Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2330

Search results for: wicked problems.

2330 Does the Polysemic Nature of Energy Security Make it a 'Wicked' Problem?

Authors: Lynne Chester

Abstract:

Governments around the world are expending considerable time and resources framing strategies and policies to deliver energy security. The term 'energy security' has quietly slipped into the energy lexicon without any meaningful discourse about its meaning or assumptions. An examination of explicit and inferred definitions finds that the concept is inherently slippery because it is polysemic in nature having multiple dimensions and taking on different specificities depending on the country (or continent), timeframe or energy source to which it is applied. But what does this mean for policymakers? Can traditional policy approaches be used to address the problem of energy security or does its- polysemic qualities mean that it should be treated as a 'wicked' problem? To answer this question, the paper assesses energy security against nine commonly cited characteristics of wicked policy problems and finds strong evidence of 'wickedness'.

Keywords: Energy security, policy making, wicked problems.

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2329 A Critical Study of Media Profiling on Society-s Social Problems from a British Perspective

Authors: Cj Gletus Matthews Cn Jacobs, Kogilah Narayanasamy

Abstract:

This article explores the sociological perspectives on social problems and the role of the media which has a delicate role to tread in balancing its duty to the public and the victim Whilst social problems have objective conditions, it is the subjective definition of such problems that ensure which social problem comes to the fore and which doesn-t. Further it explores the roles and functions of policymakers when addressing social problems and the impact of the inception of media profiling as well as the advantages and disadvantages of media profiling towards social problems. It focuses on the inception of media profiling due to its length and a follow up article will explore how current media profiling towards social problems have evolved since its inception.

Keywords: Media Profiling, Policy Response, Social Problems

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2328 A Fast Block-based Evolutional Algorithm for Combinatorial Problems

Authors: Huang, Wei-Hsiu Chang, Pei-Chann, Wang, Lien-Chun

Abstract:

The problems with high complexity had been the challenge in combinatorial problems. Due to the none-determined and polynomial characteristics, these problems usually face to unreasonable searching budget. Hence combinatorial optimizations attracted numerous researchers to develop better algorithms. In recent academic researches, most focus on developing to enhance the conventional evolutional algorithms and facilitate the local heuristics, such as VNS, 2-opt and 3-opt. Despite the performances of the introduction of the local strategies are significant, however, these improvement cannot improve the performance for solving the different problems. Therefore, this research proposes a meta-heuristic evolutional algorithm which can be applied to solve several types of problems. The performance validates BBEA has the ability to solve the problems even without the design of local strategies.

Keywords: Combinatorial problems, Artificial Chromosomes, Blocks Mining, Block Recombination

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2327 Classification and Resolving Urban Problems by Means of Fuzzy Approach

Authors: F. Habib, A. Shokoohi

Abstract:

Urban problems are problems of organized complexity. Thus, many models and scientific methods to resolve urban problems are failed. This study is concerned with proposing of a fuzzy system driven approach for classification and solving urban problems. The proposed study investigated mainly the selection of the inputs and outputs of urban systems for classification of urban problems. In this research, five categories of urban problems, respect to fuzzy system approach had been recognized: control, polytely, optimizing, open and decision making problems. Grounded Theory techniques were then applied to analyze the data and develop new solving method for each category. The findings indicate that the fuzzy system methods are powerful processes and analytic tools for helping planners to resolve urban complex problems. These tools can be successful where as others have failed because both incorporate or address uncertainty and risk; complexity and systems interacting with other systems.

Keywords: Classification, complexity, Fuzzy theory, urban problems.

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2326 Financial Problems Met in the Tourism Sector in Turkey: A Survey on the Tourism Businesses

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Mesut Murat Adabali

Abstract:

As the economies of other countries in the Mediterranean Basin, the tourism sector in our country has a high denominator in economics. Tourism businesses, which are building blocks of tourism, sector faces with a variety of problems during their activities. These problems faced make business efficiency and competition conditions of the businesses difficult. Most of the problems faced by the tourism businesses and the information of consumers about consumers’ rights were used in this study, which is conducted to determine the problems of tourism businesses in the Central Anatolia Region. It is aimed to contribute the awareness of staff and executives working at tourism sector and to attract attention of businesses active concurrently with tourism sector and legislators.

Keywords: Financial Problems, The problems of Tourism businesses, Tourism Businesses, Tourism Sector in Turkey.

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2325 Comparison Results of Two-point Fuzzy Boundary Value Problems

Authors: Hsuan-Ku Liu

Abstract:

This paper investigates the solutions of two-point fuzzy boundary value problems as the form x = f(t, x(t)), x(0) = A and x(l) = B, where A and B are fuzzy numbers. There are four different solutions for the problems when the lateral type of H-derivative is employed to solve the problems. As f(t, x) is a monotone function of x, these four solutions are reduced to two different solutions. As f(t, x(t)) = λx(t) or f(t, x(t)) = -λx(t), solutions and several comparison results are presented to indicate advantages of each solution.

Keywords: Fuzzy derivative, lateral type of H-derivative, fuzzy differential equations, fuzzy boundary value problems, boundary value problems.

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2324 Variational Iteration Method for the Solution of Boundary Value Problems

Authors: Olayiwola M.O., Gbolagade A .W., Akinpelu F. O.

Abstract:

In this work, we present a reliable framework to solve boundary value problems with particular significance in solid mechanics. These problems are used as mathematical models in deformation of beams. The algorithm rests mainly on a relatively new technique, the Variational Iteration Method. Some examples are given to confirm the efficiency and the accuracy of the method.

Keywords: Variational iteration method, boundary value problems, convergence, restricted variation.

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2323 Simplex Method for Fuzzy Variable Linear Programming Problems

Authors: S.H. Nasseri, E. Ardil

Abstract:

Fuzzy linear programming is an application of fuzzy set theory in linear decision making problems and most of these problems are related to linear programming with fuzzy variables. A convenient method for solving these problems is based on using of auxiliary problem. In this paper a new method for solving fuzzy variable linear programming problems directly using linear ranking functions is proposed. This method uses simplex tableau which is used for solving linear programming problems in crisp environment before.

Keywords: Fuzzy variable linear programming, fuzzy number, ranking function, simplex method.

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2322 Effect of Personalization on Students' Achievement and Gender Factor in Mathematics Education

Authors: Nurettin Simsek, Özlem Cakır

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to point out whether personalization of mathematical word problems could affect student achievement or not. The research was applied on two-grades students at spring semester 2008-2009. Before the treatment, students personal data were taken and given to the computer. During the treatment, paper-based personalized problems and paper-based non personalized problems were prepared by computer as the same problems and then these problems were given to students. At the end of the treatment, students- opinion was taken. As a result of this research, it was found out that there were no significant differences between learners through personalized or non-personalized materials, and also there were no significant differences between gender through personalized and non-personalized problems. However, opinion of students was highly positive through the personalized problems.

Keywords: Personalization, word problem, computer aided personalization.

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2321 Modern Problems of Russian Sport Legislation

Authors: Yurlov Sergey

Abstract:

The author examines modern problems of Russian sport legislation and whether it need to be changed in order to allow all sportsmen to participate, train and have another sportsmen’s rights as Russian law mandates. The article provides an overview of Russian sport legislation problems, provides examples of foreign countries. In addition, the author suggests solutions for existing legal problems.

Keywords: Amendment, legal problem, right, sport.

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2320 Solving Definition and Relation Problems in English Navigation Terminology

Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder

Abstract:

Because of the increasing multidisciplinarity and multilinguality, communication problems in different technical fields grow more and more. Therefore, each technical field has its own specific language, terminology which is characterized by the different definition of terms. In addition to definition problems, there are also relation problems between terms. Among these problems of relation, there are the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion and translation problems etc.

Thus, the terminology management system iglos of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the target to solve these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions with the aid of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on solving definition and relation problems between terms in English navigation terminology.

Keywords: Iglos, iglos sign model, methodological resolutions, navigation terminology, common language, technical language, positioning, definition problems, relation problems.

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2319 Solutions to Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Concentration Inequalities

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recently, optimal control problems subject to probabilistic constraints have attracted much attention in many research field. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in optimization problems, several methods haven been proposed to deal with probabilistic constraints. In most methods, probabilistic constraints are transformed to deterministic constraints that are tractable in optimization problems. This paper examines a method for transforming probabilistic constraints into deterministic constraints for a class of probabilistic constrained optimal control problems.

Keywords: Optimal control, stochastic systems, discrete-time systems, probabilistic constraints.

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2318 An Efficient Method for Solving Multipoint Equation Boundary Value Problems

Authors: Ampon Dhamacharoen, Kanittha Chompuvised

Abstract:

In this work, we solve multipoint boundary value problems where the boundary value conditions are equations using the Newton-Broyden Shooting method (NBSM).The proposed method is tested upon several problems from the literature and the results are compared with the available exact solution. The experiments are given to illustrate the efficiency and implementation of the method.

Keywords: Boundary value problem; Multipoint equation boundary value problems, Shooting Method, Newton-Broyden method.

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2317 Combined Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm to Solve Optimization Problems

Authors: Younis R. Elhaddad

Abstract:

Combinatorial optimization problems arise in many scientific and practical applications. Therefore many researchers try to find or improve different methods to solve these problems with high quality results and in less time. Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Simulated Annealing (SA) have been used to solve optimization problems. Both GA and SA search a solution space throughout a sequence of iterative states. However, there are also significant differences between them. The GA mechanism is parallel on a set of solutions and exchanges information using the crossover operation. SA works on a single solution at a time. In this work SA and GA are combined using new technique in order to overcome the disadvantages' of both algorithms.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Optimization problems, Simulated Annealing, Traveling Salesman Problem

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2316 Sinc-Galerkin Method for the Solution of Problems in Calculus of Variations

Authors: M. Zarebnia, N. Aliniya

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical solution based on sinc functions is used for finding the solution of boundary value problems which arise from the problems of calculus of variations. This approximation reduce the problems to an explicit system of algebraic equations. Some numerical examples are also given to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.

Keywords: Calculus of variation; Sinc functions; Galerkin; Numerical method

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2315 Non-Polynomial Spline Method for the Solution of Problems in Calculus of Variations

Authors: M. Zarebnia, M. Hoshyar, M. Sedaghati

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical solution based on nonpolynomial cubic spline functions is used for finding the solution of boundary value problems which arise from the problems of calculus of variations. This approximation reduce the problems to an explicit system of algebraic equations. Some numerical examples are also given to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.

Keywords: Calculus of variation; Non-polynomial spline functions; Numerical method

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2314 A Survey of Discrete Facility Location Problems

Authors: Z. Ulukan, E. Demircioğlu

Abstract:

Facility location is a complex real-world problem which needs a strategic management decision. This paper provides a general review on studies, efforts and developments in Facility Location Problems which are classical optimization problems having a wide-spread applications in various areas such as transportation, distribution, production, supply chain decisions and telecommunication. Our goal is not to review all variants of different studies in FLPs or to describe very detailed computational techniques and solution approaches, but rather to provide a broad overview of major location problems that have been studied, indicating how they are formulated and what are proposed by researchers to tackle the problem. A brief, elucidative table based on a grouping according to “General Problem Type” and “Methods Proposed” used in the studies is also presented at the end of the work.

Keywords: Discrete location problems, exact methods, heuristic algorithms, single source capacitated facility location problems.

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2313 Simplex Method for Solving Linear Programming Problems with Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: S. H. Nasseri, E. Ardil, A. Yazdani, R. Zaefarian

Abstract:

The fuzzy set theory has been applied in many fields, such as operations research, control theory, and management sciences, etc. In particular, an application of this theory in decision making problems is linear programming problems with fuzzy numbers. In this study, we present a new method for solving fuzzy number linear programming problems, by use of linear ranking function. In fact, our method is similar to simplex method that was used for solving linear programming problems in crisp environment before.

Keywords: Fuzzy number linear programming, rankingfunction, simplex method.

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2312 Problems and Obstacles to Value Creation of Thai Monk-s Bowls: The Case Study of Ban-Baat Village, Bangkok

Authors: Pirada Techaratpong

Abstract:

This research aims to study value-creation process of producing monk-s bowls, Thai traditional handicrafts, which is facing problems in adapting to the changing society. It also aims to identify problems and obstacles to value creation. This research is based on a case study of monk-s bowl manufactures from Ban-Baat Village, Bangkok. The conceptual framework is based on the model of value chain to analyze the process. The research methodology is qualitative. This research found that the value-creation process of monk-s bowls consists of eight activities contributing to adding value to the products and increasing profits to the producers in return. Five major problems and obstacles are found. The research suggests that these problems and obstacles limit the manufacturers- potential for creating more valued product and lead to business stagnation. These problems should be addressed and solved with collaboration among the government, the private sector and the manufacturers.

Keywords: Craft manufacturing, problems and obstacles, value chain, value creation.

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2311 Analysis of Gender Differences in Alcohol Use and Related Problems among University Students in Minsk, Belarus

Authors: M. O. Welcome, Y. E. Razvodovsky, V. A. Pereverzev

Abstract:

There is a variety of inconsistencies in the differences in alcohol use and related problems between male and female genders. This study was aimed at analyzing the gender differences in alcohol use and related problems among university students in Minsk, Belarus. A total of 465 male (average age of 21) and 1030 female (average age of 20.5) students from four major universities in Minsk, Belarus were administered WHO recommended standardized screening instruments – AUDIT, MAST, CAGE questionnaire, as well as other alcohol related questions. The male to female ratio for the prevalence of alcohol problems according to the AUDIT was 3.34, while the ratio for alcohol users was 0.97. There are a wide gender differences in the pattern of alcohol use and preference for different alcoholic beverages, cause for drinking, and other alcohol related problems like injuries and blackouts.

Keywords: Alcohol related problems, Gender differences, University students, Belarus.

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2310 Differences in the Perception of Behavior Problems in Pre-school Children among the Teachers and Parents

Authors: Jana Kožárová

Abstract:

Even the behavior problems in pre-school children might be considered as a transitional problem which may disappear by their transition into elementary school; it is an issue that needs a lot of attention because of the fact that the behavioral patterns are adopted in the children especially in this age. Common issue in the process of elimination of the behavior problems in the group of pre-school children is a difference in the perception of the importance and gravity of the symptoms. The underestimation of the children's problems by parents often result into conflicts with kindergarten teachers. Thus, the child does not get the support that his/her problems require and this might result into a school failure and can negatively influence his/her future school performance and success. The research sample consisted of 4 children with behavior problems, their teachers and parents. To determine the most problematic area in the child's behavior, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) filled by parents and Caregiver/Teacher Form (CTF-R) filled by teachers were used. Scores from the CBCL and the CTR-F were compared with Pearson correlation coefficient in order to find the differences in the perception of behavior problems in pre-school children.

Keywords: Behavior problems, child behavior checklist, caregiver/teacher form, Pearson correlation coefficient, pre-school age.

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2309 Non-Polynomial Spline Solution of Fourth-Order Obstacle Boundary-Value Problems

Authors: Jalil Rashidinia, Reza Jalilian

Abstract:

In this paper we use quintic non-polynomial spline functions to develop numerical methods for approximation to the solution of a system of fourth-order boundaryvalue problems associated with obstacle, unilateral and contact problems. The convergence analysis of the methods has been discussed and shown that the given approximations are better than collocation and finite difference methods. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the applications of these methods, and to compare the computed results with other known methods.

Keywords: Quintic non-polynomial spline, Boundary formula, Convergence, Obstacle problems.

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2308 Mega Projects and Governmentality

Authors: Sophie Sturup

Abstract:

Mega urban transport projects (MUTPs) are increasingly being used in urban environments to ameliorate the problem of congestion. However, a number of problems with regard to mega projects have been identified. In particular the seemingly institutionalised over estimation of economic benefits and persistent cost over runs, could mean that the wrong projects are selected, and that the projects that are selected cost more than they should. Studies to date have produced a number of solutions to these problems, perhaps most notably, the various methods for the inclusion of the private sector in project provision. However the problems have shown significant intractability in the face of these solutions. This paper provides a detailed examination of some of the problems facing mega projects and then examines Foucault-s theory of 'governmentality' as a possible frame of analysis which might shed light on the intractability of the problems that have been identified, through an identification of the art of government in which MUTPs occur.

Keywords: Michel Foucault, Governmentality, Mega projects, Transport.

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2307 Generic Model for Timetabling Problems by Integer Linear Programming Approach

Authors: N. A. H. Aizam, V. Uvaraja

Abstract:

The agenda of showing the scheduled time for performing certain tasks is known as timetabling. It is widely used in many departments such as transportation, education, and production. Some difficulties arise to ensure all tasks happen in the time and place allocated. Therefore, many researchers invented various programming models to solve the scheduling problems from several fields. However, the studies in developing the general integer programming model for many timetabling problems are still questionable. Meanwhile, this thesis describes about creating a general model which solves different types of timetabling problems by considering the basic constraints. Initially, the common basic constraints from five different fields are selected and analyzed. A general basic integer programming model was created and then verified by using the medium set of data obtained randomly which is much similar to realistic data. The mathematical software, AIMMS with CPLEX as a solver has been used to solve the model. The model obtained is significant in solving many timetabling problems easily since it is modifiable to all types of scheduling problems which have same basic constraints.

Keywords: AIMMS mathematical software, integer linear programming, scheduling problems, timetabling.

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2306 Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations of the First Kind via Converting to Optimization Problems

Authors: Akbar H. Borzabadi, Omid S. Fard

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce an approach via optimization methods to find approximate solutions for nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the first kind. To this purpose, we consider two stages of approximation. First we convert the integral equation to a moment problem and then we modify the new problem to two classes of optimization problems, non-constraint optimization problems and optimal control problems. Finally numerical examples is proposed.

Keywords: Fredholm integral equation, Optimization method, Optimal control, Nonlinear and linear programming

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2305 Stagnation in Brownfield Redevelopment

Authors: B. Glumac, Q. Han, W. Schaefer

Abstract:

Purpose of this paper is two-folded. At first it explains the major problems that are causing stagnation in brownfield redevelopment. In addition, these problems given the context of the present multi-actor built environment are becoming more complex to observe. Therefore, this paper suggests also a prospective decisionmaking approach that is the most appropriate to observe and react on the given stagnation problems. Such an approach should be regarded as prescriptive-interactive decision-making approach, a barely established branch. This approach should offer models that have prescriptive as well as an interactive component enabling them to successfully cope with the multi-actor environment. Overall, this paper provides up-to-date insight on the brownfield stagnation by gradually introducing the nowadays major problems and offers a prospective decision-making approach how these problems could be tackled.

Keywords: BR, decision-making approach, stagnation, the Netherlands.

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2304 Object-Oriented Simulation of Simulating Anticipatory Systems

Authors: Eugene Kindler

Abstract:

The present paper is oriented to problems of simulation of anticipatory systems, namely those that use simulation models for the aid of anticipation. A certain analogy between use of simulation and imagining will be applied to make the explication more comprehensible. The paper will be completed by notes of problems and by some existing applications. The problems consist in the fact that simulation of the mentioned anticipatory systems end is simulation of simulating systems, i.e. in computer models handling two or more modeled time axes that should be mapped to real time flow in a nondescent manner. Languages oriented to objects, processes and blocks can be used to surmount the problems.

Keywords: Anticipatory systems, Nested computer models, Discrete event simulation, Simula.

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2303 Open Problems on Zeros of Analytic Functions in Finite Quantum Systems

Authors: Muna Tabuni

Abstract:

The paper contains an investigation on basic problems about the zeros of analytic theta functions. A brief introduction to analytic representation of finite quantum systems is given. The zeros of this function and there evolution time are discussed. Two open problems are introduced. The first problem discusses the cases when the zeros follow the same path. As the basis change the quantum state |f transforms into different quantum state. The second problem is to define a map between two toruses where the domain and the range of this map are the analytic functions on toruses.

Keywords: open problems, constraint, change of basis.

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2302 Association of Sensory Processing and Cognitive Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders – Pioneer Study in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rana M. Zeina, Laila AL-Ayadhi, Shahid Bashir

Abstract:

The association between sensory problems and cognitive abilities has been studied in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). In this study, we used a Neuropsychological Test to evaluate memory and attention in ASDs children with sensory problems compared to the ASDs children without sensory problems. Four visual memory tests of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) including Big/little circle (BLC), Simple Reaction Time (SRT) Intra /Extra dimensional set shift (IED), Spatial recognition memory (SRM), were administered to 14 ASDs children with sensory problems compared to 13 ASDs without sensory problems aged 3 to 12 with IQ of above 70. ASDs individuals with sensory problems performed worse than the ASDs group without sensory problems on comprehension, learning, reversal and simple reaction time tasks, and no significant difference between the two groups was recorded in terms of the visual memory and visual comprehension tasks. The findings of this study suggest that ASDs children with sensory problems are facing deficits in learning, comprehension, reversal, and speed of response to a stimulus.

Keywords: Visual memory, Attention, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).

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2301 Prevalence Study among University Students in Belarus: To What Extent Do Foreigners Experience Alcohol Problems?

Authors: M. O. Welcome, Y. E. Razvodovsky, V. A. Pereverzev

Abstract:

There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of alcohol use and related problems among foreign students in Belarus. We therefore screen for the prevalence of alcohol related problems among the general foreign students- population in Minsk, Belarus. Participants were 135 male university foreign students (average age – 21) from three major universities in Minsk, Belarus. All respondents were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, CAGE, MAST and other alcohol related questions. Overall, 62.2% (n=84) alcohol users and 31.1% (n=42) problem drinkers were identified on the AUDIT. There was a significant increase (from 39.3% to 60.7%) of the total alcohol users after arrival in Belarus (¤ç2 = 7.714, p<0.02). This study shows that the prevalence of alcohol related problems is high among the foreign students- population in Minsk, Belarus.

Keywords: Alcohol related problems, Male foreign students, Prevalence.

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