Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

SEM Related Publications

35 Basic Evaluation for Polyetherimide Membrane Using Spectroscopy Techniques

Authors: Hanan Alenezi

Abstract:

Membrane performance depends on the kind of solvent used in preparation. A membrane made by Polyetherimide (PEI) was evaluated for gas separation using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The purity and the thickness are detected to evaluate the membrane in order to optimize PEI membrane preparation.

Keywords: Solvent, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Membrane, SEM, XRD, scanning electron microscope, EDS, polyetherimide, PEI

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34 Suitability of Class F Flyash for Construction Industry: An Indian Scenario

Authors: M. N. Akhtar, J. N. Akhtar

Abstract:

The present study evaluates the properties of class F fly ash as a replacement of natural materials in civil engineering construction industry. The low-lime flash similar to class F is the prime variety generated in India, although it has significantly smaller volumes of high-lime fly ash as compared to class C. The chemical and physical characterization of the sample is carried out with the number of experimental approaches in order to investigate all relevant features present in the samples. For chemical analysis, elementary quantitative results from point analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques were used to identify the element images of different fractions. The physical properties found very close to the range of common soils. Furthermore, the fly ash-based bricks were prepared by the same sample of class F fly ash and the results of compressive strength similar to that of Standard Clay Brick Grade 1 available in the local market of India.

Keywords: Chemical, Physical, SEM, EDS, flyash, class F, class C

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33 Effect of Needle Diameter on the Morphological Structure of Electrospun n-Bi2O3/Epoxy-PVA Nanofiber Mats

Authors: Bassam M. Abunahel, Nurul Zahirah Noor Azman, Munirah Jamil

Abstract:

The effect of needle diameter on the morphological structure of electrospun n-Bi2O3/epoxy-PVA nanofibers has been investigated using three different types of needle diameters. The results were observed and investigated using two techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The first technique is backscattered SEM while the second is secondary electron SEM. The results demonstrate that there is a correlation between the needle diameter and the morphology of electrospun nanofibers. As the internal needle diameter decreases, the average nanofiber diameter decreases and the fibers get thinner and smoother without agglomeration or beads formation. Moreover, with small needle diameter the nanofibrous porosity get larger compared with large needle diameter.

Keywords: SEM, porosity, agglomeration, fiber diameter, needle diameter

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32 Corrosion Behaviour of Hypereutectic Al-Si Automotive Alloy in Different pH Environment

Authors: M. S. Kaiser, M. Al Nur

Abstract:

Corrosion behaviour of hypereutectic Al-19Si automotive alloy in different pH=1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 environments was carried out using conventional gravimetric measurements and was complemented by resistivity, optical micrograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. Gravimetric analysis confirmed that the highest corrosion rate is shown at pH 13 followed by pH 1. Minimum corrosion occurs in the pH range of 3.0 to 11 due to establishment of passive layer on the surface. The highest corrosion rate at pH 13 is due to the presence of sodium hydroxide in the solution which dissolves the surface oxide film at a steady rate. At pH 1, it can be attributed that the presence of aggressive chloride ions serves to pick up the damage of the passive films at localized regions. With varying exposure periods by both, the environment complies with the normal corrosion rate profile that is an initial steep rise followed by a nearly constant value of corrosion rate. Resistivity increases in case of pH 1 solution for the higher pit formation and decreases at pH 13 due to formation of thin film. The SEM image of corroded samples immersed in pH 1 solution clearly shows pores on the surface and in pH 13 solution, and the corrosion layer seems more compact and homogenous and not porous.

Keywords: Corrosion, resistivity, SEM, al-Si alloy

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31 Wet Sliding Wear and Frictional Behavior of Commercially Available Perspex

Authors: M. S. Kaiser, S. Reaz Ahmed

Abstract:

The tribological behavior of commercially used Perspex was evaluated under dry and wet sliding condition using a pin-on-disc wear tester with different applied loads ranging from 2.5 to 20 N. Experiments were conducted with varying sliding distance from 0.2 km to 4.6 km, wherein the sliding velocity was kept constant, 0.64 ms-1. The results reveal that the weight loss increases with applied load and the sliding distance. The nature of the wear rate was very similar in both the sliding environments in which initially the wear rate increased very rapidly with increasing sliding distance and then progressed to a slower rate. Moreover, the wear rate in wet sliding environment was significantly lower than that under dry sliding condition. The worn surfaces were characterized by optical microscope and SEM. It is found that surface modification has significant effect on sliding wear performance of Perspex.

Keywords: Wear, SEM, friction, Perspex

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30 Effect of Zinc Chloride Activation on Physicochemical Characteristics of Cassava Peel and Waste Bamboo Activated Carbon

Authors: Olayinka Omotosho, Anthony Amori

Abstract:

Cassava peels and bamboo waste materials discarded from construction are two sources of waste that could constitute serious menace where they exist in large quantities and inadequately handled. The study examined the physicochemical characteristics of activated carbon materials derived from cassava peels and bamboo waste materials discarded from construction site. Both materials were subjected to carbonization and chemical activation using zinc chloride. Results show that the chemical activation of the materials had a more effect on pore formation in cassava peels than in bamboo materials. Bamboo material exhibited a reverse trend for zinc and sulphate ion decontamination efficiencies as the value of zinc chloride impregnation varied unlike cassava peel carbon biomass which exhibited a more consistent result of decontamination efficiency for the seven contaminants tested. Although waste bamboo biomass exhibited higher adsorption intensity as indicated by values of decontamination for most of the contaminants tested, the cassava peel carbon biomass showed a more balanced adsorption level.

Keywords: SEM, activated carbon, cassava peels, Zinc chloride, bamboo waste

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29 Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites

Authors: H. Zengin, M. E. Turan, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci, Y. Sun, E. Cevik

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.

Keywords: Wear, SEM, magnesium matrix composite, pressure infiltration

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28 Influence of Titanium Addition on Wear Properties of AM60 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Zengin, M. E. Turan, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci, Y. Sun

Abstract:

This study aimed for improving wear resistance of AM60 magnesium alloy by Ti addition (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1wt%Ti). An electric resistance furnace was used to produce alloys. Pure Mg together with Al, Al-Ti and Al-Mn were melted at 750 0C in a stainless steel crucible under controlled Ar gas atmosphere and then poured into a metal mould preheated at 250 0C. Microstructure characterizations were performed by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the wear test. Wear rates and friction coefficients were measured with a pin-on-disk type UTS-10 Tribometer test device under a load of 20N. The results showed that Ti addition altered the morphology and the amount of b-Mg17Al12 phase in the microstructure of AM60 alloy. b-Mg17Al12 phases on the grain boundaries were refined with increasing amount of Ti. An improvement in wear resistance of AM60 alloy was observed due to the alteration in the microstructure by Ti addition.

Keywords: Titanium, Wear, Magnesium Alloy, SEM

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27 Synthesis, Structural, and Dielectric Characterization of Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Suresh Sagadevan, A. Veeralakshmi

Abstract:

Cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles have been prepared by chemical coprecipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV analysis, and dielectric studies. The crystalline nature and particle size of the CdO nanoparticles were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The morphology of prepared CdO nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The particle size was studied using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The optical properties were obtained from UV-Vis absorption spectrum. The dielectric properties of CdO nanoparticles were studied in the frequency range of 50 Hz–5 MHz at different temperatures. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss is found to decrease with an increase in the frequency at different temperatures. The ac conductivity of CdO nanoparticle has been studied.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, Cadmium Oxide (CdO), Dielectric constant and Dielectric loss

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26 Phosphorus Reduction in Plain and Fully Formulated Oils Using Fluorinated Additives

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme

Abstract:

The reduction of phosphorus and sulfur in engine oil are the main topics of this paper. Very reproducible boundary lubrication tests were conducted as part of Design of Experiment software (DOE) to study the behavior of fluorinated catalyst iron fluoride (FeF3), and polutetrafluoroethylene or Teflon (PTFE) in developing environmentally friendly (reduced P and S) anti-wear additives for future engine oil formulations. Multi-component Chevron fully formulated oil (GF3) and Chevron plain oil were used with the addition of PTFE and catalyst to characterize and analyze their performance. Lower phosphorus blends were the goal of the model solution. Experiments indicated that new sub-micron FeF3 catalyst played an important role in preventing breakdown of the tribofilm.

Keywords: Wear, Lubricants, SEM, friction, EDS

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25 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film

Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Annealing increases the average grain size by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, electrodeposition, non-aqueous medium

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24 Wear Behavior of Commercial Aluminium Engine Block and Piston under Dry Sliding Condition

Authors: M. S. Kaiser, Swagata Dutta

Abstract:

In the present work, the effect of load and sliding distance on the performance tribology of commercially used aluminium-silicon engine block and piston was evaluated at ambient conditions with humidity of 80% under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc with two different loads of 5N and 20N yielding applied pressure of 0.30MPa and 1.4MPa, respectively, at sliding velocity of 0.29ms-1 and with varying sliding distance ranging from 260m- 4200m. Factors and conditions that had significant effect were identified. The results showed that the load and the sliding distance affect the wear rate of the alloys and the wear rate increased with increasing load for both the alloys. Wear rate also increases almost linearly at low loads and increase to a maximum then attain a plateau with increasing sliding distance. For both applied loads the piston alloy showed the better performance due to higher Ni and Mg content. The worn surface and wear debris was characterized by optical microscope, SEM and EDX analyzer. The worn surface was characterized by surface with shallow grooves at loads while the groove width and depth increased as the loads increases. Oxidative wear was found to be the predominant mechanisms in the dry sliding of Al-Si alloys at low loads.

Keywords: Wear, SEM, friction, gravimetric analysis, EDX, aluminiumsilicon alloys

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23 The Effects of 2wt% Cu Addition on the Corrosion Behavior of Heat Treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni Alloy

Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny, M. A. Gafur, F. Gulshan

Abstract:

Al-Si-Mg-Ni(-Cu) alloys are widely used in the automotive industry. They have the advantage of low weight associated with low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent mechanical properties – mainly at high temperatures. The corrosion resistance of these alloys in coastal area, particularly sea water, however is not yet known. In this investigation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization have been used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni (-2Cu) alloys in simulated sea water environments. The potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that 2 wt% Cu content alloy (Alloy-2) is more prone to corrosion than the Cu free alloy (Alloy-1). But the EIS test results showed that corrosion resistance or charge transfer resistance (Rct) increases with the addition of Cu. Due to addition of Cu and thermal treatment, the magnitude of open circuit potential (OCP), corrosion potential (Ecorr) and pitting corrosion potential (Epit) of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy in NaCl solution were shifted to the more noble direction.

Keywords: SEM, EIS, potentiodynamic polarization, al-Si alloy

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22 Effect of 2wt% Cu Addition on the Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Peak Aged Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni Alloy at Various Strain Rates

Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny, M. A. Gafur

Abstract:

Effect of 2wt% Cu addition on tensile properties and fracture behavior of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy at various strain rates were studied. The solution treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni (-2Cu) alloys, were aged isochronally for 1 hour at temperatures up to 300oC. The uniaxial tension test was carried out at strain rate ranging from 10-4s-1 to 10-2s-1 in order to investigate the strain rate dependence of tensile properties. Tensile strengths were found to increase with ageing temperature and the maximum being attained ageing for 1 hr at 225oC (peak aged condition). Addition of 2wt% Cu resulted in an increase in tensile properties at all strain rates. Evaluation of tensile properties at three different strain rates (10-4, 10-3 and 10-2 s-1) showed that strain rates affected the tensile properties significantly. At higher strain rates the strength was better but ductility was poor. Microstructures of broken specimens showed that both the void coalescence and the interface debonding affect the fracture behavior of the alloys

Keywords: SEM, strain rate, tensile properties, Al-Si-Mg-Ni-Cu alloy

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21 Structural Characteristics of Batch Processed Agro-Waste Fibres

Authors: E. I. Akpan, S. O. Adeosun, G. I. Lawal, S. A. Balogun, X. D. Chen

Abstract:

The characterisation of agro-wastes fibres for composite applications from Nigeria using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has been done. Fibres extracted from groundnut shell, coconut husk, rice husk, palm fruit bunch and palm fruit stalk are processed using two novel cellulose fibre production methods developed by the authors. Cellulose apparent crystallinity calculated using the deconvolution of the diffractometer trace shows that the amorphous portion of cellulose was permeable to hydrolysis yielding high crystallinity after treatment. All diffratograms show typical cellulose structure with well-defined 110, 200 and 040 peaks. Palm fruit fibres had the highest 200 crystalline cellulose peaks compared to others and it is an indication of rich cellulose content. Surface examination of the resulting fibres using SEM indicates the presence of regular cellulose network structure with some agglomerated laminated layer of thin leaves of cellulose microfibrils. The surfaces were relatively smooth indicating the removal of hemicellulose, lignin and pectin.

Keywords: Crystallinity, X-Ray Diffraction, Cellulose, SEM, deconvolution

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20 SEM Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Acid Etching on Cat Enamel

Authors: C. Gallottini, W. Di Mari, A. Dolci, G. Dolci, L. Gallottini, G. Barraco, S. Eramo, C. De Carolis

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to summarize the literature on micromorphology and composition of the enamel of the cat and present an original experiment by SEM on how it responds to the etching with ortophosphoric acid for the time recommended in the veterinary literature (30", 45", 60"), derived from research and experience on human enamel; 21 teeth of cat were randomly divided into three groups of 7 (A, B, C): Group A was subjected to etching for 30 seconds by means of orthophosphoric acid to 40% on a circular area with diameter of about 2mm of ​​the enamel coronal; the Groups B and C had the same treatment but, respectively, for 45 and 60 seconds. The samples obtained were observed by SEM to constant magnification of 1000x framing, in particular, the border area between enamel exposed and not exposed to etching to highlight differences. The images were subjected to the analysis of three blinded experienced operators in electron microscopy. In the enamel of the cat the etching for the times considered is not optimally effective for the purpose adhesives and the presence of a thick prismless layer could explain this situation. To improve this condition may clinically in the likeness of what is proposed for the enamel of human deciduous teeth: a bevel or a chamfer of 1 mm on the contour of the cavity to discover the prismatic enamel and increase the bonding surface.

Keywords: Cat, SEM, enamel

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19 Human Resources and Business Result: An Empirical Approach Based On RBV Theory

Authors: XhevrieMamaqi

Abstract:

Organization capacity learning is a process referring to the sum total of individual and collective learning through training programs, experience and experimentation, among others. Today, in-business ongoing training is one of the most important strategies for human capital development and it is crucial to sustain and improve workers’ knowledge and skills. Many organizations, firms and business are adopting a strategy of continuous learning, encouraging employees to learn new skills continually to be innovative and to try new processes and work in order to achieve a competitive advantage and superior business results. This paper uses the Resource Based View and Capacities (RBV) approach to construct a hypothetical relationships model between training and business results. The test of the model is applied on transversal data. A sample of 266 business of Spanish sector service has been selected. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) is used to estimate the relationship between ongoing training, represented by two latent dimension denominated Human and Social Capital resources and economic business results. The coefficients estimated have shown the efficient of some training aspectsexplaining the variation in business results.

Keywords: training, SEM, business results, human and social capital resources, RBV theory

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18 The Effect of the Reaction Time on the Microwave Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from MgCl2.6H2O, MgO and H3BO3

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, P. Gurses, M. Yildirim, T. Ibroska

Abstract:

Due to their strong mechanical and thermal properties magnesium borates have a wide usage area such as ceramic industry, detergent production, friction reducing additive and grease production. In this study, microwave synthesis of magnesium borates from MgCl2.6H2O (Magnesium chloride hexahydrate), MgO (Magnesium oxide) and H3BO3 (Boric acid) for different reaction times is researched. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy are used to find out how the reaction time sways on the products. The superficial properties are investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). According to XRD analysis, the synthesized compounds are 00-041-1407 pdf coded Shabinite (Mg5(BO3)4Cl2(OH)5.4(H2O)) and 01-073-2158 pdf coded Karlite (Mg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5).

Keywords: SEM, XRD, magnesium borate, microwave synthesis

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17 Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Hybrid Alkaline Cements

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, P. Torgal, J. Barroso Aguiar

Abstract:

Publications on the field of alkali-activated binders, state that this new material is likely to have high potential to become an alternative to Portland cement. Classical alkali-activated cements could be made more eco-efficient if the use of sodium silicate is avoided. Besides, most alkali-activated cements suffer from severe efflorescence originated by the fact that alkaline and/or soluble silicates that are added during processing cannot be totally consumed. This paper presents experimental results on hybrid alkaline cements. Compressive strength results and efflorescence’s observations show that the new mixes already analyzed are promising. SEM results show that no traditional porous ITZ was detected in these binders.

Keywords: SEM, compressive strength, hybrid alkaline cements, efflorescence, ITZ

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16 New Coating Materials Based On Mixtures of Shellac and Pectin for Pharmaceutical Products

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, M. Tabatabaeifar, M. Helmis

Abstract:

Shellac is a natural polyester resin secreted by insects. Pectins are natural, non-toxic and water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the peels of citrus fruits or the leftovers of apples. Both polymers are allowed for the use in the pharmaceutical industry and as a food additive. SSB Aquagold® is the aqueous solution of shellac and can be used for a coating process as an enteric or controlled drug release polymer. In this study, tablets containing 10 mg methylene blue as a model drug were prepared with a rotary press. Those tablets were coated with mixtures of shellac and one of the pectin different types (i.e. CU 201, CU 501, CU 701 and CU 020) mostly in a 2:1 ratio or with pure shellac in a small scale fluidized bed apparatus. A stable, simple and reproducible three-stage coating process was successfully developed. The drug contents of the coated tablets were determined using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The characterization of the surface and the film thickness were performed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the light microscopy. Release studies were performed in a dissolution apparatus with a basket. Most of the formulations were enteric coated. The dissolution profiles showed a delayed or sustained release with a lagtime of at least 4 h. Dissolution profiles of coated tablets with pure shellac had a very long lagtime ranging from 13 to 17.9 h and the slopes were quite high. The duration of the lagtime and the slope of the dissolution profiles could be adjusted by adding the proper type of pectin to the shellac formulation and by variation of the coating amount. In order to apply a coating formulation as a colon delivery system, the prepared film should be resistant against gastric fluid for at least 2 h and against intestinal fluid for 4-6 h. The required delay time was gained with most of the shellac-pectin polymer mixtures. The release profiles were fitted with the modified model of the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation and the Hixson-Crowell model. A correlation coefficient (R²)> 0.99 was obtained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

Keywords: Coating, SEM, shellac, pectin, fluidized bed, release, colon delivery system, kinetic, methylene blue

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15 Geochemistry of Coal Ash in the Equatorial Wet Disposal System Environment

Authors: Kolay P. K., Singh H.

Abstract:

The coal utilization in thermal power plants in Malaysia has increased significantly which produces an enormous amount of coal combustion by-product (CCBP) or coal ash and poses severe disposal problem. As each coal ash is distinct, this study presents the geochemistry of the coal ash, in particular fly ash, produced from the combustion of local coal from Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia. The geochemical composition of the ash showed a high amount of silica, alumina, iron oxides and alkalies which was found to be a convenient starting material for the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites with the higher Na2O percentage being a positive factor for its alkaline activation; while the mineral phases are mainly quartz, mullite, calcium oxide, silica, and iron oxide hydrate. The geochemical changes upon alkali activation that can be predicted in a similar type of ash have been described in this paper. The result shows that this particular ash has a good potential for a high value industrial product like zeolites upon alkali activation.

Keywords: mineralogical composition, Chemical Composition, SEM, alkali activation, coal ash

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14 Effects of Irradiation to Morphological, Physicochemical and Biocompatibility Properties of Carrageenan

Authors: Jhalique Jane R. Fojas, Rizalinda L. De Leon, Lucille V. Abad

Abstract:

The characterization of κ-carrageenan could provide a better understanding of its functions in biological, medical and industrial applications. Chemical and physical analyses of carrageenan from seaweeds, Euchema cottonii L., were done to offer information on its properties and the effects of Co-60 γ-irradiation on its thermochemical characteristics. The structural and morphological characteristics of κ-carrageenan were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the composition, molecular weight and thermal properties were determined using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Further chemical analysis was done using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and functional characteristics in terms of biocompatibility were evaluated using cytotoxicity test.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, NMR, SEM, FTIR, physicochemical, GPC, irradiation, TGA, DSC, carrageenan

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13 Preparation of Nanostructure ZnO-SnO2 Thin Films for Optoelectronic Properties and Post Annealing Influence

Authors: Praveen Kumar, VIPIN KUMAR JAIN, Y.K. Vijay

Abstract:

ZnO-SnO2 i.e. Zinc-Tin-Oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate with varying concentrations (ZnO:SnO2 - 100:0, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 wt.%) at room temperature by flash evaporation technique. These deposited ZTO film were annealed at 450 0C in vacuum. These films were characterized to study the effect of annealing on the structural, electrical, and optical properties. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images manifest the surface morphology of these ZTO thin films. The apparent growth of surface features revealed the formation of nanostructure ZTO thin films. The small value of surface roughness (root mean square RRMS) ensures the usefulness in optical coatings. The sheet resistance was also found to be decreased for both types of films with increasing concentration of SnO2. The optical transmittance found to be decreased however blue shift has been observed after annealing.

Keywords: SEM, AFM, sheet resistance, ZTO thin film, Optical transmittance

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12 The Development of Positive Emotion Regulation Strategies Scale for Children and Adolescents

Authors: Jia-Ru Li, Ching-Wen Lin

Abstract:

The study was designed to develop a measurement of the positive emotion regulation questionnaire (PERQ) that assesses positive emotion regulation strategies through self-report. The 14 items developed for the surveying instrument of the study were based upon literatures regarding elements of positive regulation strategies. 319 elementary students (age ranging from 12 to14) were recruited among three public elementary schools to survey on their use of positive emotion regulation strategies. Of 319 subjects, 20 invalid questionnaire s yielded a response rate of 92%. The data collected wasanalyzed through methods such as item analysis, factor analysis, and structural equation models. In reference to the results from item analysis, the formal survey instrument was reduced to 11 items. A principal axis factor analysis with varimax was performed on responses, resulting in a 2-factor equation (savoring strategy and neutralizing strategy), which accounted for 55.5% of the total variance. Then, the two-factor structure of scale was also identified by structural equation models. Finally, the reliability coefficients of the two factors were Cronbach-s α .92 and .74. Gender difference was only found in savoring strategy. In conclusion, the positive emotion regulation strategies questionnaire offers a brief, internally consistent, and valid self-report measure for understanding the emotional regulation strategies of children that may be useful to researchers and applied professionals.

Keywords: Emotional Regulation, SEM, scale, emotional regulation strategies

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11 Analyses of Wear Mechanisms Occurring During Machining of the Titanium Alloy Ti- 6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo

Authors: Z. Rihova, K. Saksl, C. Siemers, D. Ostroushko

Abstract:

Titanium alloys like the modern alloy Ti 6Al 2Sn 4Zr 6Mo (Ti-6246) combine excellent specific mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. On the other hand,due to their material characteristics, machining of these alloys is difficult to perform. The aim of the current study is the analyses of wear mechanisms of coated cemented carbide tools applied in orthogonal cutting experiments of Ti-6246 alloy. Round bars were machined with standard coated tools in dry conditions on a CNC latheusing a wide range of cutting speeds and cutting depths. Tool wear mechanisms were afterwards investigated by means of stereo microscopy, optical microscopy, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Wear mechanisms included fracture of the tool tip (total failure) and abrasion. Specific wear features like crater wear, micro cracks and built-up edgeformation appeared depending of the mechanical and thermal conditions generated in the workpiece surface by the cutting action.

Keywords: Machining, Optical Microscopy, Tool Wear, SEM, Alloy 6246, EDX analysis

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10 Measuring Business and Information Technology Value in BPR: An Empirical Study in the Japanese Enterprises

Authors: Michiko Miyamoto, Shuhei Kudo, Kayo Iizuka

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis result of relationship between business and information technology (IT) in business process reengineering (BPR). 258 Japanese firm-level data collected have been analyzed using structural equation modeling. This analysis was aimed to illuminating success factors of achieve effective BPR. Analysis was focused on management factors (including organizational factors) and implementing management method (e.g. balanced score card, internal control, etc.).These results would contribute for achieving effective BPR by showing effective tasks and environment to be focused.

Keywords: SEM, user satisfaction, IS success model, BPR

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9 The Effect of Innovation Factors to Customer Loyalty by Structural Equation Model

Authors: M. Dachyar, Fatkhurrohman

Abstract:

Innovation is being view from four areas of innovation, product, service, technology, and marketing. Whereas customer loyalty is composed of customer expectation, perceived quality, perceived value, corporate image, customer satisfaction, customer trust/confidence, customer commitment, customer complaint, and customer loyalty. This study aimed to investigate the influence of innovation factors to customer loyalty to GSM in the telecom companies where use of products and services. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using to analyze innovation factors. It was found the factor of innovation have significant influence on customer loyalty.

Keywords: Innovation, Telecommunication, Customer Loyalty, SEM

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8 Hair Mechanical Properties Depending on Age and Origin

Authors: Meriem Benzarti, Mohamed Ben Tkaya, Cyril Pailler Mattei, Hassan Zahouani

Abstract:

Hair is a non homogenous complex material which can be associated with a polymer. It is made up 95% of Keratin. Hair has a great social significance for human beings. In the High Middle Ages, for example, long hairs have been reserved for kings and nobles. Most common interest in hair is focused on hair growth, hair types and hair care, but hair is also an important biomaterial which can vary depending on ethnic origin or on age, hair colour for example can be a sign of ethnic ancestry or age (dark hair for Asiatic, blond hair for Caucasian and white hair for old people in general). In this context, different approaches have been conducted to determine the differences in mechanical properties and characterize the fracture topography at the surface of hair depending on its type and its age. A tensile testing machine was especially designed to achieve tensile tests on hair. This device is composed of a microdisplacement system and a force sensor whose peak load is limited to 3N. The curves and the values extracted from each experiment, allow us to compare the evolution of the mechanical properties from one hair to another. Observations with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and with an interferometer were made on different hairs. Thus, it is possible to access the cuticle state and the fracture topography for each category.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, SEM, hair, relaxation test, interferometer

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7 SEM and AFM Investigations of Surface Defects and Tool Wear of Multilayers Coated Carbide Inserts

Authors: Samy E. Oraby, Ayman M. Alaskari, Abdulla I. Almazrouee

Abstract:

Coated tool inserts can be considered as the backbone of machining processes due to their wear and heat resistance. However, defects of coating can degrade the integrity of these inserts and the number of these defects should be minimized or eliminated if possible. Recently, the advancement of coating processes and analytical tools open a new era for optimizing the coating tools. First, an overview is given regarding coating technology for cutting tool inserts. Testing techniques for coating layers properties, as well as the various coating defects and their assessment are also surveyed. Second, it is introduced an experimental approach to examine the possible coating defects and flaws of worn multicoated carbide inserts using two important techniques namely scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Finally, it is recommended a simple procedure for investigating manufacturing defects and flaws of worn inserts.

Keywords: Defects, SEM, AFM, Coated inserts

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6 Effect of Calcium Chloride on Rheological Properties and Structure of Inulin - Whey Protein Gels

Authors: Pawel Glibowski, Agnieszka Glibowska

Abstract:

The rheological properties, structure and potential synergistic interactions of whey proteins (1-6%) and inulin (20%) in mixed gels in the presence of CaCl2 was the aim of this study. Whey proteins have a strong influence on inulin gel formation. At low concentrations (2%) whey proteins did not impair in inulin gel formation. At higher concentration (4%) whey proteins impaired inulin gelation and inulin impaired the formation of a Ca2+-induced whey protein network. The presence of whey proteins at a level allowing for protein gel network formation (6%) significantly increased the rheological parameters values of the gels. SEM micrographs showed that whey protein structure was coated by inulin moieties which could make the mixed gels firmer. The protein surface hydrophobicity measurements did not exclude synergistic interactions between inulin and whey proteins, however. The use of an electrophoretic technique did not show any stable inulin-whey protein complexes.

Keywords: Whey Proteins, Gels, SEM, inulin, hydrophobicity

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