framework can host a sophisticated application on the ubiquitous sensor network and it can autonomously evolve to new middleware, taking advantages of promising technologies such as software agents, XML, cloud computing, and the like.

Keywords: Middleware, Sensor Network, Event Detection, intelligent farm

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11 Queen-bee Algorithm for Energy Efficient Clusters in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Z. Pooranian, A. Barati, A. Movaghar

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks include small nodes which have sensing ability; calculation and connection extend themselves everywhere soon. Such networks have source limitation on connection, calculation and energy consumption. So, since the nodes have limited energy in sensor networks, the optimized energy consumption in these networks is of more importance and has created many challenges. The previous works have shown that by organizing the network nodes in a number of clusters, the energy consumption could be reduced considerably. So the lifetime of the network would be increased. In this paper, we used the Queen-bee algorithm to create energy efficient clusters in wireless sensor networks. The Queen-bee (QB) is similar to nature in that the queen-bee plays a major role in reproduction process. The QB is simulated with J-sim simulator. The results of the simulation showed that the clustering by the QB algorithm decreases the energy consumption with regard to the other existing algorithms and increases the lifetime of the network.

Keywords: Clustering, Energy Efficient, Sensor Network, Queen-bee

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10 New Multisensor Data Fusion Method Based on Probabilistic Grids Representation

Authors: Zhichao Zhao, Yi Liu, Shunping Xiao

Abstract:

A new data fusion method called joint probability density matrix (JPDM) is proposed, which can associate and fuse measurements from spatially distributed heterogeneous sensors to identify the real target in a surveillance region. Using the probabilistic grids representation, we numerically combine the uncertainty regions of all the measurements in a general framework. The NP-hard multisensor data fusion problem has been converted to a peak picking problem in the grids map. Unlike most of the existing data fusion method, the JPDM method dose not need association processing, and will not lead to combinatorial explosion. Its convergence to the CRLB with a diminishing grid size has been proved. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Sensor Network, Localization, Data fusion, Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB), probabilistic grids, joint probability density matrix

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9 A Lifetime-Guaranteed Routing Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jae Keun Park, Sung Je Hong, Kyong Hoon Kim, Tae Heum Kang, Wan Yeon Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a routing scheme that guarantees the residual lifetime of wireless sensor networks where each sensor node operates with a limited budget of battery energy. The scheme maximizes the communications QoS while sustaining the residual battery lifetime of the network for a specified duration. Communication paths of wireless nodes are translated into a directed acyclic graph(DAG) and the maximum-flow algorithm is applied to the graph. The found maximum flow are assigned to sender nodes, so as to maximize their communication QoS. Based on assigned flows, the scheme determines the routing path and the transmission rate of data packet so that any sensor node on the path would not exhaust its battery energy before a specified duration.

Keywords: Sensor Network, QoS, Battery, residual lifetime, routingscheme

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8 Target Tracking in Sensor Networks: A Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Approach

Authors: R.Mostafaei, A.Habiboghli, M.R.Meybodi

Abstract:

In distributed resource allocation a set of agents must assign their resources to a set of tasks. This problem arises in many real-world domains such as distributed sensor networks, disaster rescue, hospital scheduling and others. Despite the variety of approaches proposed for distributed resource allocation, a systematic formalization of the problem, explaining the different sources of difficulties, and a formal explanation of the strengths and limitations of key approaches is missing. We take a step towards this goal by using a formalization of distributed resource allocation that represents both dynamic and distributed aspects of the problem. In this paper we present a new idea for target tracking in sensor networks and compare it with previous approaches. The central contribution of the paper is a generalized mapping from distributed resource allocation to DDCSP. This mapping is proven to correctly perform resource allocation problems of specific difficulty. This theoretical result is verified in practice by a simulation on a realworld distributed sensor network.

Keywords: Sensor Network, target tracking, Distributed CSP

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7 PoPCoRN: A Power-Aware Periodic Surveillance Scheme in Convex Region using Wireless Mobile Sensor Networks

Authors: A. K. Prajapati

Abstract:

In this paper, the periodic surveillance scheme has been proposed for any convex region using mobile wireless sensor nodes. A sensor network typically consists of fixed number of sensor nodes which report the measurements of sensed data such as temperature, pressure, humidity, etc., of its immediate proximity (the area within its sensing range). For the purpose of sensing an area of interest, there are adequate number of fixed sensor nodes required to cover the entire region of interest. It implies that the number of fixed sensor nodes required to cover a given area will depend on the sensing range of the sensor as well as deployment strategies employed. It is assumed that the sensors to be mobile within the region of surveillance, can be mounted on moving bodies like robots or vehicle. Therefore, in our scheme, the surveillance time period determines the number of sensor nodes required to be deployed in the region of interest. The proposed scheme comprises of three algorithms namely: Hexagonalization, Clustering, and Scheduling, The first algorithm partitions the coverage area into fixed sized hexagons that approximate the sensing range (cell) of individual sensor node. The clustering algorithm groups the cells into clusters, each of which will be covered by a single sensor node. The later determines a schedule for each sensor to serve its respective cluster. Each sensor node traverses all the cells belonging to the cluster assigned to it by oscillating between the first and the last cell for the duration of its life time. Simulation results show that our scheme provides full coverage within a given period of time using few sensors with minimum movement, less power consumption, and relatively less infrastructure cost.

Keywords: Communication, Sensor Network, Graph Theory, MSN

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6 Analysis of Detecting Wormhole Attack in Wireless Networks

Authors: Khin Sandar Win

Abstract:

In multi hop wireless systems, such as ad hoc and sensor networks, mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement. A particularly devastating attack is known as the wormhole attack, where two or more malicious colluding nodes create a higher level virtual tunnel in the network, which is employed to transport packets between the tunnel end points. These tunnels emulate shorter links in the network. In which adversary records transmitted packets at one location in the network, tunnels them to another location, and retransmits them into the network. The wormhole attack is possible even if the attacker has not compromised any hosts and even if all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality. In this paper, we analyze wormhole attack nature in ad hoc and sensor networks and existing methods of the defending mechanism to detect wormhole attacks without require any specialized hardware. This analysis able to provide in establishing a method to reduce the rate of refresh time and the response time to become more faster.

Keywords: Sensor Network, ad hoc network, Wormhole attack, defending mechanism

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5 A Diffusion Least-Mean Square Algorithm for Distributed Estimation over Sensor Networks

Authors: Amir Rastegarnia, Mohammad Ali Tinati, Azam Khalili

Abstract:

In this paper we consider the issue of distributed adaptive estimation over sensor networks. To deal with more realistic scenario, different variance for observation noise is assumed for sensors in the network. To solve the problem of different variance of observation noise, the proposed method is divided into two phases: I) Estimating each sensor-s observation noise variance and II) using the estimated variances to obtain the desired parameter. Our proposed algorithm is based on a diffusion least mean square (LMS) implementation with linear combiner model. In the proposed algorithm, the step-size parameter the coefficients of linear combiner are adjusted according to estimated observation noise variances. As the simulation results show, the proposed algorithm considerably improves the diffusion LMS algorithm given in literature.

Keywords: Sensor Network, Distributed Estimation, diffusion, adaptive filter

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4 A Materialized View Approach to Support Aggregation Operations over Long Periods in Sensor Networks

Authors: Minsoo Lee, Julee Choi, Sookyung Song

Abstract:

The increasing interest on processing data created by sensor networks has evolved into approaches to implement sensor networks as databases. The aggregation operator, which calculates a value from a large group of data such as computing averages or sums, etc. is an essential function that needs to be provided when implementing such sensor network databases. This work proposes to add the DURING clause into TinySQL to calculate values during a specific long period and suggests a way to implement the aggregation service in sensor networks by applying materialized view and incremental view maintenance techniques that is used in data warehouses. In sensor networks, data values are passed from child nodes to parent nodes and an aggregation value is computed at the root node. As such root nodes need to be memory efficient and low powered, it becomes a problem to recompute aggregate values from all past and current data. Therefore, applying incremental view maintenance techniques can reduce the memory consumption and support fast computation of aggregate values.

Keywords: Sensor Network, aggregation, materialized view, Incremental View Maintenance

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3 Adaptive Hierarchical Key Structure Generation for Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks using A*

Authors: Jin Myoung Kim, Tae Ho Cho

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor networks have a wide spectrum of civil and military applications that call for secure communication such as the terrorist tracking, target surveillance in hostile environments. For the secure communication in these application areas, we propose a method for generating a hierarchical key structure for the efficient group key management. In this paper, we apply A* algorithm in generating a hierarchical key structure by considering the history data of the ratio of addition and eviction of sensor nodes in a location where sensor nodes are deployed. Thus generated key tree structure provides an efficient way of managing the group key in terms of energy consumption when addition and eviction event occurs. A* algorithm tries to minimize the number of messages needed for group key management by the history data. The experimentation with the tree shows efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Security, Heuristic Search, Sensor Network, Key Management

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2 Fuzzy based Security Threshold Determining for the Statistical En-Route Filtering in Sensor Networks

Authors: Hae Young Lee, Tae Ho Cho

Abstract:

In many sensor network applications, sensor nodes are deployed in open environments, and hence are vulnerable to physical attacks, potentially compromising the node's cryptographic keys. False sensing report can be injected through compromised nodes, which can lead to not only false alarms but also the depletion of limited energy resource in battery powered networks. Ye et al. proposed a statistical en-route filtering scheme (SEF) to detect such false reports during the forwarding process. In this scheme, the choice of a security threshold value is important since it trades off detection power and overhead. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy logic for determining a security threshold value in the SEF based sensor networks. The fuzzy logic determines a security threshold by considering the number of partitions in a global key pool, the number of compromised partitions, and the energy level of nodes. The fuzzy based threshold value can conserve energy, while it provides sufficient detection power.

Keywords: Security, Fuzzy Logic, Sensor Network

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1 Implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 Packet Analyzer

Authors: Sung Jun Ban, Hyeonwoo Cho, ChangWoo Lee, Sang Woo Kim

Abstract:

A packet analyzer is a tool for debugging sensor network systems and is convenient for developers. In this paper, we introduce a new packet analyzer based on an embedded system. The proposed packet analyzer is compatible with IEEE 802.15.4, which is suitable for the wireless communication standard for sensor networks, and is available for remote control by adopting a server-client scheme based on the Ethernet interface. To confirm the operations of the packet analyzer, we have developed two types of sensor nodes based on PIC4620 and ATmega128L microprocessors and tested the functions of the proposed packet analyzer by obtaining the packets from the sensor nodes.

Keywords: Embedded system, Sensor Network, packet analyzer

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