Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1613

Search results for: wire and cable industry

1613 Multi-Stage Multi-Period Production Planning in Wire and Cable Industry

Authors: Mahnaz Hosseinzadeh, Shaghayegh Rezaee Amiri

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology for serial production planning problem in wire and cable manufacturing process that addresses the problem of input-output imbalance in different consecutive stations, hoping to minimize the halt of machines in each stage. To this end, a linear Goal Programming (GP) model is developed, in which four main categories of constraints as per the number of runs per machine, machines’ sequences, acceptable inventories of machines at the end of each period, and the necessity of fulfillment of the customers’ orders are considered. The model is formulated based upon on the real data obtained from IKO TAK Company, an important supplier of wire and cable for oil and gas and automotive industries in Iran. By solving the model in GAMS software the optimal number of runs, end-of-period inventories, and the possible minimum idle time for each machine are calculated. The application of the numerical results in the target company has shown the efficiency of the proposed model and the solution in decreasing the lead time of the end product delivery to the customers by 20%. Accordingly, the developed model could be easily applied in wire and cable companies for the aim of optimal production planning to reduce the halt of machines in manufacturing stages.

Keywords: Serial manufacturing process, production planning, wire and cable industry, goal programming approach.

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1612 Structural Safety Evaluation of Zip-Line Due to Dynamic Impact Load

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Jae Sang Kim, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

In recent year, with recent increase of interest towards leisure sports, increased number of Zip-Line or Zip-Wire facilities has built. Many researches have been actively conducted on the emphasis of the cable and the wire at the bridge. However, very limited researches have been conducted on the safety of the Zip-Line structure. In fact, fall accidents from Zip-Line have been reported frequently. Therefore, in this study, the structural safety of Zip-Line under dynamic impact loading condition were evaluated on the previously installed steel cable for leisure (Zip-Line), using 3-dimensional nonlinear Finite Element (FE) model. The result from current study would assist assurance of systematic stability of Zip-Line.

Keywords: Zip-Line, Wire, Cable, 3D FE Model, Safety.

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1611 How CATV Survive in the Era of Convergence?

Authors: J. Park, J. Song, B. Lee

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the case of the U.S. Pivot and to suggest an appropriate model including entry strategies and success factors for QPS of Cable TV. The telecommunication companies have been operating QPS including IPTV service, which enables them to cross over broadcasting areas. Due to this circumstance, the Cable TV operators are now concerned and are planning to add QPS with the mobile service. Based on the Porter's five forces model, an analytical framework has been proposed to MVNO in Cable TV industry in the United States. As a result of this study, MVNO in Cable TV industry has to have a clear killer application with their sufficient contents. Subsequently, the direction of the future Cable TV industry is proposed.

Keywords: CATV, MVNO, Pivot, QPS

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1610 Decreasing of Displacements of Prestressed Cable Truss

Authors: V. Goremikins, K. Rocens, D. Serdjuks

Abstract:

Suspended cable structures are most preferable for large spans covering due to rational use of structural materials, but the problem of suspended cable structures is initial shape change under the action of non-symmetrical load. The problem can be solved by increasing of relation of dead weight and imposed load, but this methods cause increasing of materials consumption.Prestressed cable truss usage is another way how the problem of shape change under the action of non-symmetrical load can be fixed. The better results can be achieved if we replace top chord with cable truss with cross web. Rational structure of the cable truss for prestressed cable truss top chord was developed using optimization realized in FEM program ANSYS 12 environment. Single cable and cable truss model work was discovered.Analytical and model testing results indicate, that usage of cable truss with the cross web as a top chord of prestressed cable truss instead of single cable allows to reduce total displacements by 13-16% in the case of non-symmetrical load. In case of uniformly distributed load single cable is preferable.

Keywords: Cable trusses, Non-symmetrical load, Cable truss models, Vertical displacements

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1609 Rational Structure of Cable Truss

Authors: V. Goremikins, K. Rocens, D. Serdjuks

Abstract:

One of the main problems of suspended cable structures is initial shape change under the action of non uniform load. The problem can be solved by increasing of weight of construction or by using of prestressing. But this methods cause increasing of materials consumption of suspended cable structure. The cable truss usage is another way how the problem of shape change under the action of non uniform load can be fixed. The cable trusses with the vertical and inclined suspensions, cross web and single cable were analyzed as the main load-bearing structures of suspension bridge. It was shown, that usage of cable truss allows to reduce the vertical displacements up to 32% in comparison with the single cable in case of non uniformly distributed load. In case of uniformly distributed load single cable is preferable.

Keywords: Cable trusses, Non uniform load, Suspension bridge, Vertical displacements.

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1608 New EEM/BEM Hybrid Method for Electric Field Calculation in Cable Joints

Authors: Nebojsa B. Raicevic, Slavoljub R. Aleksic, Sasa S. Ilic

Abstract:

A power cable is widely used for power supply in power distributing networks and power transmission lines. Due to limitations in the production, delivery and setting up power cables, they are produced and delivered in several separate lengths. Cable itself, consists of two cable terminations and arbitrary number of cable joints, depending on the cable route length. Electrical stress control is needed to prevent a dielectric breakdown at the end of the insulation shield in both the air and cable insulation. Reliability of cable joint depends on its materials, design, installation and operating environment. The paper describes design and performance results for new modeled cable joints. Design concepts, based on numerical calculations, must be correct. An Equivalent Electrodes Method/Boundary Elements Method-hybrid approach that allows electromagnetic field calculations in multilayer dielectric media, including inhomogeneous regions, is presented.

Keywords: Cable joints, deflector's cones, equivalent electrodemethod, electric field distribution

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1607 Internal Force State Recognition of Jiujiang Bridge Based on Cable Force-displacement Relationship

Authors: Weifeng Wang, Guoqing Huang, Xianwei Zeng

Abstract:

The nearly 21-year-old Jiujiang Bridge, which is suffering from uneven line shape, constant great downwarping of the main beam and cracking of the box girder, needs reinforcement and cable adjustment. It has undergone cable adjustment for twice with incomplete data. Therefore, the initial internal force state of the Jiujiang Bridge is identified as the key for the cable adjustment project. Based on parameter identification by means of static force test data, this paper suggests determining the initial internal force state of the cable-stayed bridge according to the cable force-displacement relationship parameter identification method. That is, upon measuring the displacement and the change in cable forces for twice, one can identify the parameters concerned by means of optimization. This method is applied to the cable adjustment, replacement and reinforcement project for the Jiujiang Bridge as a guidance for the cable adjustment and reinforcement project of the bridge.

Keywords: Cable-stayed bridge, cable force-displacement, parameter identification, internal force state

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1606 Seismic Time History Analysis for Cable-Stayed Bridge Considering Different Geometrical Configuration For Near Field Earthquakes

Authors: Atul K. Desai

Abstract:

To increase the maximum span of cable-stayed bridges, Uwe Starossek has developed a modified statical system. The basic idea of this new concept is the use of pairs of inclined pylon legs that spread out longitudinally from the foundation base or from the girder level. Spread-pylon cable-stayed bridge has distinct advantage like reduction of sag of cables and oscillation of cable during earthquake over traditional cable-stayed bridges. Spread-pylon also improves seismic performance of deck during strong ground motion.

Keywords: Different geometry of cable stayed bridge, seismic time history analysis, earthquake displacement ratio, response mode shape.

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1605 Ageing Deterioration of Hi gh-Density Polyethylene Cable Spacer under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test

Authors: P. Kaewchanthuek, R. Rawonghad, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of high-density polyethylene cable spacers for 22 kV distribution systems under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. The strength of anti-tracking and anti-erosion of cable spacer surface was studied in this study. During the test, dry band arc and corona discharge were observed on cable spacer surface. After 30,000 cycles of salt water dip wheel test, obviously surface erosion and tracking were observed especially on the ground end. Chemical analysis results by fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy showed chemical changed from oxidation and carbonization reaction on tested cable spacer. Increasing of C=O and C=C bonds confirmed occurrence of these reactions.

Keywords: Cable spacer, HDPE, ageing of cable spacer, salt water dip wheel test.

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1604 Comparison of Numerical and Theoretical Friction Effect in the Wire Winding for Reinforced Structures with Wire Winding

Authors: Amer Ezoji, Mohammad Sedighi

Abstract:

In the article, the wire winding process for the reinforcement of a pressure vessel frame has been studied. Firstly, the importance of the wire winding method has been explained. The main step in the design process is the methodology axial force control and wire winding process. The hot isostatic press and wire winding process introduce. With use the equilibrium term in the pressure vessel and frame, stresses in the frame wires analyzed. A case study frame was studied to control axial force in the hot isostatic press. Frame and them wires simulated then friction effect and wires effect in elastic yoke in the simulation model considered. Then theoretical and simulate resulted compare and vessel pressure import to frame because we assurance wire wounded not received to yielding point.   

Keywords: Wire winding, Frame, stress, friction.

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1603 A Computational Design Algorithm for Manufacturing of Reinforced Structures with Wire Winding

Authors: Amer Ezoji, Mohammad Sedighi

Abstract:

In the article, the wire winding process for the reinforcement of a pressure vessel frame has been studied. Firstly, the importance of the wire winding method has been explained and literature was reviewed. The main step in the design process is the methodology axial force control. The frame consists of two columns and two semi-cylinders with circumstantial wires. A computational algorithm has been presented based on the governing equations and relations on stress-strain behavior of the whole system of the frame.  Then a case study was studied to calculate the frame dimensions and wire winding procedure.

Keywords: Wire winding, Frame, stress, Design for Manufacturing.

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1602 Detection ofTensile Forces in Cable-Stayed Structures Using the Advanced Hybrid Micro-Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Sang-Youl Lee

Abstract:

This study deals with an advanced numerical techniques to detect tensile forces in cable-stayed structures. The proposed method allows us not only to avoid the trap of minimum at initial searching stage but also to find their final solutions in better numerical efficiency. The validity of the technique is numerically verified using a set of dynamic data obtained from a simulation of the cable model modeled using the finite element method. The results indicate that the proposed method is computationally efficient in characterizing the tensile force variation for cable-stayed structures.

Keywords: Tensile force detection, cable-stayed structures, hybrid system identification (h-SI), dynamic response.

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1601 Development of Autonomous Cable Inspection Robot for Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: Jae-Kyung LEE, Byung-Hak CHO, Kyung-Nam Jang, Sun-Chul Jung, Ki-Yong OH, Joon-Young PARK, Jong-Seog Kim

Abstract:

The cables in a nuclear power plant are designed to be used for about 40 years in safe operation environment. However, the heat and radiation in the nuclear power plant causes the rapid performance deterioration of cables in nuclear vessels and heat exchangers, which requires cable lifetime estimation. The most accurate method of estimating the cable lifetime is to evaluate the cables in a laboratory. However, removing cables while the plant is operating is not allowed because of its safety and cost. In this paper, a robot system to estimate the cable lifetime in nuclear power plants is developed and tested. The developed robot system can calculate a modulus value to estimate the cable lifetime even when the nuclear power plant is in operation.

Keywords: Autonomous robot, Cable Inspection, Indenter, Nuclear Power Plant

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1600 Ultimate Load Capacity of the Cable Tower of Liede Bridge

Authors: Weifeng Wang, Xilong Chen, Xianwei Zeng

Abstract:

The cable tower of Liede Bridge is a double-column curved-lever arched-beam portal framed structure. Being novel and unique in structure, its cable tower differs in complexity from traditional ones. This paper analyzes the ultimate load capacity of cable tower by adopting the finite element calculations and model tests which indicate that constitutive relations applied here give a better simulation of actual failure process of prestressed reinforced concrete. In vertical load, horizontal load and overloading tests, the stepped loading of the tower model is of linear relationship, and the test data has good repeatability. All suggests that the cable tower has good bearing capacity, rational design and high emergency capacity.

Keywords: Cable tower of Liede Bridge, ultimate load capacity, model test, nonlinear finite element method

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1599 Comparison of Finite-Element and IEC Methods for Cable Thermal Analysis under Various Operating Environments

Authors: M. S. Baazzim, M. S. Al-Saud, M. A. El-Kady

Abstract:

In this paper, steady-state ampacity (current carrying capacity) evaluation of underground power cable system by using analytical and numerical methods for different conditions (depth of cable, spacing between phases, soil thermal resistivity, ambient temperature, wind speed), for two system voltage level were used 132 and 380 kV. The analytical method or traditional method that was used is based on the thermal analysis method developed by Neher-McGrath and further enhanced by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and published in standard IEC 60287. The numerical method that was used is finite element method and it was recourse commercial software based on finite element method. 

Keywords: Cable ampacity, Finite element method, underground cable, thermal rating.

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1598 Large Amplitude Free Vibration of a Very Sag Marine Cable

Authors: O. Punjarat, S. Chucheepsakul, T. Phanyasahachart

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a variational formulation of large amplitude free vibration behavior of a very sag marine cable. In the static equilibrium state, the marine cable has a very large sag configuration. In the motion state, the marine cable is assumed to vibrate in in-plane motion with large amplitude from the static equilibrium position. The total virtual work-energy of the marine cable at the dynamic state is formulated which involves the virtual strain energy due to axial deformation, the virtual work done by effective weight, and the inertia forces. The equations of motion for the large amplitude free vibration of marine cable are obtained by taking into account the difference between the Euler’s equation in the static state and the displaced state. Based on the Galerkin finite element procedure, the linear and nonlinear stiffness matrices, and mass matrices of the marine cable are obtained and the eigenvalue problem is solved. The natural frequency spectrum and the large amplitude free vibration behavior of marine cable are presented.

Keywords: Axial deformation, free vibration, Galerkin Finite Element Method, large amplitude, variational method.

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1597 Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of ZnO Nanowires as a Function of Nano-Diameter

Authors: L. Achou, A. Doghmane

Abstract:

Elastic performances, as an essential property of nanowires (NWs), play a significant role in the design and fabrication of modern nanodevices. In this paper, our interest is focused on ZnO NWs to investigate wire diameter (Dwire ≤ 400 nm) effects on elastic properties. The plotted data reveal that a strong size dependence of the elastic constants exists when the wire diameter is smaller than ~ 100 nm. For larger diameters (Dwire > 100 nm), these ones approach their corresponding bulk values. To enrich this study, we make use of the scanning acoustic microscopy simulation technique. The calculation methodology consists of several steps: determination of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities, calculation of refection coefficients, calculation of acoustic signatures and Rayleigh velocity determination. Quantitatively, it was found that changes in ZnO diameters over the ranges 1 nm ≤ Dwire ≤ 100 nm lead to similar exponential variations, for all elastic parameters, of the from: A = a + b exp(-Dwire/c) where a, b, and c are characteristic constants of a given parameter. The developed relation can be used to predict elastic properties of such NW by just knowing its diameter and vice versa.

Keywords: Elastic properties, nanowires, semiconductors, ZnO.

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1596 Cable Tension Control and Analysis of Reel Transparency for 6-DOF Haptic Foot Platform on a Cable-Driven Locomotion Interface

Authors: Martin J.-D. Otis, Thien-Ly Nguyen-Dang, Thierry Laliberte, Denis Ouellet, Denis Laurendeau, Clement Gosselin

Abstract:

A Cable-Driven Locomotion Interface provides a low inertia haptic interface and is used as a way of enabling the user to walk and interact with virtual surfaces. These surfaces generate Cartesian wrenches which must be optimized for each motorized reel in order to reproduce a haptic sensation in both feet. However, the use of wrench control requires a measure of the cable tensions applied to the moving platform. The latter measure may be inaccurate if it is based on sensors located near the reel. Moreover, friction hysteresis from the reel moving parts needs to be compensated for with an evaluation of low angular velocity of the motor shaft. Also, the pose of the platform is not known precisely due to cable sagging and mechanical deformation. This paper presents a non-ideal motorized reel design with its corresponding control strategy that aims at overcoming the aforementioned issues. A transfert function of the reel based on frequency responses in function of cable tension and cable length is presented with an optimal adaptative PIDF controller. Finally, an hybrid position/tension control is discussed with an analysis of the stability for achieving a complete functionnality of the haptic platform.

Keywords: haptic, reel, transparency, cable, tension, control

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1595 Design Process of the Fixing Pipes in the Guide Pipe Anchor System for Cable-Stayed Bridges

Authors: Jinwoong Choi, Sun-Kyu Park, Sungnam Hong

Abstract:

For the efficient and safe use of the cable-stayed bridge, a design based on the detailed local analysis of the cable anchor system is required. Also, a theoretical design process for the anchor system should be prepared and reviewed. Generally, the size of the fixing pipe in the anchor system is decided according to the specifications prepared by cable-manufacturing companies, and accordingly, there is difficulty determining the initial inner diameters of the fixing pipes. As such, there is no choice but to use the products with the existing sizes. In this study, the existing design process of the fixing pipe, is a type of guide pipe anchor in the cable anchor system, is reviewed, a formula determining the thickness of the fixing pipe is proposed, and the convenience and validity of the suggested equation is compared with the results of the existing designs to verify its convenience and validity.

Keywords: Cable-stayed bridge; Guide pipe anchor system; Fixing pipe; Theoretical design process.

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1594 Methods for Manufacture of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminates

Authors: Jeongho Choi, Krishna Shankar, Alan Fien, Andrew Neely

Abstract:

Corrugated wire mesh laminates (CWML) are a class of engineered open cell structures that have potential for applications in many areas including aerospace and biomedical engineering. Two different methods of fabricating corrugated wire mesh laminates from stainless steel, one using a high temperature Lithobraze alloy and the other using a low temperature Eutectic solder for joining the corrugated wire meshes are described herein. Their implementation is demonstrated by manufacturing CWML samples of 304 and 316 stainless steel (SST). It is seen that due to the facility of employing wire meshes of different densities and wire diameters, it is possible to create CWML laminates with a wide range of effective densities. The fabricated laminates are tested under uniaxial compression. The variation of the compressive yield strength with relative density of the CWML is compared to the theory developed by Gibson and Ashby for open cell structures [22]. It is shown that the compressive strength of the corrugated wire mesh laminates can be described using the same equations by using an appropriate value for the linear coefficient in the Gibson-Ashby model.

Keywords: cellular solids, corrugation, foam, open-cell, metal mesh, laminate, stainless steel

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1593 Online Partial Discharge Source Localization and Characterization Using Non-Conventional Method

Authors: Ammar Anwar Khan, Nissar R. Wani, Nazar Malik, Abdulrehman Al-Arainy, and Saad Alghuwainem

Abstract:

Power cables are vulnerable to failure due to aging or defects that occur with the passage of time under continuous operation and loading stresses. PD detection and characterization provide information on the location, nature, form and extent of the degradation. As a result, PD monitoring has become an important part of condition based maintenance (CBM) program among power utilities. Online partial discharge (PD) localization of defect sources in power cable system is possible using the time of flight method. The information regarding the time difference between the main and reflected pulses and cable length can help in locating the partial discharge source along the cable length. However, if the length of the cable is not known and the defect source is located at the extreme ends of the cable or in the middle of the cable, then double ended measurement is required to indicate the location of PD source. Use of multiple sensors can also help in discriminating the cable PD or local/ external PD. This paper presents the experience and results from online partial discharge measurements conducted in the laboratory and the challenges in partial discharge source localization.

Keywords: Power cables, partial discharge localization, HFCT, condition based monitoring.

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1592 Topology Optimization of Cable Truss Web for Prestressed Suspension Bridge

Authors: Vadims Goremikins, Karlis Rocens, Dmitrijs Serdjuks

Abstract:

A suspension bridge is the most suitable type of structure for a long-span bridge due to rational use of structural materials. Increased deformability, which is conditioned by appearance of the elastic and kinematic displacements, is the major disadvantage of suspension bridges. The problem of increased kinematic displacements under the action of non-symmetrical load can be solved by prestressing. The prestressed suspension bridge with the span of 200 m was considered as an object of investigations. The cable truss with the cross web was considered as the main load carrying structure of the prestressed suspension bridge. The considered cable truss was optimized by 47 variable factors using Genetic algorithm and FEM program ANSYS. It was stated, that the maximum total displacements are reduced up to 29.9% by using of the cable truss with the rational characteristics instead of the single cable in the case of the worst situated load.

Keywords: Decreasing displacements, Genetic algorithm.

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1591 Experimental Study on Slicing of Sapphire with Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw

Authors: Mengjun Zhang, Yuli Sun, Dunwen Zuo, Chunxiang Xie, Chunming Zhang

Abstract:

Experimental study on slicing of sapphire with fixed abrasive diamond wire saw was conducted in this paper. The process parameters were optimized through orthogonal experiment of three factors and four levels. The effects of wire speed, feed speed and tension pressure on the surface roughness were analyzed. Surface roughness in cutting direction and feed direction were both detected. The results show that feed speed plays the most significant role on the surface roughness of sliced sapphire followed by wire speed and tension pressure. The optimized process parameters are as follows: wire speed 1.9 m/s, feed speed 0.187 mm/min and tension pressure 0.18 MPa. In the end, the results were verified by analysis of variance.

Keywords: Fixed abrasive, diamond wire saw, slicing, sapphire, orthogonal experiment.

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1590 Jet-Stream Airsail: Study of the Shape and the Behavior of the Connecting Cable

Authors: Christopher Frank, Yoshiki Miyairi

Abstract:

A Jet-stream airsail concept takes advantage of aerology in order to fly without propulsion. Weather phenomena, especially jet streams, are relatively permanent high winds blowing from west to east, located at average altitudes and latitudes in both hemispheres. To continuously extract energy from the jet-stream, the system is composed of a propelled plane and a wind turbine interconnected by a cable. This work presents the aerodynamic characteristics and the behavior of the cable that links the two subsystems and transmits energy from the turbine to the aircraft. Two ways of solving this problem are explored: numerically and analytically. After obtaining the optimal shape of the cross-section of the cable, its behavior is analyzed as a 2D problem solved numerically and analytically. Finally, a 3D extension could be considered by adding lateral forces. The results of this work can be further used in the design process of the overall system: aircraft-turbine.

Keywords: Jet-stream, cable, tether, aerodynamics, aircraft, airsail, wind.

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1589 Workspace Analysis of 6–6 Cable-Suspended Parallel Robots

Authors: Arian Bahrami, Amir Teimourian

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the moving platform size on the workspace volume of 6–6 cable-suspended parallel robots is investigated in details for different geometric configurations and orientations of the moving platform. The obtained hints can be used as a rule of thumb in designing this type of robot.

Keywords: Cable-suspended parallel robot, system analysis and design, workspace analysis.

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1588 Impact of Welding Wire Nickel Plating Process Parameters on Ni Layer Thickness

Authors: Sylwia Wiewiorowska, Zbigniew Muskalski

Abstract:

The article presents part of research on the development of nickel plated welding wire production technology, whose application will enable the elimination of the flaws of currently manufactured welding wires. The nickel plated welding wire will be distinguished by high quality, because the Ni layer which is deposited electrochemically onto it from acid baths is characterized by very good adhesion to the steel wire surface, while the ductile nickel well deforms plastically in the drawing process and the adhesion of the Ni layer increases in the drawing process due to the occurring process of diffusion between the Ni and the steel. The Ni layer obtained in the proposed technology, despite a smaller thickness than when the wire is coated with copper, is continuous and tight, thus ensuring high corrosion resistance, as well as unsusceptible to scaling, which should provide a product that meets requirements imposed by the market. The product will also reduce, to some extent, the amount of copper brought in to steel through recycling, while the wire coating nickel introduced to the weld in the welding process is expected, to a degree, to favorably influence its mechanical properties. The paper describes the tests of the process of nickel plating of f1.96 mm-diameter wires using various nickel plating baths with different process parameters.

Keywords: Steel wire, plating baths, welding process, coatings.

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1587 Taguchi-Based Optimization of Surface Roughness and Dimensional Accuracy in Wire EDM Process with S7 Heat Treated Steel

Authors: Joseph C. Chen, Joshua Cox

Abstract:

This research focuses on the use of the Taguchi method to reduce the surface roughness and improve dimensional accuracy of parts machined by Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) with S7 heat treated steel material. Due to its high impact toughness, the material is a candidate for a wide variety of tooling applications which require high precision in dimension and desired surface roughness. This paper demonstrates that Taguchi Parameter Design methodology is able to optimize both dimensioning and surface roughness successfully by investigating seven wire-EDM controllable parameters: pulse on time (ON), pulse off time (OFF), servo voltage (SV), voltage (V), servo feed (SF), wire tension (WT), and wire speed (WS). The temperature of the water in the Wire EDM process is investigated as the noise factor in this research. Experimental design and analysis based on L18 Taguchi orthogonal arrays are conducted. This paper demonstrates that the Taguchi-based system enables the wire EDM process to produce (1) high precision parts with an average of 0.6601 inches dimension, while the desired dimension is 0.6600 inches; and (2) surface roughness of 1.7322 microns which is significantly improved from 2.8160 microns.

Keywords: Taguchi parameter design, surface roughness, dimensional accuracy, Wire EDM.

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1586 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

Keywords: Photon-drag effect, constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential.

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1585 Natural Gas Sweetening by Wetted-Wire Column

Authors: Sarah Taheri, Shahram Ghanbari Pakdehi, Arash Rezaei

Abstract:

Natural gas usually includes H2S component which is very toxic, hazardous and corrosive to environment, human being and process equipments, respectively. Therefore, sweetening of the gas (separation of H2S) is inevitable. To achieve this purpose, using packed-bed columns with liquid absorbents such as MEA or DEA is very common. Due to some problems of usual packed columns especially high pressure drop of gas phase, a novel kind of them called wetted-wire column (WWC) has been invented. The column decreases the pressure drop significantly and improves the absorption efficiency. The packings are very thin rods (like wire) and as long as column. The column has 100 wires with a triangular arrangement and counter current flows of gas and liquid phases. The observation showed that at the same conditions, the absorption performance was quite comparable to conventional packed-bed towers and a very low pressure drop.

Keywords: H2S, Natural gas, separation, wetted-wire column (WWC).

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1584 Characteristics Analysis of Voltage Sag and Voltage Swell in Multi-Grounded Four-Wire Power Distribution Systems

Authors: Jamal Moshtagh, Hassan Pourvali Souraki

Abstract:

In North America, Most power distribution systems employ a four-wire multi-grounded neutral (MGN) design. This paper has explained the inherent characteristics of multi-grounded three-phase four-wire distribution systems under unbalanced situations. As a result, the mechanism of voltage swell and voltage sag in MGN feeders becomes difficult to understand. The simulation tool that has been used in this paper is MATLAB under Windows software. In this paper the equivalent model of a full-scale multigrounded distribution system implemented by MATLAB is introduced. The results are expected to help utility engineers to understand the impact of MGN on distribution system operations.

Keywords: Distribution systems, multi- grounded, neutral, three-phase four-wire, ground.

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