Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1272

Search results for: water-using network

1272 An efficient Activity Network Reduction Algorithm based on the Label Correcting Tracing Algorithm

Authors: Weng Ming Chu

Abstract:

When faced with stochastic networks with an uncertain duration for their activities, the securing of network completion time becomes problematical, not only because of the non-identical pdf of duration for each node, but also because of the interdependence of network paths. As evidenced by Adlakha & Kulkarni [1], many methods and algorithms have been put forward in attempt to resolve this issue, but most have encountered this same large-size network problem. Therefore, in this research, we focus on network reduction through a Series/Parallel combined mechanism. Our suggested algorithm, named the Activity Network Reduction Algorithm (ANRA), can efficiently transfer a large-size network into an S/P Irreducible Network (SPIN). SPIN can enhance stochastic network analysis, as well as serve as the judgment of symmetry for the Graph Theory.

Keywords: Series/Parallel network, Stochastic network, Network reduction, Interdictive Graph, Complexity Index.

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1271 Toward Delegated Democracy: Vote by Yourself, or Trust Your Network

Authors: Hiroshi Yamakawa, Michiko Yoshida, Motohiro Tsuchiya

Abstract:

The recent development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) enables new ways of "democratic" decision-making such as a page-ranking system, which estimates the importance of a web page based on indirect trust on that page shared by diverse group of unorganized individuals. These kinds of "democracy" have not been acclaimed yet in the world of real politics. On the other hand, a large amount of data about personal relations including trust, norms of reciprocity, and networks of civic engagement has been accumulated in a computer-readable form by computer systems (e.g., social networking systems). We can use these relations as a new type of social capital to construct a new democratic decision-making system based on a delegation network. In this paper, we propose an effective decision-making support system, which is based on empowering someone's vote whom you trust. For this purpose, we propose two new techniques: the first is for estimating entire vote distribution from a small number of votes, and the second is for estimating active voter choice to promote voting using a delegation network. We show that these techniques could increase the voting ratio and credibility of the whole decision by agent-based simulations.

Keywords: Delegation, network centrality, social network, voting ratio.

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1270 Study on Network-Based Technology for Detecting Potentially Malicious Websites

Authors: Byung-Ik Kim, Hong-Koo Kang, Tae-Jin Lee, Hae-Ryong Park

Abstract:

Cyber terrors against specific enterprises or countries have been increasing recently. Such attacks against specific targets are called advanced persistent threat (APT), and they are giving rise to serious social problems. The malicious behaviors of APT attacks mostly affect websites and penetrate enterprise networks to perform malevolent acts. Although many enterprises invest heavily in security to defend against such APT threats, they recognize the APT attacks only after the latter are already in action. This paper discusses the characteristics of APT attacks at each step as well as the strengths and weaknesses of existing malicious code detection technologies to check their suitability for detecting APT attacks. It then proposes a network-based malicious behavior detection algorithm to protect the enterprise or national networks.

Keywords: Advanced Persistent Threat, Malware, Network Security, Network Packet, Exploit Kits.

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1269 Improved Predictive Models for the IRMA Network Using Nonlinear Optimisation

Authors: Vishwesh Kulkarni, Nikhil Bellarykar

Abstract:

Cellular complexity stems from the interactions among thousands of different molecular species. Thanks to the emerging fields of systems and synthetic biology, scientists are beginning to unravel these regulatory, signaling, and metabolic interactions and to understand their coordinated action. Reverse engineering of biological networks has has several benefits but a poor quality of data combined with the difficulty in reproducing it limits the applicability of these methods. A few years back, many of the commonly used predictive algorithms were tested on a network constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) to resolve this issue. The network was a synthetic network of five genes regulating each other for the so-called in vivo reverse-engineering and modeling assessment (IRMA). The network was constructed in S. cereviase since it is a simple and well characterized organism. The synthetic network included a variety of regulatory interactions, thus capturing the behaviour of larger eukaryotic gene networks on a smaller scale. We derive a new set of algorithms by solving a nonlinear optimization problem and show how these algorithms outperform other algorithms on these datasets.

Keywords: Synthetic gene network, network identification, nonlinear modeling, optimization.

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1268 Avoiding Catastrophic Forgetting by a Dual-Network Memory Model Using a Chaotic Neural Network

Authors: Motonobu Hattori

Abstract:

In neural networks, when new patterns are learned by a network, the new information radically interferes with previously stored patterns. This drawback is called catastrophic forgetting or catastrophic interference. In this paper, we propose a biologically inspired neural network model which overcomes this problem. The proposed model consists of two distinct networks: one is a Hopfield type of chaotic associative memory and the other is a multilayer neural network. We consider that these networks correspond to the hippocampus and the neocortex of the brain, respectively. Information given is firstly stored in the hippocampal network with fast learning algorithm. Then the stored information is recalled by chaotic behavior of each neuron in the hippocampal network. Finally, it is consolidated in the neocortical network by using pseudopatterns. Computer simulation results show that the proposed model has much better ability to avoid catastrophic forgetting in comparison with conventional models.

Keywords: catastrophic forgetting, chaotic neural network, complementary learning systems, dual-network

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1267 DCGA Based-Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Network Adequacy

Authors: H. Shayeghi, M. Mahdavi, H. Haddadian

Abstract:

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is an important component of power system planning that its task is to minimize the network construction and operational cost while satisfying the demand increasing, imposed technical and economic conditions. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But in all of these methods, the lines adequacy rate has not been studied after the planning horizon, i.e. when the expanded network misses its adequacy and needs to be expanded again. In this paper, in order to take transmission lines condition after expansion in to account from the line loading view point, the adequacy of transmission network is considered for solution of STNEP problem. To obtain optimal network arrangement, a decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA) is being used for minimizing the network construction and operational cost. The effectiveness of the proposed idea is tested on the Garver's six-bus network. The results evaluation reveals that the annual worth of network adequacy has a considerable effect on the network arrangement. In addition, the obtained network, based on the DCGA, has lower investment cost and higher adequacy rate. Thus, the network satisfies the requirements of delivering electric power more safely and reliably to load centers.

Keywords: STNEP Problem, Network Adequacy, DCGA.

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1266 Speedup of Data Vortex Network Architecture

Authors: Qimin Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, 3X3 routing nodes are proposed to provide speedup and parallel processing capability in Data Vortex network architectures. The new design not only significantly improves network throughput and latency, but also eliminates the need for distributive traffic control mechanism originally embedded among nodes and the need for nodal buffering. The cost effectiveness is studied by a comparison study with the previously proposed 2- input buffered networks, and considerable performance enhancement can be achieved with similar or lower cost of hardware. Unlike previous implementation, the network leaves small probability of contention, therefore, the packet drop rate must be kept low for such implementation to be feasible and attractive, and it can be achieved with proper choice of operation conditions.

Keywords: Data Vortex, Packet Switch, Interconnection network, deflection, Network-on-chip

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1265 Application of Functional Network to Solving Classification Problems

Authors: Yong-Quan Zhou, Deng-Xu He, Zheng Nong

Abstract:

In this paper two models using a functional network were employed to solving classification problem. Functional networks are generalized neural networks, which permit the specification of their initial topology using knowledge about the problem at hand. In this case, and after analyzing the available data and their relations, we systematically discuss a numerical analysis method used for functional network, and apply two functional network models to solving XOR problem. The XOR problem that cannot be solved with two-layered neural network can be solved by two-layered functional network, which reveals a potent computational power of functional networks, and the performance of the proposed model was validated using classification problems.

Keywords: Functional network, neural network, XOR problem, classification, numerical analysis method.

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1264 Split-Pipe Design of Water Distribution Network Using Simulated Annealing

Authors: J. Tospornsampan, I. Kita, M. Ishii, Y. Kitamura

Abstract:

In this paper a procedure for the split-pipe design of looped water distribution network based on the use of simulated annealing is proposed. Simulated annealing is a heuristic-based search algorithm, motivated by an analogy of physical annealing in solids. It is capable for solving the combinatorial optimization problem. In contrast to the split-pipe design that is derived from a continuous diameter design that has been implemented in conventional optimization techniques, the split-pipe design proposed in this paper is derived from a discrete diameter design where a set of pipe diameters is chosen directly from a specified set of commercial pipes. The optimality and feasibility of the solutions are found to be guaranteed by using the proposed method. The performance of the proposed procedure is demonstrated through solving the three well-known problems of water distribution network taken from the literature. Simulated annealing provides very promising solutions and the lowest-cost solutions are found for all of these test problems. The results obtained from these applications show that simulated annealing is able to handle a combinatorial optimization problem of the least cost design of water distribution network. The technique can be considered as an alternative tool for similar areas of research. Further applications and improvements of the technique are expected as well.

Keywords: Combinatorial problem, Heuristics, Least-cost design, Looped network, Pipe network, Optimization

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1263 Understanding the Selectional Preferences of the Twitter Mentions Network

Authors: R. Sudhesh Solomon, P. Y. K. L. Srinivas, Abhay Narayan, Amitava Das

Abstract:

Users in social networks either unicast or broadcast their messages. At mention is the popular way of unicasting for Twitter whereas general tweeting could be considered as broadcasting method. Understanding the information flow and dynamics within a Social Network and modeling the same is a promising and an open research area called Information Diffusion. This paper seeks an answer to a fundamental question - understanding if the at-mention network or the unicasting pattern in social media is purely random in nature or is there any user specific selectional preference? To answer the question we present an empirical analysis to understand the sociological aspects of Twitter mentions network within a social network community. To understand the sociological behavior we analyze the values (Schwartz model: Achievement, Benevolence, Conformity, Hedonism, Power, Security, Self-Direction, Stimulation, Traditional and Universalism) of all the users. Empirical results suggest that values traits are indeed salient cue to understand how the mention-based communication network functions. For example, we notice that individuals possessing similar values unicast among themselves more often than with other value type people. We also observe that traditional and self-directed people do not maintain very close relationship in the network with the people of different values traits.

Keywords: Social network analysis, information diffusion, personality and values, Twitter Mentions Network.

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1262 System Identification with General Dynamic Neural Networks and Network Pruning

Authors: Christian Endisch, Christoph Hackl, Dierk Schröder

Abstract:

This paper presents an exact pruning algorithm with adaptive pruning interval for general dynamic neural networks (GDNN). GDNNs are artificial neural networks with internal dynamics. All layers have feedback connections with time delays to the same and to all other layers. The structure of the plant is unknown, so the identification process is started with a larger network architecture than necessary. During parameter optimization with the Levenberg- Marquardt (LM) algorithm irrelevant weights of the dynamic neural network are deleted in order to find a model for the plant as simple as possible. The weights to be pruned are found by direct evaluation of the training data within a sliding time window. The influence of pruning on the identification system depends on the network architecture at pruning time and the selected weight to be deleted. As the architecture of the model is changed drastically during the identification and pruning process, it is suggested to adapt the pruning interval online. Two system identification examples show the architecture selection ability of the proposed pruning approach.

Keywords: System identification, dynamic neural network, recurrentneural network, GDNN, optimization, Levenberg Marquardt, realtime recurrent learning, network pruning, quasi-online learning.

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1261 Detection of Moving Images Using Neural Network

Authors: P. Latha, L. Ganesan, N. Ramaraj, P. V. Hari Venkatesh

Abstract:

Motion detection is a basic operation in the selection of significant segments of the video signals. For an effective Human Computer Intelligent Interaction, the computer needs to recognize the motion and track the moving object. Here an efficient neural network system is proposed for motion detection from the static background. This method mainly consists of four parts like Frame Separation, Rough Motion Detection, Network Formation and Training, Object Tracking. This paper can be used to verify real time detections in such a way that it can be used in defense applications, bio-medical applications and robotics. This can also be used for obtaining detection information related to the size, location and direction of motion of moving objects for assessment purposes. The time taken for video tracking by this Neural Network is only few seconds.

Keywords: Frame separation, Correlation Network, Neural network training, Radial Basis Function, object tracking, Motion Detection.

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1260 Design and Implementation of Active Radio Frequency Identification on Wireless Sensor Network-Based System

Authors: Che Z. Zulkifli, Nursyahida M. Noor, Siti N. Semunab, Shafawati A. Malek

Abstract:

Wireless sensors, also known as wireless sensor nodes, have been making a significant impact on human daily life. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are two complementary technologies; hence, an integrated implementation of these technologies expands the overall functionality in obtaining long-range and real-time information on the location and properties of objects and people. An approach for integrating ZigBee and RFID networks is proposed in this paper, to create an energy-efficient network improved by the benefits of combining ZigBee and RFID architecture. Furthermore, the compatibility and requirements of the ZigBee device and communication links in the typical RFID system which is presented with the real world experiment on the capabilities of the proposed RFID system.

Keywords: Mesh network, RFID, wireless sensor network, zigbee.

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1259 A New Approach of Wireless Network Traffic on VPN

Authors: Amir Rashid, M. Saleem Khan, Freeha Zafar

Abstract:

This work presents a new approach of securing a wireless network. The configuration is focused on securing & Protecting wireless network traffic for a small network such as a home or dorm room. The security Mechanism provided both authentication, allowing only known authorized users access to the wireless network, and encryption, preventing anyone from reading the wireless traffic. The mentioned solution utilizes the open source free S/WAN software which implements the Internet Protocol Security –IPSEC. In addition to wireless components, wireless NIC in PC and wireless access point needs a machine running Linux to act as security gateway. While the current configuration assumes that the wireless PC clients are running Linux, Windows XP/VISTA/7 based machines equipped with VPN software which will allow to interface with this configuration.

Keywords: Wireless network security, security network, authentication, encryption and internet protocol security.

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1258 An Analysis of the Social Network Structure of Knowledge Management Students at NTU

Authors: Guo Yanru, Zhu Xiaobo, Lee Chu Keong

Abstract:

This paper maps the structure of the social network of the 2011 class ofsixty graduate students of the Masters of Science (Knowledge Management) programme at the Nanyang Technological University, based on their friending relationships on Facebook. To ensure anonymity, actual names were not used. Instead, they were replaced with codes constructed from their gender, nationality, mode of study, year of enrollment and a unique number. The relationships between friends within the class, and among the seniors and alumni of the programme wereplotted. UCINet and Pajek were used to plot the sociogram, to compute the density, inclusivity, and degree, global, betweenness, and Bonacich centralities, to partition the students into two groups, namely, active and peripheral, and to identify the cut-points. Homophily was investigated, and it was observed for nationality and study mode. The groups students formed on Facebook were also studied, and of fifteen groups, eight were classified as dead, which we defined as those that have been inactive for over two months.

Keywords: Facebook, friending relationships, Social network analysis, social network sites, structural position

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1257 Intelligent Earthquake Prediction System Based On Neural Network

Authors: Emad Amar, Tawfik Khattab, Fatma Zada

Abstract:

Predicting earthquakes is an important issue in the study of geography. Accurate prediction of earthquakes can help people to take effective measures to minimize the loss of personal and economic damage, such as large casualties, destruction of buildings and broken of traffic, occurred within a few seconds. United States Geological Survey (USGS) science organization provides reliable scientific information about Earthquake Existed throughout history & the Preliminary database from the National Center Earthquake Information (NEIC) show some useful factors to predict an earthquake in a seismic area like Aleutian Arc in the U.S. state of Alaska. The main advantage of this prediction method that it does not require any assumption, it makes prediction according to the future evolution of the object's time series. The article compares between simulation data result from trained BP and RBF neural network versus actual output result from the system calculations. Therefore, this article focuses on analysis of data relating to real earthquakes. Evaluation results show better accuracy and higher speed by using radial basis functions (RBF) neural network.

Keywords: BP neural network, Prediction, RBF neural network.

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1256 Device Discover: A Component for Network Management System using Simple Network Management Protocol

Authors: Garima Gupta, Daya Gupta

Abstract:

Virtually all existing networked system management tools use a Manager/Agent paradigm. That is, distributed agents are deployed on managed devices to collect local information and report it back to some management unit. Even those that use standard protocols such as SNMP fall into this model. Using standard protocol has the advantage of interoperability among devices from different vendors. However, it may not be able to provide customized information that is of interest to satisfy specific management needs. In this dissertation work, different approaches are used to collect information regarding the devices attached to a Local Area Network. An SNMP aware application is being developed that will manage the discovery procedure and will be used as data collector.

Keywords: ICMP Scanner, Network Discovery, NetworkManagement, SNMP Scanner.

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1255 Effects of Network Dynamics on Routing Efficiency in P2P Networks

Authors: Mojca Ciglaric, Andrej Krevl, Matjaž Pancur, Tone Vidmar

Abstract:

P2P Networks are highly dynamic structures since their nodes – peer users keep joining and leaving continuously. In the paper, we study the effects of network change rates on query routing efficiency. First we describe some background and an abstract system model. The chosen routing technique makes use of cached metadata from previous answer messages and also employs a mechanism for broken path detection and metadata maintenance. Several metrics are used to show that the protocol behaves quite well even with high rate of node departures, but above a certain threshold it literally breaks down and exhibits considerable efficiency degradation.

Keywords: Network dynamics, overlay network, P2P system, routing efficiency.

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1254 A New Heuristic Approach for Optimal Network Reconfiguration in Distribution Systems

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao, S. V. L. Narasimham

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach for optimal reconfiguration of radial distribution systems. Optimal reconfiguration involves the selection of the best set of branches to be opened, one each from each loop, such that the resulting radial distribution system gets the desired performance. In this paper an algorithm is proposed based on simple heuristic rules and identified an effective switch status configuration of distribution system for the minimum loss reduction. This proposed algorithm consists of two parts; one is to determine the best switching combinations in all loops with minimum computational effort and the other is simple optimum power loss calculation of the best switching combination found in part one by load flows. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on 33-bus system. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of the other methods.

Keywords: Distribution system, network reconfiguration, powerloss reduction, radial network, heuristic technique.

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1253 Evaluating Performance of an Anomaly Detection Module with Artificial Neural Network Implementation

Authors: Edward Guillén, Jhordany Rodriguez, Rafael Páez

Abstract:

Anomaly detection techniques have been focused on two main components: data extraction and selection and the second one is the analysis performed over the obtained data. The goal of this paper is to analyze the influence that each of these components has over the system performance by evaluating detection over network scenarios with different setups. The independent variables are as follows: the number of system inputs, the way the inputs are codified and the complexity of the analysis techniques. For the analysis, some approaches of artificial neural networks are implemented with different number of layers. The obtained results show the influence that each of these variables has in the system performance.

Keywords: Network Intrusion Detection, Machine learning, Artificial Neural Network.

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1252 Effective Sonar Target Classification via Parallel Structure of Minimal Resource Allocation Network

Authors: W.S. Lim, M.V.C. Rao

Abstract:

In this paper, the processing of sonar signals has been carried out using Minimal Resource Allocation Network (MRAN) and a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) in differentiation of commonly encountered features in indoor environments. The stability-plasticity behaviors of both networks have been investigated. The experimental result shows that MRAN possesses lower network complexity but experiences higher plasticity than PNN. An enhanced version called parallel MRAN (pMRAN) is proposed to solve this problem and is proven to be stable in prediction and also outperformed the original MRAN.

Keywords: Ultrasonic sensing, target classification, minimalresource allocation network (MRAN), probabilistic neural network(PNN), stability-plasticity dilemma.

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1251 Hopfield Network as Associative Memory with Multiple Reference Points

Authors: Domingo López-Rodríguez, Enrique Mérida-Casermeiro, Juan M. Ortiz-de-Lazcano-Lobato

Abstract:

Hopfield model of associative memory is studied in this work. In particular, two main problems that it possesses: the apparition of spurious patterns in the learning phase, implying the well-known effect of storing the opposite pattern, and the problem of its reduced capacity, meaning that it is not possible to store a great amount of patterns without increasing the error probability in the retrieving phase. In this paper, a method to avoid spurious patterns is presented and studied, and an explanation of the previously mentioned effect is given. Another technique to increase the capacity of a network is proposed here, based on the idea of using several reference points when storing patterns. It is studied in depth, and an explicit formula for the capacity of the network with this technique is provided.

Keywords: Associative memory, Hopfield network, network capacity, spurious patterns.

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1250 A Study of Dynamic Clustering Method to Extend the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Wernhuar Tarng, Kun-Jie Huang, Li-Zhong Deng, Kun-Rong Hsie, Mingteh Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, the research in wireless sensor network has increased steadily, and many studies were focusing on reducing energy consumption of sensor nodes to extend their lifetimes. In this paper, the issue of energy consumption is investigated and two adaptive mechanisms are proposed to extend the network lifetime. This study uses high-energy-first scheme to determine cluster heads for data transmission. Thus, energy consumption in each cluster is balanced and network lifetime can be extended. In addition, this study uses cluster merging and dynamic routing mechanisms to further reduce energy consumption during data transmission. The simulation results show that the proposed method can effectively extend the lifetime of wireless sensor network, and it is suitable for different base station locations.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, high-energy-first scheme, adaptive mechanisms, network lifetime

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1249 Neural Network based Texture Analysis of Liver Tumor from Computed Tomography Images

Authors: K.Mala, V.Sadasivam, S.Alagappan

Abstract:

Advances in clinical medical imaging have brought about the routine production of vast numbers of medical images that need to be analyzed. As a result an enormous amount of computer vision research effort has been targeted at achieving automated medical image analysis. Computed Tomography (CT) is highly accurate for diagnosing liver tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the potential role of the wavelet and the neural network in the differential diagnosis of liver tumors in CT images. The tumors considered in this study are hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangio carcinoma, hemangeoma and hepatoadenoma. Each suspicious tumor region was automatically extracted from the CT abdominal images and the textural information obtained was used to train the Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) to classify the tumors. Results obtained were evaluated with the help of radiologists. The system differentiates the tumor with relatively high accuracy and is therefore clinically useful.

Keywords: Fuzzy c means clustering, texture analysis, probabilistic neural network, LVQ neural network.

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1248 Recurrent Radial Basis Function Network for Failure Time Series Prediction

Authors: Ryad Zemouri, Paul Ciprian Patic

Abstract:

An adaptive software reliability prediction model using evolutionary connectionist approach based on Recurrent Radial Basis Function architecture is proposed. Based on the currently available software failure time data, Fuzzy Min-Max algorithm is used to globally optimize the number of the k Gaussian nodes. The corresponding optimized neural network architecture is iteratively and dynamically reconfigured in real-time as new actual failure time data arrives. The performance of our proposed approach has been tested using sixteen real-time software failure data. Numerical results show that our proposed approach is robust across different software projects, and has a better performance with respect to next-steppredictability compared to existing neural network model for failure time prediction.

Keywords: Neural network, Prediction error, Recurrent RadialBasis Function Network, Reliability prediction.

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1247 A Survey: Bandwidth Management in an IP Based Network

Authors: M. Kassim, M. Ismail, K. Jumari, M.I Yusof

Abstract:

this paper presented a survey analysis subjected on network bandwidth management from published papers referred in IEEE Explorer database in three years from 2009 to 2011. Network Bandwidth Management is discussed in today-s issues for computer engineering applications and systems. Detailed comparison is presented between published papers to look further in the IP based network critical research area for network bandwidth management. Important information such as the network focus area, a few modeling in the IP Based Network and filtering or scheduling used in the network applications layer is presented. Many researches on bandwidth management have been done in the broad network area but fewer are done in IP Based network specifically at the applications network layer. A few researches has contributed new scheme or enhanced modeling but still the issue of bandwidth management still arise at the applications network layer. This survey is taken as a basic research towards implementations of network bandwidth management technique, new framework model and scheduling scheme or algorithm in an IP Based network which will focus in a control bandwidth mechanism in prioritizing the network traffic the applications layer.

Keywords: Bandwidth Management (BM), IP Based network, modeling, algorithm, internet traffic, network Management, Quality of Service (QoS).

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1246 Enhancing the Network Security with Gray Code

Authors: Thomas Adi Purnomo Sidhi

Abstract:

Nowadays, network is an essential need in almost every part of human daily activities. People now can seamlessly connect to others through the Internet. With advanced technology, our personal data now can be more easily accessed. One of many components we are concerned for delivering the best network is a security issue. This paper is proposing a method that provides more options for security. This research aims to improve network security by focusing on the physical layer which is the first layer of the OSI model. The layer consists of the basic networking hardware transmission technologies of a network. With the use of observation method, the research produces a schematic design for enhancing the network security through the gray code converter.

Keywords: Network, network security, gray code, physical layer.

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1245 Academic Influence of Social Network Sites on the Collegiate Performance of Technical College Students

Authors: Jameson McFarlane, Thorne J. McFarlane, Leon Bernard

Abstract:

Social network sites (SNS) is an emerging phenomenon that is here to stay. The popularity and the ubiquity of the SNS technology are undeniable. Because most SNS are free and easy to use people from all walks of life and from almost any age are attracted to that technology. College age students are by far the largest segment of the population using SNS. Since most SNS have been adapted for mobile devices, not only do you find students using this technology in their study, while working on labs or on projects, a substantial number of students have been found to use SNS even while listening to lectures. This study found that SNS use has a significant negative impact on the grade point average of college students particularly in the first semester. However, this negative impact is greatly diminished by the end of the third semester partly because the students have adjusted satisfactorily to the challenges of college or because they have learned how to adequately manage their time. It was established that the kinds of activities the students are engaged in during the SNS use are the leading factor affecting academic performance. Of those activities, using SNS during a lecture or while studying is the foremost contributing factor to lower academic performance. This is due to “cognitive” or “information” bottleneck, a condition in which the students find it very difficult to multitask or to switch between resources leading to inefficiency in information retention and thus, educational performance.

Keywords: Social network sites, social network analysis, regression coefficient, psychological engagement.

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1244 Automatic Removal of Ocular Artifacts using JADE Algorithm and Neural Network

Authors: V Krishnaveni, S Jayaraman, A Gunasekaran, K Ramadoss

Abstract:

The ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG) is useful for clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. EEG signals often contain strong ElectroOculoGram (EOG) artifacts produced by eye movements and eye blinks especially in EEG recorded from frontal channels. These artifacts obscure the underlying brain activity, making its visual or automated inspection difficult. The goal of ocular artifact removal is to remove ocular artifacts from the recorded EEG, leaving the underlying background signals due to brain activity. In recent times, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms have demonstrated superior potential in obtaining the least dependent source components. In this paper, the independent components are obtained by using the JADE algorithm (best separating algorithm) and are classified into either artifact component or neural component. Neural Network is used for the classification of the obtained independent components. Neural Network requires input features that exactly represent the true character of the input signals so that the neural network could classify the signals based on those key characters that differentiate between various signals. In this work, Auto Regressive (AR) coefficients are used as the input features for classification. Two neural network approaches are used to learn classification rules from EEG data. First, a Polynomial Neural Network (PNN) trained by GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) algorithm is used and secondly, feed-forward neural network classifier trained by a standard back-propagation algorithm is used for classification and the results show that JADE-FNN performs better than JADEPNN.

Keywords: Auto Regressive (AR) Coefficients, Feed Forward Neural Network (FNN), Joint Approximation Diagonalisation of Eigen matrices (JADE) Algorithm, Polynomial Neural Network (PNN).

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1243 Possibilistic Clustering Technique-Based Traffic Light Control for Handling Emergency Vehicle

Authors: F. Titouna, S. Benferhat, K. Aksa, C. Titouna

Abstract:

A traffic light gives security from traffic congestion,reducing the traffic jam, and organizing the traffic flow. Furthermore,increasing congestion level in public road networks is a growingproblem in many countries. Using Intelligent Transportation Systemsto provide emergency vehicles a green light at intersections canreduce driver confusion, reduce conflicts, and improve emergencyresponse times. Nowadays, the technology of wireless sensornetworks can solve many problems and can offer a good managementof the crossroad. In this paper, we develop a new approach based onthe technique of clustering and the graphical possibilistic fusionmodeling. So, the proposed model is elaborated in three phases. Thefirst one consists to decompose the environment into clusters,following by the fusion intra and inter clusters processes. Finally, wewill show some experimental results by simulation that proves theefficiency of our proposed approach.KeywordsTraffic light, Wireless sensor network, Controller,Possibilistic network/Bayesain network.

Keywords: Traffic light, Wireless sensor network, Controller, Possibilistic network/Bayesain network.

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