Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1585

Search results for: wide open throttle.

1585 Investigation of Flow Characteristics on Upstream and Downstream of Orifice Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: War War Min Swe, Aung Myat Thu, Khin Cho Thet, Zaw Moe Htet, Thuzar Mon

Abstract:

The main parameter of the orifice hole diameter was designed according to the range of throttle diameter ratio which gave the required discharge coefficient. The discharge coefficient is determined by difference diameter ratios. The value of discharge coefficient is 0.958 occurred at throttle diameter ratio 0.5. The throttle hole diameter is 80 mm. The flow analysis is done numerically using ANSYS 17.0, computational fluid dynamics. The flow velocity was analyzed in the upstream and downstream of the orifice meter. The downstream velocity of non-standard orifice meter is 2.5% greater than that of standard orifice meter. The differential pressure is 515.379 Pa in standard orifice.

Keywords: CFD-CFX, discharge coefficients, flow characteristics, inclined.

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1584 Improvement in Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder S.I. Engine Operated on Blends of CNG and Hydrogen

Authors: Sarbjot Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of a single cylinder Enfield engine using an electronically controlled fuel injection system which was developed to carry out exhaustive tests using neat CNG, and mixtures of hydrogen in compressed natural gas (HCNG) as 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by energy. Experiments were performed at 2000 and 2400 rpm with wide open throttle and varying the equivalence ratio. Hydrogen which has fast burning rate, when added to compressed natural gas, enhances its flame propagation rate. The emissions of HC, CO, decreased with increasing percentage of hydrogen but NOx was found to increase. The results indicated a marked improvement in the brake thermal efficiency with the increase in percentage of hydrogen added. The improved thermal efficiency was clearly observed to be more in lean region as compared to rich region. This study is expected to reduce vehicular emissions along with increase in thermal efficiency and thus help in reduction of further environmental degradation.

Keywords: Hydrogen, CNG, HCNG, Emissions.

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1583 Robust Position Control of an Electromechanical Actuator for Automotive Applications

Authors: Markus Reichhartinger, Martin Horn

Abstract:

In this paper, the position control of an electronic throttle actuator is outlined. The dynamic behavior of the actuator is described with the help of an uncertain plant model. This motivates the controller design based on the ideas of higher-order slidingmodes. As a consequence anti-chattering techniques can be omitted. It is shown that the same concept is applicable to estimate unmeasureable signals. The control law and the observer are implemented on an electronic control unit. Results achieved by numerical simulations and real world experiments are presented and discussed.

Keywords: higher order sliding-mode, throttle actuator, electromechanicalsystem, robust and nonlinear control.

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1582 Open Science Philosophy and Paradigm of Scientific Research

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents the open science philosophy and paradigm of scientific research on how to transform classical research and innovation approaches. Open science is the practice of providing free and unrestricted online access to the products of scholarly research. Open science advocates for the immediate and unrestricted online access to published, peer-reviewed research in digital format. Open science research is made available for free in perpetuity and includes guidelines and/or licenses that communicate how researchers and readers can share and re-use the digital content. The emergence of open science has changed the scholarly research and publishing landscape, making research more broadly accessible to academic and non-academic audiences alike. Consequently, open science philosophy and its practice are discussed to cover all aspects of cyberscience in the context of research and innovation excellence for the benefit of global society.

Keywords: Open science, open data, open access, cyberscience , cybertechnology.

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1581 Influence of Valve Lift Timing on Producer Gas Combustion and Its Modeling Using Two-Stage Wiebe Function

Authors: M. Sreedhar Babu, Vishal Garg, S. B. Akella, Shibu Clement, N. K. S Rajan

Abstract:

Producer gas is a biomass derived gaseous fuel which is extensively used in internal combustion engines for power generation application. Unlike the conventional hydrocarbon fuels (Gasoline and Natural gas), the combustion properties of producer gas fuel are much different. Therefore, setting of optimal spark time for efficient engine operation is required. Owing to the fluctuating tendency of producer gas composition during gasification process, the heat release patterns (dictating the power output and emissions) obtained are quite different from conventional fuels. It was found that, valve lift timing is yet another factor which influences the burn rate of producer gas fuel, and thus, the heat release rate of the engine. Therefore, the present study was motivated to estimate the influence of valve lift timing analytically (Wiebe model) on the burn rate of producer gas through curve fitting against experimentally obtained mass fraction burn curves of several producer gas compositions. Furthermore, Wiebe models are widely used in zero-dimensional codes for engine parametric studies and are quite popular. This study also addresses the influence of hydrogen and methane concentration of producer gas on combustion trends, which are known to cause dynamics in engine combustion.

Keywords: Combustion Duration, crank angle, mass fraction burnt, producer gas, wiebe combustion model, wide open throttle.

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1580 An In-Depth Analysis of Open Data Portals as an Emerging Public E-Service

Authors: Martin Lnenicka

Abstract:

Governments collect and produce large amounts of data. Increasingly, governments worldwide have started to implement open data initiatives and also launch open data portals to enable the release of these data in open and reusable formats. Therefore, a large number of open data repositories, catalogues and portals have been emerging in the world. The greater availability of interoperable and linkable open government data catalyzes secondary use of such data, so they can be used for building useful applications which leverage their value, allow insight, provide access to government services, and support transparency. The efficient development of successful open data portals makes it necessary to evaluate them systematic, in order to understand them better and assess the various types of value they generate, and identify the required improvements for increasing this value. Thus, the attention of this paper is directed particularly to the field of open data portals. The main aim of this paper is to compare the selected open data portals on the national level using content analysis and propose a new evaluation framework, which further improves the quality of these portals. It also establishes a set of considerations for involving businesses and citizens to create eservices and applications that leverage on the datasets available from these portals.

Keywords: Big data, content analysis, criteria comparison, data quality, open data, open data portals, public sector.

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1579 Defects in Open Source Software: The Role of Online Forums

Authors: Faheem Ahmed, Piers Campbell, Ahmad Jaffar, Luiz Capretz

Abstract:

Free and open source software is gaining popularity at an unprecedented rate of growth. Organizations despite some concerns about the quality have been using them for various purposes. One of the biggest concerns about free and open source software is post release software defects and their fixing. Many believe that there is no appropriate support available to fix the bugs. On the contrary some believe that due to the active involvement of internet user in online forums, they become a major source of communicating the identification and fixing of defects in open source software. The research model of this empirical investigation establishes and studies the relationship between open source software defects and online public forums. The results of this empirical study provide evidence about the realities of software defects myths of open source software. We used a dataset consist of 616 open source software projects covering a broad range of categories to study the research model of this investigation. The results of this investigation show that online forums play a significant role identifying and fixing the defects in open source software.

Keywords: About Open source software, software engineering, software defect management, empirical software engineering.

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1578 Design of Open Framework Based Smart ESS Profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Won-Gi Jeon, Byoung-Chul Song, Jae-Hong Park, Ki-Won Kwon

Abstract:

In this paper, an open framework based smart energy storage system (ESS) profile for photovoltaic (PV)-ESS and uninterruptible power supply (UPS)-ESS is proposed and designed. An open framework based smart ESS is designed and developed for unifying the different interfaces among manufacturers. The smart ESS operates under the profile which provides the specifications of peripheral devices such as different interfaces and to the open framework. The profile requires well systemicity and expandability for addible peripheral devices. Especially, the smart ESS should provide the expansion with existing systems such as UPS and the linkage with new renewable energy technology such as PV. This paper proposes and designs an open framework based smart ESS profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS. The designed profile provides the existing smart ESS and also the expandability of additional peripheral devices on smart ESS such as PV and UPS.

Keywords: ESS, open framework, profile, PV, UPS.

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1577 About Analysis and Modelling of the Open Message Switching System

Authors: Saulius Minkevicius, Genadijus Kulvietis

Abstract:

The modern queueing theory is one of the powerful tools for a quantitative and qualitative analysis of communication systems, computer networks, transportation systems, and many other technical systems. The paper is designated to the analysis of queueing systems, arising in the networks theory and communications theory (called open queueing network). The authors of this research in the sphere of queueing theory present the theorem about the law of the iterated logarithm (LIL) for the queue length of a customers in open queueing network and its application to the mathematical model of the open message switching system.

Keywords: Models of information systems, open message switching system, open queueing network, queue length of a customers, heavy traffic, a law of the iterated logarithm.

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1576 Methods for Manufacture of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminates

Authors: Jeongho Choi, Krishna Shankar, Alan Fien, Andrew Neely

Abstract:

Corrugated wire mesh laminates (CWML) are a class of engineered open cell structures that have potential for applications in many areas including aerospace and biomedical engineering. Two different methods of fabricating corrugated wire mesh laminates from stainless steel, one using a high temperature Lithobraze alloy and the other using a low temperature Eutectic solder for joining the corrugated wire meshes are described herein. Their implementation is demonstrated by manufacturing CWML samples of 304 and 316 stainless steel (SST). It is seen that due to the facility of employing wire meshes of different densities and wire diameters, it is possible to create CWML laminates with a wide range of effective densities. The fabricated laminates are tested under uniaxial compression. The variation of the compressive yield strength with relative density of the CWML is compared to the theory developed by Gibson and Ashby for open cell structures [22]. It is shown that the compressive strength of the corrugated wire mesh laminates can be described using the same equations by using an appropriate value for the linear coefficient in the Gibson-Ashby model.

Keywords: cellular solids, corrugation, foam, open-cell, metal mesh, laminate, stainless steel

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1575 Assessing and Managing Intellectual Capital to Support Open Innovation Paradigm

Authors: Michele Grimaldi, Livio Cricelli, Francesco Rogo, Alessia Iannarelli

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to support the application of Open Innovation practices in firms and organizations by the assessment and management of Intellectual Capital. Intellectual Capital constituents are analyzed in order to verify their capability of acting as key drivers of Open Innovation processes and, therefore, of creating value. A methodology is defined to settle a procedure which helps to select the most relevant Intellectual Capital value drivers and to provide Communities of Innovation with strategic and managerial guidelines in sustaining Open Innovation paradigm. An application of the methodology is developed within a specifically addressed project and its results are hereafter examined.

Keywords: Assessment, Community of Innovation, Intellectual Capital, Management, Open Innovation.

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1574 Integration and Selectivity in Open Innovation:An Empirical Analysis in SMEs

Authors: Chiara Verbano, Maria Crema, Karen Venturini

Abstract:

The company-s ability to draw on a range of external sources to meet their needs for innovation, has been termed 'open innovation' (OI). Very few empirical analyses have been conducted on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to the extent that they describe and understand the characteristics and implications of this new paradigm. The study's objective is to identify and characterize different modes of OI, (considering innovation process phases and the variety and breadth of the collaboration), determinants, barriers and motivations in SMEs. Therefore a survey was carried out among Italian manufacturing firms and a database of 105 companies was obtained. With regard to data elaboration, a factorial and cluster analysis has been conducted and three different OI modes have emerged: selective low open, unselective open upstream, and mid- partners integrated open. The different behaviours of the three clusters in terms of determinants factors, performance, firm-s technology intensity, barriers and motivations have been analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: Open innovation, R&D management, SMEs.

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1573 Development of Knowledge Portal using Open Source Tools: A Case Study of FIIT, UNISEL

Authors: Nur Razia Mohd Suradi, Hema Subramaniam, Marina Hassan, Siti Fatimah Omar

Abstract:

Knowledge sharing culture contributes to a positive working environment. Currently, there is no platform for the Faculty of Industrial Information Technology (FIIT), Unisel academic staff to share knowledge among them. As it is done manually, the sharing process is through common meeting or by any offline discussions. There is no repository for future retrieval. However, with open source solution the development of knowledge based application may reduce the cost tremendously. In this paper we discuss about the domain on which this knowledge portal is being developed and also the deployment of open source tools such as JOOMLA, PHP programming language and MySQL. This knowledge portal is evidence that open source tools also reliable in developing knowledge based portal. These recommendations will be useful to the open source community to produce more open source products in future.

Keywords: Knowledge management, Portal, ContentManagement, JOOMLA.

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1572 Open Source Library Management System Software: A Review

Authors: Sangsuree Vasupongayya, Kittisak Keawneam, Kittipong Sengloilaun, Patt Emmawat

Abstract:

Library management systems are commonly used in all educational related institutes. Many commercial products are available. However, many institutions may not be able to afford the cost of using commercial products. Therefore, an alternative solution in such situations would be open source software. This paper is focusing on reviewing open source library management system packages currently available. The review will focus on the abilities to perform four basic components which are traditional services, interlibrary load management, managing electronic materials and basic common management system such as security, alert system and statistical reports. In addition, environment, basic requirement and supporting aspects of each open source package are also mentioned.

Keywords: open source, library management, review.

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1571 Overcoming Barriers to Open Innovation at Apple, Nintendo and Nokia

Authors: Erik Pontiskoski, Kazuhiro Asakawa

Abstract:

This is a conceptual paper on the application of open innovation in three case examples of Apple, Nintendo, and Nokia. Utilizing key concepts from research into managerial and organizational cognition, we describe how each company overcame barriers to utilizing open innovation strategy in R&D and commercialization projects. We identify three levels of barriers: cognitive, behavioral, and institutional, and describe the companies balanced between internal and external resources to launch products that were instrumental in companies reinventing themselves in mature markets.

Keywords: managerial cognition, open innovation.

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1570 An Analytical Comparison between Open Loop, PID and Fuzzy Logic Based DC-DC Boost Convertor

Authors: Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Razali Bin Hassan, Fahad Sherwani

Abstract:

This paper explains about the voltage output for DC to DC boost converter between open loop, PID controller and fuzzy logic controller through Matlab Simulink. Simulink input voltage was set at 12V and the voltage reference was set at 24V. The analysis on the deviation of voltage resulted that the difference between reference voltage setting and the output voltage is always lower. Comparison between open loop, PID and FLC shows that, the open loop circuit having a bit higher on the deviation of voltage. The PID circuit boosts for FLC has a lesser deviation of voltage and proved that it is such a better performance on control the deviation of voltage during the boost mode.

Keywords: Boost Convertors, Power Electronics, PID, Fuzzy logic, Open loop.

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1569 The Open Knowledge Kernel

Authors: Adrian Perreau de Pinninck, David Dupplaw, Spyros Kotoulas, Ronny Siebes

Abstract:

Web services are pieces of software that can be invoked via a standardized protocol. They can be combined via formalized taskflow languages. The Open Knowledge system is a fully distributed system using P2P technology, that allows users to publish the setaskflows, and programmers to register their web services or publish implementations of them, for the roles described in these workflows.Besides this, the system offers the functionality to select a peer that could coordinate such an interaction model and inform web services when it is their 'turn'. In this paper we describe the architecture and implementation of the Open Knowledge Kernel which provides the core functionality of the Open Knowledge system.

Keywords: Architecture, P2P, Web Services, Semantic Web

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1568 Experimental Investigation of S-Rotors in Open and Bounded Flows

Authors: Hussain H. Al-Kayiem, Goh Jin Ming

Abstract:

The common practice of operating S-rotor is in an open environment; however there are times when the rotor is installed in a bounded environment and there might be changes in the performance of the rotor. This paper presents the changes in the performance of S-rotor when operated in bounded flows. The investigation was conducted experimentally to compare the performance of the rotors in bounded environment against open environment. Three different rotors models were designed, fabricated and subjected to experimental measurements. All of the three models were having 600 mm height and 300 mm Diameter. They were tested in three different flow environments; namely: partially bounded environment, fully bounded environment and open environment. Rotors were found to have better starting up capabilities when operated in bounded environment. Apart from that, all rotors manage to achieve higher Power and Torque Coefficients at a higher Tip Speed Ratio as compared to the open environment.

Keywords: Bounded Flows, Savonius Rotor, Wind Turbine, Wind energy, VAWT

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1567 Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in an Inclined Open Ended Cavity

Authors: M.Jafari, A.Naysari, K.Bodaghi

Abstract:

In the present study, the lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is applied for simulating of Natural Convection in an inclined open ended cavity. The cavity horizontal walls are insulated while the west wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the ambient. Prandtl number is fixed to 0.71 (air) while Rayligh numbers, aspect ratio of the cavity are changed in the range of 103 to 104 and of 1-4, respectively. The numerical code is validated for the previously results for open ended cavities, and then the results of an inclined open ended cavity for various angles of rotating open ended cavity are presented. Result shows by increasing of aspect ratio, the average Nusselt number on hot wall decreases for all rotation angles. When gravity acceleration direction is opposite of standard gravity direction the convection heat transfer has a manner same as conduction.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, Open Ended Cavity, Natural Convection, Inclined Cavity.

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1566 Flexibility in Modular Furniture Systems in Open Offices, Famagusta, North Cyprus

Authors: E. Farjami, La. Mohammadzadeh Afshar, Li. Mohammadzade Afshar, A. Taran

Abstract:

Nowadays, flexibility introduced as a modern technology in furniture systems especially in interior planning design. According to results, the most important impact of these systems can be seen on open plan design that makes workspaces comfortable and increases the productivity of employees besides making good relationship between them. Briefly, there are some factors along with new systems in furniture design help create inappropriate space to make working better and easier while it has modular planning organization. It brings about some approaches to have a successful space for open offices with modular design and flexible furniture systems. These approaches have been investigated in open and close offices at Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU) in Famagusta, Cyprus, using information extracted from questionnaires.

Keywords: Flexibility, Flexible Furniture, Modular design, Open offices, Modular furniture systems.

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1565 Customization of Moodle Open Source LMS for Tanzania Secondary Schools’ Use

Authors: Ellen. A. Kalinga

Abstract:

Moodle is an open source learning management system that enables creation of a powerful and flexible learning environment. Many organizations, especially learning institutions have customized Moodle open source LMS for their own use. In general open source LMSs are of great interest due to many advantages they offer in terms of cost, usage and freedom to customize to fit a particular context. Tanzania Secondary School e- Learning (TanSSe-L) system is the learning management system for Tanzania secondary schools. TanSSe-L system was developed using a number of methods, one of them being customization of Moodle Open Source LMS. This paper presents few areas on the way Moodle OS LMS was customized to produce a functional TanSSe-L system fitted to the requirements and specifications of Tanzania secondary schools’ context.

Keywords: LMS, Moodle, e-Learning, Tanzania, Secondary school.

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1564 Experimental Study of Discharge with Sharp-Crested Weirs

Authors: E. Keramaris, V. Kanakoudis

Abstract:

In this study the water flow in an open channel over a sharp-crested weir is investigated experimentally. For this reason a series of laboratory experiments were performed in an open channel with a sharp-crested weir. The maximum head expected over the weir, the total upstream water height and the downstream water height of the impact in the constant bed of the open channel were measured. The discharge was measured using a tank put right after the open channel. In addition, the discharge and the upstream velocity were also calculated using already known equations. The main finding is that the relative error percentage for the majority of the experimental measurements is ± 4%, meaning that the calculation of the discharge with a sharp-crested weir gives very good results compared to the numerical results from known equations.

Keywords: Sharp-crested weir, weir height, flow measurement, open channel flow.

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1563 Quantitative Study for Exchange of Gases from Open Sewer Channel to Atmosphere

Authors: Asif Mansoor, Nasiruddin Khan, Noreen Jamil

Abstract:

In this communication a quantitative modeling approach is applied to construct model for the exchange of gases from open sewer channel to the atmosphere. The data for the exchange of gases of the open sewer channel for the year January 1979 to December 2006 is utilized for the construction of the model. The study reveals that stream flow of the open sewer channel exchanges the toxic gases continuously with time varying scale. We find that the quantitative modeling approach is more parsimonious model for these exchanges. The usual diagnostic tests are applied for the model adequacy. This model is beneficial for planner and managerial bodies for the improvement of implemented policies to overcome future environmental problems.

Keywords: Open sewer channel, Industrial waste, Municipalwaste, Gases exchange, Atmosphere, Stochastic models, Diagnosticschecks.

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1562 Designing and Implementing an Innovative Course about World Wide Web, Based on the Conceptual Representations of Students

Authors: Andreanna K. Koufou, Dimitrios K. Tsolis, Marida I. Ergazaki, Vasilis I. Komis, Vasiliki P. Zogza

Abstract:

Internet is nowadays included to all National Curriculums of the elementary school. A comparative study of their goals leads to the conclusion that a complete curriculum should aim to student-s acquisition of the abilities to navigate and search for information and additionally to emphasize on the evaluation of the information provided by the World Wide Web. In a constructivistic knowledge framework the design of a course has to take under consideration the conceptual representations of students. The following paper presents the conceptual representation of students of eleven years old, attending the Sixth Grade of Greek Elementary School about World Wide Web and their use in the design and implementation of an innovative course.

Keywords: Conceptual representations, Constructivism, Internet Didactics, World Wide Web

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1561 Evaluation of Japanese Kyoto Park in Terms of User Satisfaction

Authors: Ruhugül Özge Gemici

Abstract:

The need for open space, which is an important problem especially since the 19th century, has become more important in today's conditions. The most important factor in increasing the livability of cities is the open and green areas. Parks are the most important of the urban open and green space elements that provide the most benefit to users. In this context, the user satisfaction of the Japanese Kyoto Park, which is the subject of the research, was evaluated in the light of the questionnaires. With this analysis, the satisfaction level of the user using the park was determined. Suggestions have been developed for the park to be handled and regulated according to the user requests and requirements changing over time.

Keywords: Japanese park, landscape, landscape design, open and green areas.

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1560 Some Geodesics in Open Surfaces Classified by Clairaut's Relation

Authors: Wongvisarut Khuangsatung, Pakkinee Chitsakul

Abstract:

In this paper, we studied some properties of geodesic on some open surfaces: Hyperboloid, Paraboloid and Funnel Surface. Geodesic equation in the v-Clairaut parameterization was calculated and reduced to definite integral. Some geodesics on some open surfaces as mention above were classified by Clairaut's relation.

Keywords: Geodesic, Surface of revolution, Clairaut's relation, Clairaut parameterization.

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1559 e-Service Innovation within Open Innovation Networks

Authors: Hung T. Tsou, Hsuan Y. Hsu

Abstract:

Service innovations are central concerns in fast changing environment. Due to the fitness in customer demands and advances in information technologies (IT) in service management, an expanded conceptualization of e-service innovation is required. Specially, innovation practices have become increasingly more challenging, driving managers to employ a different open innovation model to maintain competitive advantages. At the same time, firms need to interact with external and internal customers in innovative environments, like the open innovation networks, to co-create values. Based on these issues, an important conceptual framework of e-service innovation is developed. This paper aims to examine the contributing factors on e-service innovation and firm performance, including financial and non-financial aspects. The study concludes by showing how e-service innovation will play a significant role in growing the overall values of the firm. The discussion and conclusion will lead to a stronger understanding of e-service innovation and co-creating values with customers within open innovation networks.

Keywords: e-Service innovation, performance, open innovation networks, co-create value.

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1558 Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues. 

Keywords: Soil organic carbon, Soil inorganic carbon, Carbon sequestration, Open burning, Sugarcane.

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1557 Bioclimatic Principles and Urban Open Spaces: The Case of Xanthi

Authors: Maria Giannopoulou

Abstract:

Open urban public spaces comprise an important element for the development of social, cultural and economic activities of the population in the modern cities. These spaces are also considered regulators of the region-s climate conditions, providing better thermal, visual and auditory conditions which can be optimized by the application of appropriate strategies of bioclimatic design. The paper focuses on the analysis and evaluation of the recent unification of the open spaces in the centre of Xanthi, a medium – size city in northern Greece, from a bioclimatic perspective, as well as in the creation of suitable methodology. It is based both on qualitative observation of the interventions by fieldwork research and assessment and on quantitative analysis and modeling of the research area.

Keywords: Bioclimatic principles, Quantitative analysis, Sustainability, TownScope III, Urban open spaces

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1556 A New Velocity Expression for Open Channel and its Application to Lyari River

Authors: Rana Khalid Naeem, Asif Mansoor

Abstract:

In this communication an expression for mean velocity of waste flow via an open channel is proposed which is an improvement over Manning formula. The discharges, storages and depths are computed at all locations of the Lyari river by utilizing proposed expression. The results attained through proposed expression are in good agreement with the observed data and better than those acquired using Manning formula.

Keywords: Comparison, Depth, Flow, Open Channel, Proposed Model, Storage

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