Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3421

Search results for: working heart rate

3421 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Dongjoo Kim, Chang-Sik Son, Won-Seok Kang

Abstract:

Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: Sleep, sleep quality, heart rate, statistical analysis.

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3420 Quantification of Heart Rate Variability: A Measure based on Unique Heart Rates

Authors: V. I. Thajudin Ahamed, P. Dhanasekaran, A. Naseem, N. G. Karthick, T. K. Abdul Jaleel, Paul K.Joseph

Abstract:

It is established that the instantaneous heart rate (HR) of healthy humans keeps on changing. Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular non invasive tool for assessing the activities of autonomic nervous system. Depressed HRV has been found in several disorders, like diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronary artery disease, characterised by autonomic nervous dysfunction. A new technique, which searches for pattern repeatability in a time series, is proposed specifically for the analysis of heart rate data. These set of indices, which are termed as pattern repeatability measure and pattern repeatability ratio are compared with approximate entropy and sample entropy. In our analysis, based on the method developed, it is observed that heart rate variability is significantly different for DM patients, particularly for patients with diabetic foot ulcer.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, diabetes mellitus, heart rate variability, pattern identification, sample entropy

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3419 Adaptive Filtering of Heart Rate Signals for an Improved Measure of Cardiac Autonomic Control

Authors: Desmond B. Keenan, Paul Grossman

Abstract:

In order to provide accurate heart rate variability indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, the low frequency and high frequency components of an RR heart rate signal must be adequately separated. This is not always possible by just applying spectral analysis, as power from the high and low frequency components often leak into their adjacent bands. Furthermore, without the respiratory spectra it is not obvious that the low frequency component is not another respiratory component, which can appear in the lower band. This paper describes an adaptive filter, which aids the separation of the low frequency sympathetic and high frequency parasympathetic components from an ECG R-R interval signal, enabling the attainment of more accurate heart rate variability measures. The algorithm is applied to simulated signals and heart rate and respiratory signals acquired from an ambulatory monitor incorporating single lead ECG and inductive plethysmography sensors embedded in a garment. The results show an improvement over standard heart rate variability spectral measurements.

Keywords: Heart rate variability, vagal tone, sympathetic, parasympathetic, spectral analysis, adaptive filter.

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3418 Development of Soft-Core System for Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation

Authors: Caje F. Pinto, Jivan S. Parab, Gourish M. Naik

Abstract:

This paper is about the development of non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation in human blood using Altera NIOS II soft-core processor system. In today's world, monitoring oxygen saturation and heart rate is very important in hospitals to keep track of low oxygen levels in blood. We have designed an Embedded System On Peripheral Chip (SOPC) reconfigurable system by interfacing two LED’s of different wavelengths (660 nm/940 nm) with a single photo-detector to measure the absorptions of hemoglobin species at different wavelengths. The implementation of the interface with Finger Probe and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) was carried out using NIOS II soft-core system running on Altera NANO DE0 board having target as Cyclone IVE. This designed system is used to monitor oxygen saturation in blood and heart rate for different test subjects. The designed NIOS II processor based non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation was verified with another Operon Pulse oximeter for 50 measurements on 10 different subjects. It was found that the readings taken were very close to the Operon Pulse oximeter.

Keywords: Heart rate, NIOS II, Oxygen Saturation, photoplethysmography, soft-core, SOPC.

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3417 Design and Simulation of Heartbeat Measurement System Using Arduino Microcontroller in Proteus

Authors: Muhibul H. Bhuyan, Mafujul Hasan

Abstract:

If a person can monitor his/her heart rate regularly then he/she can detect heart disease early and thus he/she can enjoy longer life span. Therefore, this disease should be taken seriously. Hence, many health care devices and monitoring systems are being designed to keep track of the heart disease. This work reports a design and simulation processes of an Arduino microcontroller based heart rate measurement and monitoring system in Proteus environment. Clipping sensors were utilized to sense the heart rate of an individual from the finger tips. It is a digital device and uses mainly infrared (IR) transmitter (mainly IR LED) and receiver (mainly IR photo-transistor or IR photo-detector). When the heart pumps the blood and circulates it among the blood vessels of the body, the changed blood pressure is detected by the transmitter and then reflected back to the receiver accordingly. The reflected signals are then processed inside the microcontroller through a software written assembly language and appropriate heart rate (HR) is determined by it in beats per minute (bpm) from the detected signal for a duration of 10 seconds and display the same in bpm on the LCD screen in digital format. The designed system was simulated on several persons with varying ages, for example, infants, adult persons and active athletes. Simulation results were found very satisfactory.

Keywords: Heart rate measurement, design, simulation, Proteus, Arduino Uno microcontroller.

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3416 Differentiation of Heart Rate Time Series from Electroencephalogram and Noise

Authors: V. I. Thajudin Ahamed, P. Dhanasekaran, Paul Joseph K.

Abstract:

Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular non-invasive tool for assessing the activities of autonomic nervous system. Most of the methods were hired from techniques used for time series analysis. Currently used methods are time domain, frequency domain, geometrical and fractal methods. A new technique, which searches for pattern repeatability in a time series, is proposed for quantifying heart rate (HR) time series. These set of indices, which are termed as pattern repeatability measure and pattern repeatability ratio are able to distinguish HR data clearly from noise and electroencephalogram (EEG). The results of analysis using these measures give an insight into the fundamental difference between the composition of HR time series with respect to EEG and noise.

Keywords: Approximate entropy, heart rate variability, noise, pattern repeatability, and sample entropy.

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3415 Effect of Environmental Changes in Working Heart Rate among Industrial Workers: An Ergonomic Interpretation

Authors: P. Mukhopadhyay, N. C. Dey

Abstract:

Occupational health hazard is a very common term in every emerging country. Along with the unorganized sector, most organized sectors including government industries are suffering from this affliction. In addition to workload, the seasonal changes also have some impacts on working environment. With this focus in mind, one hundred male industrial workers, who are directly involved to the task of Periodic Overhauling (POH) in a fabricating workshop in the public domain are selected for this research work. They have been studied during work periods throughout different seasons in a year. For each and every season, the participants working heart rate (WHR) is measured and compared with the standards given by different national and internationally recognized agencies i.e., World Health Organization (WHO) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) etc. The different environmental parameters i.e. dry bulb temperature (DBT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), globe temperature (GT), natural wet bulb temperature (NWB), relative humidity (RH), wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), air velocity (AV), effective temperature (ET) are recorded throughout the seasons to critically observe the effect of seasonal changes on the WHR of the workers. The effect of changes in environment to the WHR of the workers is very much surprising. It is found that the percentages of workers who belong to the ‘very heavy’ workload category are 83.33%, 66.66% and 16.66% in the summer, rainy and winter seasons, respectively. Ongoing undertaking of this type of job profile forces the worker towards occupational disorders causing absenteeism. This occurrence results in lower production rates, and on the other hand, costs due to medical claims also weaken the industry’s economic condition. In this circumstance, the authors are trying to focus on some remedial measures from the ergonomic angle by proposing a new work/ rest regimen and introducing engineering controls along with management controls which may help the worker, and consequently, the management also.

Keywords: Environmental changes, industrial worker, working heart rate, workload, occupational health hazard.

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3414 Extraction of Fetal Heart Rate and Fetal Heart Rate Variability from Mother's ECG Signal

Authors: Khaldon Lweesy, Luay Fraiwan, Christoph Maier, Hartmut Dickhaus

Abstract:

This paper describes a new method for extracting the fetal heart rate (fHR) and the fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) signal non-invasively using abdominal maternal electrocardiogram (mECG) recordings. The extraction is based on the fundamental frequency (Fourier-s) theorem. The fundamental frequency of the mother-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-m) is calculated directly from the abdominal signal. The heart rate of the fetus is usually higher than that of the mother; as a result, the fundamental frequency of the fetal-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-f) is higher than that of the mother-s (fo-f > fo-m). Notch filters to suppress mother-s higher harmonics were designed; then a bandpass filter to target fo-f and reject fo-m is implemented. Although the bandpass filter will pass some other frequencies (harmonics), we have shown in this study that those harmonics are actually carried on fo-f, and thus have no impact on the evaluation of the beat-to-beat changes (RR intervals). The oscillations of the time-domain extracted signal represent the RR intervals. We have also shown in this study that zero-to-zero evaluation of the periods is more accurate than the peak-to-peak evaluation. This method is evaluated both on simulated signals and on different abdominal recordings obtained at different gestational ages.

Keywords: Aabdominal ECG, fetal heart rate variability, frequency harmonics, fundamental frequency.

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3413 Heart-Rate Resistance Electrocardiogram Identification Based on Slope-Oriented Neural Networks

Authors: Tsu-Wang Shen, Shan-Chun Chang, Chih-Hsien Wang, Te-Chao Fang

Abstract:

For electrocardiogram (ECG) biometrics system, it is a tedious process to pre-install user’s high-intensity heart rate (HR) templates in ECG biometric systems. Based on only resting enrollment templates, it is a challenge to identify human by using ECG with the high-intensity HR caused from exercises and stress. This research provides a heartbeat segment method with slope-oriented neural networks against the ECG morphology changes due to high intensity HRs. The method has overall system accuracy at 97.73% which includes six levels of HR intensities. A cumulative match characteristic curve is also used to compare with other traditional ECG biometric methods.

Keywords: High-intensity heart rate, heart rate resistant, ECG human identification, decision based artificial neural network.

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3412 Detecting Older Drivers- Stress Level during Real-World Driving Tasks

Authors: Weihong Guo, Dan Brennan, Phil Blythe

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of driving a motor vehicle on the stress levels of older drivers, indicated by monitoring their hear rate increase whilst completing various everyday driving tasks. Results suggest that whilst older female drivers heart rate varied more significantly than males, the actual age of a participant did not result in a significant change in heart rate due to stress, within the age group tested. The analysis of the results indicates the most stressful manoeuvres undertaken by the older drivers and highlights the tasks which were found difficult with a view to implementing technologies to aid the more senior driver in automotive travel.

Keywords: Driver stress, heart rate, older driver, road safety, speeding.

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3411 Effect of Physical Contact (Hand-Holding) on Heart Rate Variability

Authors: T. Pishbin, S.M.P. Firoozabadi, N. Jafarnia Dabanloo, F. Mohammadi, S. Koozehgari

Abstract:

Heart-s electric field can be measured anywhere on the surface of the body (ECG). When individuals touch, one person-s ECG signal can be registered in other person-s EEG and elsewhere on his body. Now, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that physical contact (hand-holding) of two persons changes their heart rate variability. Subjects were sixteen healthy female (age: 20- 26) which divided into eight sets. In each sets, we had two friends that they passed intimacy test of J.sternberg. ECG of two subjects (each set) acquired for 5 minutes before hand-holding (as control group) and 5 minutes during they held their hands (as experimental group). Then heart rate variability signals were extracted from subjects' ECG and analyzed in linear feature space (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear feature space. Considering the results, we conclude that physical contact (hand-holding of two friends) increases parasympathetic activity, as indicate by increase SD1, SD1/SD2, HF and MF power (p<0.05) and decreases sympathetic activity, as indicate by decrease LF power (p<0.01) and LF/HF ratio (p<0.05).

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system (ANS), Hand- holding, Heart rate variability (HRV), Power spectral density analysis.

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3410 Poincaré Plot for Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Mazhar B. Tayel, Eslam I. AlSaba

Abstract:

Heart is the most important part in the body of living organisms. It affects and is affected by any factor in the body. Therefore, it is a good detector for all conditions in the body. Heart signal is a non-stationary signal; thus, it is utmost important to study the variability of heart signal. The Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has attracted considerable attention in psychology, medicine and has become important dependent measure in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. The standards of measurements, physiological interpretation and clinical use for HRV that are most often used were described in many researcher papers, however, remain complex issues are fraught with pitfalls. This paper presents one of the nonlinear techniques to analyze HRV. It discusses many points like, what Poincaré plot is and how Poincaré plot works; also, Poincaré plot's merits especially in HRV. Besides, it discusses the limitation of Poincaré cause of standard deviation SD1, SD2 and how to overcome this limitation by using complex correlation measure (CCM). The CCM is most sensitive to changes in temporal structure of the Poincaré plot as compared toSD1 and SD2.

Keywords: Heart rate variability, chaotic system, Poincaré, variance, standard deviation, complex correlation measure.

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3409 Synchronization of 0.1 Hz Oscillations in Heart Rate and Blood Pressure: Application to Treatment of Myocardial Infarction Patients

Authors: M. D. Prokhorov, A. R. Kiselev, A. S. Karavaev, O. M. Posnenkova, V. I. Gridnev, V. I. Ponomarenko

Abstract:

Synchronization between 0.1 Hz oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure is studied and its change during vertical tilt is evaluated in 37 myocardial infarction patients. Two groups of patients are identified with decreased and increased, respectively, synchronization of the studied oscillations as a response to a tilt test. It is shown that assessment of synchronization of 0.1 Hz oscillations as a response to vertical tilt can be used as a guideline for selecting optimal dose of beta-blocker treatment in post-myocardial infarction patients.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, heart rate variability, synchronization.

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3408 Effects of a Methanol Fraction of the Leaves of Leonotis leonurus on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Normotensive Male Wistar Rats

Authors: K. Obikeze, P. Mugabo, I. Green, D. Dietrich, A. Burger

Abstract:

Leonotisleonurus a shrub indigenous to Southern Africa is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions ranging from skin diseases and cough to epileptic fits and ‘heart problems’. Studies on the aqueous extract of the leaves have indicated cycloxegenase enzyme inhibitory activity and an antihypertensive effect. Five methanol leaf extract fractions (MLEa - MLEe) of L. leonurus were tested on anaesthetized normotensive male Wistar rats (AWR) and isolated perfused working rat hearts (IWH). Fraction MLEc (0.01mg/kg – 0.05mg/kg) induced significant increases in BP and HR in AWR and positive chronotropic and inotropic effects in IWH (1.0mg/ml – 5.0mg/ml). Pre-administration of atenolol (2.0mg/kg) and prazosin (60μg/kg) significantly inhibited MLEc effect on HR and MAP respectively in vivo, while atenolol (7.0mg/ml) pre-perfusion significantly inhibited MLEc effect in vitro. The hypertensive effect of MLEc is probably via β1agonism. Results also indicate the presence of multiple cardioactive compounds in L. leonurus.

Keywords: Cardiovascular effect, in vitro, in vivo, isolated perfused working heart, Leonotis leonurus, rat.

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3407 Optimal ECG Sampling Frequency for Multiscale Entropy-Based HRV

Authors: Manjit Singh

Abstract:

Multiscale entropy (MSE) is an extensively used index to provide a general understanding of multiple complexity of physiologic mechanism of heart rate variability (HRV) that operates on a wide range of time scales. Accurate selection of electrocardiogram (ECG) sampling frequency is an essential concern for clinically significant HRV quantification; high ECG sampling rate increase memory requirements and processing time, whereas low sampling rate degrade signal quality and results in clinically misinterpreted HRV. In this work, the impact of ECG sampling frequency on MSE based HRV have been quantified. MSE measures are found to be sensitive to ECG sampling frequency and effect of sampling frequency will be a function of time scale.

Keywords: ECG, heart rate variability, HRV, multiscale entropy, sampling frequency.

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3406 The Intensity of Load Experienced by Female Basketball Players during Competitive Games

Authors: Tomáš Vencúrik, Jiří Nykodým

Abstract:

This study compares the intensity of game load among player positions and between the 1st and the 2nd half of the games. Two guards, three forwards, and three centers (female basketball players) participated in this study. The heart rate (HR) and its development were monitored during two competitive games. Statistically insignificant differences in the intensity of game load were recorded between guards, forwards, and centers below and above 85% of the maximal heart rate (HRmax) and in the mean HR as % of HRmax (87.81±3.79%, 87.02±4.37%, and 88.76±3.54%, respectively). Moreover, when the 1st and the 2nd half of the games were compared in the mean HR (87.89±4.18% vs. 88.14±3.63% of HRmax), no statistical significance was recorded. This information can be useful for coaching staff, to manage and to precisely plan the training process.

Keywords: Game load, heart rate, player positions, the 1st and the 2nd half of the games.

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3405 Detection and Correction of Ectopic Beats for HRV Analysis Applying Discrete Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Desmond B. Keenan

Abstract:

The clinical usefulness of heart rate variability is limited to the range of Holter monitoring software available. These software algorithms require a normal sinus rhythm to accurately acquire heart rate variability (HRV) measures in the frequency domain. Premature ventricular contractions (PVC) or more commonly referred to as ectopic beats, frequent in heart failure, hinder this analysis and introduce ambiguity. This investigation demonstrates an algorithm to automatically detect ectopic beats by analyzing discrete wavelet transform coefficients. Two techniques for filtering and replacing the ectopic beats from the RR signal are compared. One technique applies wavelet hard thresholding techniques and another applies linear interpolation to replace ectopic cycles. The results demonstrate through simulation, and signals acquired from a 24hr ambulatory recorder, that these techniques can accurately detect PVC-s and remove the noise and leakage effects produced by ectopic cycles retaining smooth spectra with the minimum of error.

Keywords: Heart rate variability, vagal tone, sympathetic, parasympathetic, wavelets, ectopic beats, spectral analysis.

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3404 Effects of Combined Stimulation on the Autonomic Nervous System: A Pilot Study

Authors: Dae Won Lee, Ji Hyung Park, Sinae Eom, Syung Hyun Cho, Jong Soo Lee, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The autonomic nervous system has a regulatory structure that helps people adapt to changes in their environment by adjusting or modifying some functions in response to stress, and regulating involuntary function of human organs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined stimulation, both far-infrared heating and chiropractic, on the autonomic nervous system activities using thermal image and heart rate variability. Six healthy subjects participated in this test. We compared the before and after autonomic nervous system activities through obtaining thermal image and photoplethysmogram signal. The thermal images showed that the combined stimulation changed subject-s body temperature more highly and widely than before. The result of heart rate variability indicated that LF/HF ratio decreased. We concluded that combined stimulation activates autonomic nervous system, and expected other possibilities of this combined stimulation.

Keywords: Far-infrared heating, Chiropractic, Autonomic nervous system, Heart rate variability

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3403 Heart Rate-Determined Physical Activity In New Zealand School Children: A Cross- Sectional Study

Authors: Michael J. Hamlin, Mick Grimley, Vicki Cowley, Chris D. Price, Jill M. Hargreaves, Jenny J. Ross

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine current levels of physical activity determined via heart rate monitoring. A total of 176 children (85 boys, 91 girls) aged 5-13 years wore sealed Polar heart rate monitors for at least 10 hours per day on at least 3 days. Mean daily minutes of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity was 65 ± 43 (mean ± SD) for boys and 54 ± 37 for girls. Daily minutes of vigorous-intensity activity was 31 ± 24 and 24 ± 21 for boys and girls respectively. Significant differences in physical activity levels were observed between school day and weekends, boys and girls, and among age and geographical groups. Only 36% of boys and 22% of girls met the New Zealand physical activity guideline. This research indicates that a large proportion of New Zealand children are not meeting physical activity recommendations.

Keywords: activity guidelines, moderate activity, sedentary, vigorous activity

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3402 HRV Analysis Based Arrhythmic Beat Detection Using kNN Classifier

Authors: Onder Yakut, Oguzhan Timus, Emine Dogru Bolat

Abstract:

Health diseases have a vital significance affecting human being's life and life quality. Sudden death events can be prevented owing to early diagnosis and treatment methods. Electrical signals, taken from the human being's body using non-invasive methods and showing the heart activity is called Electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG signal is used for following daily activity of the heart by clinicians. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a physiological parameter giving the variation between the heart beats. ECG data taken from MITBIH Arrhythmia Database is used in the model employed in this study. The detection of arrhythmic heart beats is aimed utilizing the features extracted from the HRV time domain parameters. The developed model provides a satisfactory performance with ~89% accuracy, 91.7 % sensitivity and 85% specificity rates for the detection of arrhythmic beats.

Keywords: Arrhythmic beat detection, ECG, HRV, kNN classifier.

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3401 A New Method in Short-Term Heart Rate Variability — Five-Class Density Histogram

Authors: Liping Li, Ke Li, Changchun Liu, Chengyu Liu, Yuanyang Li

Abstract:

A five-class density histogram with an index named cumulative density was proposed to analyze the short-term HRV. 150 subjects participated in the test, falling into three groups with equal numbers -- the healthy young group (Young), the healthy old group (Old), and the group of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Results of multiple comparisons showed a significant differences of the cumulative density in the three groups, with values 0.0238 for Young, 0.0406 for Old and 0.0732 for CHF (p<0.001). After 7 days and 14 days, 46 subjects from the Young and Old groups were retested twice following the same test protocol. Results showed good-to-excellent interclass correlations (ICC=0.783, 95% confidence interval 0.676-0.864). The Bland-Altman plots were used to reexamine the test-retest reliability. In conclusion, the method proposed could be a valid and reliable method to the short-term HRV assessment.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, congestive heart failure, heart rate variability, histogram.

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3400 Synchronization between the Slow Oscillations in the Human Cardiovascular System

Authors: M. D. Prokhorov, V. I. Ponomarenko, A. S. Karavaev, A. R. Kiselev, V. I. Gridnev

Abstract:

Synchronization between the slow oscillations of heart rate and blood pressure having in humans a basic frequency close to 0.1 Hz is investigated. A method is proposed for quantitative estimation of synchronization between these oscillating processes based on calculation of relative time of phase synchronization of oscillations. It is shown that healthy subjects exhibit in average substantially longer epochs of synchronization between the slow oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure than patients after acute myocardial infarction

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, slow oscillating processes, synchronization.

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3399 Heart Rate Variability in Responders and Non- Responders to Live-Moderate, Train-Low Altitude Training

Authors: Michael J. Hamlin, Apiwan Manimmanakorn, Gavin R. Sandercock, Jenny J. Ross, Robert H. Creasy, John Hellemans

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of an altitude training camp on heart rate variability and performance in elite triathletes. Ten athletes completed 20 days of live-high, train-low training at 1650m. Athletes underwent pre and post 800-m swim time trials at sea-level, and two heart rate variability tests at 1650m on the first and last day of the training camp. Based on their time trial results, athletes were divided into responders and non-responders. Relative to the non-responders, the responders sympathetic-toparasympathetic ratio decreased substantially after 20 days of altitude training (-0.68 ± 1.08 and -1.2 ± 0.96, mean ± 90% confidence interval for supine and standing respectively). In addition, sympathetic activity while standing was also substantially lower post-altitude in the responders compared to the non-responders (-1869 ± 4764 ms2). Results indicate that responders demonstrated a change to more vagal predominance compared to non-responders.

Keywords: parasympathetic predominance, poor performance, triathlon, 800-m swim

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3398 Design and Fabrication of a Low Cost Heart Monitor using Reflectance Photoplethysmogram

Authors: Nur Ilyani Ramli, Mansour Youseffi, Peter Widdop

Abstract:

This paper presents a low cost design of heart beat monitoring device using reflectance mode PhotoPlethysmography (PPG). PPG is known for its simple construction, ease of use and cost effectiveness and can provide information about the changes in cardiac activity as well as aid in earlier non-invasive diagnostics. The proposed device is divided into three phases. First is the detection of pulses through the fingertip. The signal is then passed to the signal processing unit for the purpose of amplification, filtering and digitizing. Finally the heart rate is calculated and displayed on the computer using parallel port interface. The paper is concluded with prototyping of the device followed by verification procedure of the heartbeat signal obtained in laboratory setting.

Keywords: Reflectance mode PPG, Heart beat detection, Circuitdesign, PCB design

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3397 Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic Cardiac Phantom for use in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Marcos A. Dullius, Ramon C. Fernandes, Divanízia N. Souza

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to develop a dynamic cardiac phantom for quality control in myocardial scintigraphy. The dynamic heart phantom constructed only contained the left ventricle, made of elastic material (latex), comprising two cavities: one internal and one external. The data showed a non-significant variation in the values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by varying the heart rate. It was also possible to evaluate the ejection fraction (LVEF) through different arrays of image acquisition and to perform an intercomparison of LVEF by two different scintillation cameras. The results of the quality control tests were satisfactory, showing that they can be used as parameters in future assessments. The new dynamic heart phantom was demonstrated to be effective for use in LVEF measurements. Therefore, the new heart simulator is useful for the quality control of scintigraphic cameras.

Keywords: sheart, nuclear medicine, phantom

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3396 Coconut Shells as the Alternative Equipment for Foot Reflexology

Authors: Nichanant Sermsri, Chananchida Yuktirat

Abstract:

This research was the experimental research. Its purpose was to find out how coconut shells can be adapted to be equipment for foot and calf reflexology. The sample group was 58 female street vendors in Thewet Market, Bangkok, selected by selection criteria and voluntary. The data collecting tool was the Visual Analogue Scale. The massaging tool made from coconut shells was the key equipment for this research. The research team assessed the level of exhaustion and heart rate among sample group before and after the massage, then analyzed the data by mean, standard deviation and paired sample t-test.

We found out from the research that

  1. The level of exhaustion decreased 4.529 levels after the massage and the standard deviation was 1.6195. The heart rates went down 11.67 times/minute and the standard deviation was 6.742.
  2. The level of exhaustion and heart rate after the massage decreased with the statistically significance at 0.01

Keywords: Coconut Shells, Foot Massage, Foot Reflexology, Massaging Plate.

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3395 Working Capital Efficiency and Firm Profitability – Nigeria and Kenya

Authors: Lucian J. Pitt

Abstract:

The primary purpose of this study is to understand the differences in the relationship between working capital management efficiency, working capital investment decisions and working capital finance decisions and the profitability of firms within the context of two African developing economies, Kenya and Nigeria. The study finds that there is a significant difference in the relationship between the firm’s profitability and the working capital variables which suggests different challenges for working capital management in each of these countries.

Keywords: Working Capital Management, Working Capital Investment, Working Capital Finance, Profitability, Cash Conversion Cycle.

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3394 Time and Frequency Domain Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and their Correlations in Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: P. T. Ahamed Seyd, V. I. Thajudin Ahamed, Jeevamma Jacob, Paul Joseph K

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently characterized by autonomic nervous dysfunction. Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular noninvasive tool for assessing the activities of autonomic nervous system (ANS). In this paper, changes in ANS activity are quantified by means of frequency and time domain analysis of R-R interval variability. Electrocardiograms (ECG) of 16 patients suffering from DM and of 16 healthy volunteers were recorded. Frequency domain analysis of extracted normal to normal interval (NN interval) data indicates significant difference in very low frequency (VLF) power, low frequency (LF) power and high frequency (HF) power, between the DM patients and control group. Time domain measures, standard deviation of NN interval (SDNN), root mean square of successive NN interval differences (RMSSD), successive NN intervals differing more than 50 ms (NN50 Count), percentage value of NN50 count (pNN50), HRV triangular index and triangular interpolation of NN intervals (TINN) also show significant difference between the DM patients and control group.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, diabetes mellitus, frequency domain and time domain analysis, heart rate variability.

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3393 Modeling the Human Cardiovascular System with Aspecial Focus on the Heart Using Dymola

Authors: Stefanie Heinke, Carina Pereira, Jan Spillner, Steffen Leonhardt

Abstract:

Severe heart failure is a common problem that has a significant effect on health expenditures in industrialized countries; moreover it reduces patient-s quality of life. However, current research usually focuses either on detailed modeling of the heart or on detailed modeling of the cardiovascular system. Thus, this paper aims to present a sophisticated model of the heart enhanced with an extensive model of the cardiovascular system. Special interest is on the pressure and flow values close to the heart since these values are critical to accurately diagnose causes of heart failure. The model is implemented in Dymola an object-oriented, physical modeling language. Results achieved with the novel model show overall feasibility of the approach. Moreover, results are illustrated and compared to other models. The novel model shows significant improvements.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, heart, modeling.

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3392 Optimum Working Fluid Selection for Automotive Cogeneration System

Authors: Wonsim Cha, Kibum Kim, Kyungwook Choi, Kihyung Lee

Abstract:

A co-generation system in automobile can improve thermal efficiency of vehicle in some degree. The waste heat from the engine exhaust and coolant is still attractive energy source that reaches around 60% of the total energy converted from fuel. To maximize the effectiveness of heat exchangers for recovering the waste heat, it is vital to select the most suitable working fluid for the system, not to mention that it is important to find the optimum design for the heat exchangers. The design of heat exchanger is out of scoop of this study; rather, the main focus has been on the right selection of working fluid for the co-generation system. Simulation study was carried out to find the most suitable working fluid that can allow the system to achieve the optimum efficiency in terms of the heat recovery rate and thermal efficiency.

Keywords: Cycle Analysis, Heat Recovery, Rankine Cycle, Waste Heat Recovery, Working Fluid.

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