Search results for: volatile organochlorines
119 Volatile Organochlorine Compounds Emitted by Temperate Coniferous Forests
Authors: Jana Doležalová, Josef Holík, Zdeněk Wimmer, Sándor T. Forczek
Abstract:Chlorine is one of the most abundant elements in nature, which undergoes a complex biogeochemical cycle. Chlorine bound in some substances is partly responsible for atmospheric ozone depletion and contamination of some ecosystems. As due to international regulations anthropogenic burden of volatile organochlorines (VOCls) in atmosphere decreases, natural sources (plants, soil, abiotic formation) are expected to dominate VOCl production in the near future. Examples of plant VOCl production are methyl chloride, and bromide emission from (sub)tropical ferns, chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and tetrachloromethane emission from temperate forest fern and moss. Temperate forests are found to emit in addition to the previous compounds tetrachloroethene, and brominated volatile compounds. VOCls can be taken up and further metabolized in plants. The aim of this work is to identify and quantitatively analyze the formed VOCls in temperate forest ecosystems by a cryofocusing/GC-ECD detection method, hence filling a gap of knowledge in the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine.
Keywords: chloroform, cryofocusing-GC-ECD, ozonedepletion, volatile organochlorinesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1312
118 Aroma Composition and Polyphenol Content of Ciders Available in Latvian Market
Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Daina Karklina
Abstract:Aroma forming volatiles are important components of fermented beverages. The aim of current research is to evaluate the volatile compounds and phenolic compounds of commercial ciders. Volatile aroma compounds and TPC of seven commercial ciders were determined. Extraction of aroma compounds was performed using solid phase microextraction (DVB/Car/PDMS fibre). Analysis of volatile aroma compounds was made using a Perkin Elmer Clarus 500 GC/MS. Total phenol content (TPC) was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method and results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The highest volatile compounds were in apple ciders with pear flavor. The highest TPC and lower content of volatile compounds were detected in French ciders.
Keywords: cider, TPC, volatile compoundsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2701
117 The Effect of Drying Conditions on the Presence of Volatile Compounds in Cranberries
Authors: Karina Ruse, Martins Sabovics, Tatjana Rakcejeva, Lija Dukalska, Ruta Galoburda, Laima Berzina
Abstract:the research was accomplished on fresh in Latvia wild growing cranberries and cranberry cultivars. The aim of the study was to evaluate effect of pretreatment method and drying conditions on the volatile compounds composition in cranberries. Berries pre-treatment methods were: perforation, halving and steam-blanching. The berries before drying in a cabinet drier were pre-treated using all three methods, in microwave vacuum drier – using a steam-blanching and halving. Volatile compounds in cranberries were analysed using GC-MS of extracts obtained by SPME. During present research 21 various volatile compounds were detected in fresh cranberries: the cultivar 'Steven' - 15, 'Bergman' and 'Early black' – 13, 'Ben Lear' and 'Pilgrim' – 11 and wild cranberries – 14 volatile compounds. In dried cranberries 20 volatile compounds were detected. Mathematical data processing allows drawing a conclusion that there exists the significant influence of cranberry cultivar, pre-treatment method and drying condition on volatile compounds in berries and new volatile compound formation.
Keywords: volatile compounds, cranberries, convective drier, microwave-vacuum drierProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2389
116 Headspace Solid-phase Microextraction of Volatile and Furanic Compounds in Coated Fish Sticks: Effect of the Extraction Temperature
Authors: M. Trinidad Pérez-Palacios, Catarina Petisca, Olívia Pinho, Isabel M.P.L.V.O. Ferreira
This work evaluated the effect of temperature on headspace solid-phase microextraction of volatile and furanic compounds in coated fish sticks. The major goal was the analysis of the samples as consumed, to reproduce volatile compounds people feel when consuming those products. Extraction at 37 ºC (the human body temperature) throughout the HS-SPME analysis of volatile and furanic compounds in coated fish was compared with higher extraction temperatures, which are frequently used for this kind of determinations. The profile of volatile compounds found in deepfried (F) and non-fried (NF) coated fish at 37 and 50 ºC was different from that obtained at 80 ºC. Concerning furan and its derivatives, an extra formation of these compounds was observed at higher extraction temperatures. The analysis of volatile and furanic compounds in fish coated sticks simulating the cooking and eating conditions can be reliably carried out setting the headspace absorption temperature at 37 ºC.
Keywords: Analysis of samples as consumed, fish coated sticks, furans, headspace extraction temperature, volatiles.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1944
115 The Relations of Volatile Compounds, Some Parameters and Consumer Preference of Commercial Fermented Milks in Thailand
Authors: Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Rawichar Chaipojjana, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean
The aim of research was to define the relations between volatile compounds, some parameters (pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS), lactic acid bacteria count) and consumer preference of commercial fermented milks. These relations tend to be used for controlling and developing new fermented milk product. Three leading commercial brands of fermented milks in Thailand were evaluated by consumers (n=71) using hedonic scale for four attributes (sweetness, sourness, flavour, and overall liking), volatile compounds using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS, pH, TA, TSS and LAB count. Then the relations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA data showed that all of four attributes liking scores were related to each other. They were also related to TA, TSS and volatile compounds. The related volatile compounds were mainly on fermented produced compounds including acetic acid, furanmethanol, furfural, octanoic acid and the volatiles known as artificial fruit flavour (beta pinene, limonene, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin). These compounds were provided the information about flavour addition in commercial fermented milk in Thailand.
Keywords: Fermented milk, volatile compounds, preference, PCA.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1572
114 WormHex: A Volatile Memory Analysis Tool for Retrieval of Social Media Evidence
Authors: Norah Almubairik, Wadha Almattar, Amani Alqarni
Social media applications are increasingly being used in our everyday communications. These applications utilise end-to-end encryption mechanisms which make them suitable tools for criminals to exchange messages. These messages are preserved in the volatile memory until the device is restarted. Therefore, volatile forensics has become an important branch of digital forensics. In this study, the WormHex tool was developed to inspect the memory dump files for Windows and Mac based workstations. The tool supports digital investigators by enabling them to extract valuable data written in Arabic and English through web-based WhatsApp and Twitter applications. The results confirm that social media applications write their data into the memory, regardless of the operating system running the application, with there being no major differences between Windows and Mac.
Keywords: Volatile memory, REGEX, digital forensics, memory acquisitionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 544
113 Phase Equilibrium of Volatile Organic Compounds in Polymeric Solvents Using Group Contribution Methods
Authors: E. Muzenda
Abstract:Group contribution methods such as the UNIFAC are of major interest to researchers and engineers involved synthesis, feasibility studies, design and optimization of separation processes as well as other applications of industrial use. Reliable knowledge of the phase equilibrium behavior is crucial for the prediction of the fate of the chemical in the environment and other applications. The objective of this study was to predict the solubility of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in glycol polymers and biodiesel. Measurements can be expensive and time consuming, hence the need for thermodynamic models. The results obtained in this study for the infinite dilution activity coefficients compare very well those published in literature obtained through measurements. It is suggested that in preliminary design or feasibility studies of absorption systems for the abatement of volatile organic compounds, prediction procedures should be implemented while accurate fluid phase equilibrium data should be obtained from experiment.
Keywords: Volatile organic compounds, Prediction, Phaseequilibrium, Environmental, Infinite dilution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1889
112 Enzymatic Esterification of Carboxylic Acids and Higher Alcohols in Organic Medium
Authors: D.T. Mirzarakhmetova
Abstract:The studying of enzymatic esterification of carboxylic acids and higher alcohols was performed by esterase Saccharomyces cerevisiae in water-organic medium. Investigation of the enzyme specificity to acetic substrates showed the best result with acetic acid in esterification reactions with ethanol whereas within other carboxylic acids the esterification decreased with acids: hexanoic > pentanoic > butyric > decanoic. In relation to higher alcohols C3-C5, esterification increased with alcohols propanol < butanol < amylol. Also it was determined that esterase was more specific to alcohols with branched chain such as isobutyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol. Data obtained may have important practical implications, for example, for application of yeast esterase in producing various volatile esters as well as in enzymatic transformation of volatile acids and toxic fusel alcohols into volatile esters by providing the production of the high quality alcoholic beverages with redused content of higher alcohols as well as with improved degustational and hygienic properties.
Keywords: enzymes in non-conventional media, esterification, higher alcohols, volatile esters, yeast esteraseProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3406
111 Optimization of Growth of Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Using Mixed Volatile Fatty Acidsby Response Surface Methodology
Authors: R.Sangeetha, T.Karunanithi
Abstract:A combination of photosynthetic bacteria along with anaerobic acidogenic bacteria is an ideal option for efficient hydrogen production. In the present study, the optimum concentration of substrates for the growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides was found by response surface methodology. The optimum combination of three individual fatty acids was determined by Box Behnken design. Increase of volatile fatty acid concentration decreased the growth. Combination of sodium acetate and sodium propionate was most significant for the growth of the organism. The results showed that a maximum biomass concentration of 0.916 g/l was obtained when the concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate were 0.73g/l,0.99g/l and 0.799g/l, respectively. The growth was studied under an optimum concentration of volatile fatty acids and at a light intensity of 3000 lux, initial pH of 7 and a temperature of 35°C.The maximum biomass concentration of 0.92g/l was obtained which verified the practicability of this optimization.
Keywords: Biohydrogen, Response Surface Methodology, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Volatile fatty acidProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2016
110 Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Human Breath by Optical Fiber Sensing
Authors: C. I. L. Justino, L. I. B. Silva, K. Duarte, A. C. Freitas, T. A. P. Rocha-Santos, A. C. Duarte
Abstract:This work proposes an optical fiber system (OF) for sensing various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath for the diagnosis of some metabolic disorders as a non-invasive methodology. The analyzed VOCs are alkanes (i.e., ethane, pentane, heptane, octane, and decane), and aromatic compounds (i.e., benzene, toluene, and styrene). The OF displays high analytical performance since it provides near real-time responses, rapid analysis, and low instrumentation costs, as well as it exhibits useful linear range and detection limits; the developed OF sensor is also comparable to a reference methodology (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) for the eight tested VOCs.
Keywords: Breath analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, optical fiber sensor, volatile organic compoundsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2164
109 In vitro and in vivo Anticholinesterase Activity of the Volatile Oil of the Aerial Parts of Ocimum basilicum L. and O. africanum Lour. Growing in Egypt
Authors: M. G. Tadros, S. M. Ezzat, M. M. Salama, M. A. Farag
In this study, the in vitro anticholinesterase activity of
the volatile oils of both O. basilicum and O. africanum was
investigated and both samples showed significant activity. The major
constituents of the two oils were isolated using several column
chromatographies. Linalool, 1,8-cineol and eugenol were isolated
from the volatile oil of O. basilicum and camphor was isolated from
the volatile oil of O. africanum. The anticholinesterase activities of
the isolated compounds were also evaluated where 1,8-cineol showed
the highest inhibitory activity followed by camphor. To confirm these
activities, learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in
mice. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine, a
cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anti-amnesic effects of
both volatile oils and their terpenoids were investigated by the
passive avoidance task in mice. We also examined their effects on
brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that scopolamineinduced
cognitive dysfunction was significantly attenuated by
administration of the volatile oils and their terpenoids, eugenol and
camphor, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain
acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that O. basilicum
and O. africanum volatile oils can be good candidates for further
studies on Alzheimer’s disease via their acetylcholinesterase
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Ocimum africanum, Ocimum basilicum, passive avoidance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3335
108 Formation of Volatile Iodine from Cesium Iodide Aerosols: A DFT Study
Authors: Houssam Hijazi, Laurent Cantrel, Jean-François Paul
Periodic DFT calculations were performed to study the chemistry of CsI particles and the possible release of volatile iodine from CsI surfaces for nuclear safety interest. The results show that water adsorbs at low temperature associatively on the (011) surface of CsI, while water desorbs at higher temperatures. On the other hand, removing iodine species from the surface requires oxidizing the surface one time for each removed iodide atom. The activation energy of removing I2 from the surface in the presence of two OH is 1,2 eV.
Keywords: Aerosols, CsI, reactivity, DFT, water adsorption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 964
107 Oxide Based Resistive Random Access Memory Device for High Density Non Volatile Memory Applications
Authors: Z. Fang, X. P. Wang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong
In this work, we demonstrated vertical RRAM device fabricated at the sidewall of contact hole structures for possible future 3-D stacking integrations. The fabricated devices exhibit polarity dependent bipolar resistive switching with small operation voltage of less than 1V for both set and reset process. A good retention of memory window ~50 times is maintained after 1000s voltage bias.
Keywords: Bipolar switching, non volatile memory, resistive random access memory, 3-D stacking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2071
106 Effect of Blanching on the Quality of Microwave Vacuum Dried Dill (Anethum graveolens L.)
Authors: Evita Straumite, Zanda Kruma, Ruta Galoburda, Kaiva Saulite
Abstract:Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) is a popular herb used in many regions, including Baltic countries. Dill is widely used for flavoring foods and beverages due to its pleasant spicy aroma. The aim of this work was to determine the best blanching method for processing of dill prior to microwave vacuum drying based on sensory properties, color and volatile compounds in dried product. Two blanching mediums were used – water and steam, and for part of samples microwave pretreatment was additionally used. Evaluation of dried dill volatile aroma compounds, color changes and sensory attributes was performed. Results showed that blanching significantly influences the quality of dried dill. After evaluation of volatile aroma compounds, color and sensory properties of microwave vacuum dried dill, as the best method for dill pretreatment was established blanching at 90 °C for 30 s.
Keywords: dried dill, sensory panel, sensory properties, aroma compounds, colorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2028
105 Volatile Organic Compounds Destruction by Catalytic Oxidation for Environmental Applications
Authors: Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Edward Gobina
Abstract:Pt/γ-Al2O3 membrane catalysts were prepared via an evaporative-crystallization deposition method. The obtained Pt/γ- Al2O3 catalyst activity was tested after characterization (SEM-EDAX observation, BET measurement, permeability assessment) in the catalytic oxidation of selected volatile organic compound (VOC) i.e. propane, fed in mixture of oxygen. The VOC conversion (nearly 90%) obtained by varying the operating temperature showed that flow-through membrane reactor might do better in the abatement of VOCs.
Keywords: VOC combustion, flow-through membrane reactor, platinum supported alumina catalysts.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2350
104 Estimating the Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Biodiesels Using the UNIFAC Procedure
Authors: Corina M Mateescu, Edison Muzenda, Mohamed Belaid, Saka Abdulkareem, Ayo S Afolabi
Abstract:This work considered the thermodynamic feasibility of scrubbing volatile organic compounds into biodiesel in view of designing a gas treatment process with this absorbent. A detailed vapour – liquid equilibrium investigation was performed using the original UNIFAC group contribution method. The four biodiesels studied in this work are methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, methyl linolenate and ethyl stearate. The original UNIFAC procedure was used to estimate the infinite dilution activity coefficients of 13 selected volatile organic compounds in the biodiesels. The calculations were done at the VOC mole fraction of 9.213x10-8. Ethyl stearate gave the most favourable phase equilibrium. A close agreement was found between the infinite dilution activity coefficient of toluene found in this work and those reported in literature. Thermodynamic models can efficiently be used to calculate vast amount of phase equilibrium behaviour using limited number of experimental data.
Keywords: Biodiesel, Equilibrium, Gas treatment, Infinitedilution, ThermodynamicProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1753
103 Effect of Temperature on Specific Retention Volumes of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds Using the Gas - Liquid Chromatographic Technique Revisited
Authors: Edison Muzenda, Ayo S. Afolabi
This paper is a continuation of our interest in the influence of temperature on specific retention volumes and the resulting infinite dilution activity coefficients. This has a direct effect in the design of absorption and stripping columns for the abatement of volatile organic compounds. The interaction of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at varying temperatures was studied by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Infinite dilution activity coefficients and specific retention volumes obtained in this study were found to be in agreement with those obtained from static headspace and group contribution methods by the authors as well as literature values for similar systems. Temperature variation also allows for transport calculations for different seasons. The results of this work confirm that PDMS is well suited for the scrubbing of VOCs from waste gas streams. Plots of specific retention volumes against temperature gave linear van-t Hoff plots.
Keywords: Specific retention volume, Waste gas streams, specific retention, infinite dilution, abatement, transport.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1830
102 Evaluation of Fuel Properties of Six Tropical Hardwood Timber Species for Briquettes
Authors: S. J. Mitchual, K. Frimpong-Mensah, N. A. Darkwa
Abstract:The fuel potential of six tropical hardwood species namely: Triplochiton scleroxylon, Ceiba pentandra, Aningeria robusta, Terminalia superba, Celtis mildbreadii and Piptadenia africana were studied. Properties studied included species density, gross calorific value, volatile matter, ash content, organic carbon and elemental composition. Fuel properties were determined using standard laboratory methods. The result indicates that the gross calorific value (GCV) of the species ranged from 20.16 to 22.22 MJ/kg and they slightly varied from each other. Additionally, the GCV of the biomass materials were higher than that of other biomass materials like; wheat straw, rice straw, maize straw and sugar cane. The ash and volatile matter content varied from 0.6075 to 5.0407%, and 75.23% to 83.70% respectively. The overall rating of the properties of the six biomass materials suggested that Piptadenia africana has the best fuel property to be used as briquettes and Aningeria robusta the worse. This study therefore suggests that a holistic assessment of a biomass material needs to be done before selecting it for fuel purpose.
Keywords: Ash content, Briquette, Calorific value, Elemental composition, Species, Volatile matter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1590
101 Modeling Drying and Pyrolysis of Moist Wood Particles at Slow Heating Rates
Authors: Avdhesh K. Sharma
Formulation for drying and pyrolysis process in packed beds at slow heating rates is presented. Drying of biomass particles bed is described by mass diffusion equation and local moisture-vapour-equilibrium relations. In gasifiers, volatilization rate during pyrolysis of biomass is modeled by using apparent kinetic rate expression, while product compositions at slow heating rates is modeled using empirical fitted mass ratios (i.e., CO/CO2, ME/CO2, H2O/CO2) in terms of pyrolysis temperature. The drying module is validated fairly with available chemical kinetics scheme and found that the testing zone in gasifier bed constituted of relatively smaller particles having high airflow with high isothermal temperature expedite the drying process. Further, volatile releases more quickly within the shorter zone height at high temperatures (isothermal). Both, moisture loss and volatile release profiles are found to be sensitive to temperature, although the influence of initial moisture content on volatile release profile is not so sensitive.
Keywords: Modeling downdraft gasifier, drying, pyrolysis, moist woody biomass.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 664
100 Memristor: The Missing Circuit Element and its Application
Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar
Abstract:Memristor is also known as the fourth fundamental passive circuit element. When current flows in one direction through the device, the electrical resistance increases and when current flows in the opposite direction, the resistance decreases. When the current is stopped, the component retains the last resistance that it had, and when the flow of charge starts again, the resistance of the circuit will be what it was when it was last active. It behaves as a nonlinear resistor with memory. Recently memristors have generated wide research interest and have found many applications. In this paper we survey the various applications of memristors which include non volatile memory, nanoelectronic memories, computer logic, neuromorphic computer architectures low power remote sensing applications, crossbar latches as transistor replacements, analog computations and switches.
Keywords: Memristor, non-volatile memory, arithmatic operation, programmable resistor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3740
99 Quality Properties of Fermented Mugworts and Rapid Pattern Analysis of Their Volatile Flavor Components by Electric Nose Based On SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) Sensor in GC System
Authors: Hyo-Nam Song
The changes in quality properties and nutritional components in two fermented mugworts (Artemisia capillaries Thumberg, Artemisiaeasiaticae Nakai) were characterized followed by the rapid pattern analysis of volatile flavor compounds by Electric Nose based on SAW(Surface Acoustic Wave) sensor in GC system. There were remarkable decreases in the pH and small changes in the total soluble solids after fermentation. The L (lightness) and b (yellowness) values in Hunter's color system were shown to be decreased, whilst the a (redness) value was increased by fermentation. The HPLC analysis demonstrated that total amino acids were increased in quantity and the essential amino acids were contained higher in A. asiaticaeNakai than in A. capillaries Thumberg. While the total polyphenol contents were not affected by fermentation, the total sugar contents were dramatically decreased. Scopoletinwere highly abundant in A. capillarisThumberg, however, it was not detected in A. asiaticaeNakai. Volatile flavor compounds by Electric Nose showed that the intensity of several peaks were increased much and seven additional flavor peaks were newly produced after fermentation. The flavor differences of two mugworts were clearly distinguished from the image patterns of VaporPrintTM which indicate that the fermentation enables the two mugworts to have subtle flavor differences.
Keywords: Mugwort, Fermentation, Electric Nose, SAW sensor, Flavor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1616
98 Solubility of Organics in Water and Silicon Oil: A Comparative Study
Authors: Edison Muzenda
The aim of this study was to compare the solubility of selected volatile organic compounds in water and silicon oil using the simple static headspace method. The experimental design allowed equilibrium achievement within 30 – 60 minutes. Infinite dilution activity coefficients and Henry-s law constants for various organics representing esters, ketones, alkanes, aromatics, cycloalkanes and amines were measured at 303K. The measurements were reproducible with a relative standard deviation and coefficient of variation of 1.3x10-3 and 1.3 respectively. The static determined activity coefficients using shaker flasks were reasonably comparable to those obtained using the gas liquid - chromatographic technique and those predicted using the group contribution methods mainly the UNIFAC. Silicon oil chemically known as polydimethysiloxane was found to be better absorbent for VOCs than water which quickly becomes saturated. For example the infinite dilution mole fraction based activity coefficients of hexane is 0.503 and 277 000 in silicon oil and water respectively. Thus silicon oil gives a superior factor of 550 696. Henry-s law constants and activity coefficients at infinite dilution play a significant role in the design of scrubbers for abatement of volatile organic compounds from contaminated air streams. This paper presents the phase equilibrium of volatile organic compounds in very dilute aqueous and polymeric solutions indicating the movement and fate of chemical in air and solvent. The successful comparison of the results obtained here and those obtained using other methods by the same authors and in literature, means that the results obtained here are reliable.
Keywords: Abatement, absorbent, activity coefficients, equilibrium, Henry's law constant.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2537
97 Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds into Polydimethylsiloxane: Phase Equilibrium Computation at Infinite Dilution
Authors: Edison Muzenda, Corina M Mateescu
Abstract:Group contribution methods such as the UNIFAC are very useful to researchers and engineers involved in synthesis, feasibility studies, design and optimization of separation processes. They can be applied successfully to predict phase equilibrium and excess properties in the development of chemical and separation processes. The main focus of this work was to investigate the possibility of absorbing selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using three selected UNIFAC group contribution methods. Absorption followed by subsequent stripping is the predominant available abatement technology of VOCs from flue gases prior to their release into the atmosphere. The original, modified and effective UNIFAC models were used in this work. The thirteen selected VOCs that have been considered in this research are: pentane, hexane, heptanes, trimethylamine, toluene, xylene, cyclohexane, butyl acetate, diethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethyl methyl ketone and isobutyl methyl ketone. The computation was done for solute VOC concentration of 8.55x10-8 which is well in the infinite dilution region. The results obtained in this study compare very well with those published in literature obtained through both measurements and predictions. The phase equilibrium obtained in this study show that PDMS is a good absorbent for the removal of VOCs from contaminated air streams through physical absorption.
Keywords: Absorption, Computation, Feasibility studies, Infinite dilution, Volatile organic compoundsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1829
96 Indoor Air Pollution of the Flexographic Printing Environment
Authors: Jelena S. Kiurski, Vesna S. Kecić, Snežana M. Aksentijević
The identification and evaluation of organic and inorganic pollutants were performed in a flexographic facility in Novi Sad, Serbia. Air samples were collected and analyzed in situ, during 4-hours working time at five sampling points by the mobile gas chromatograph and ozonometer at the printing of collagen casing. Experimental results showed that the concentrations of isopropyl alcohol, acetone, total volatile organic compounds and ozone varied during the sampling times. The highest average concentrations of 94.80 ppm and 102.57 ppm were achieved at 200 minutes from starting the production for isopropyl alcohol and total volatile organic compounds, respectively. The mutual dependences between target hazardous and microclimate parameters were confirmed using a multiple linear regression model with software package STATISTICA 10. Obtained multiple coefficients of determination in the case of ozone and acetone (0.507 and 0.589) with microclimate parameters indicated a moderate correlation between the observed variables. However, a strong positive correlation was obtained for isopropyl alcohol and total volatile organic compounds (0.760 and 0.852) with microclimate parameters. Higher values of parameter F than Fcritical for all examined dependences indicated the existence of statistically significant difference between the concentration levels of target pollutants and microclimates parameters. Given that, the microclimate parameters significantly affect the emission of investigated gases and the application of eco-friendly materials in production process present a necessity.
Keywords: Flexographic printing, indoor air, multiple regression analysis, pollution emission.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1198
95 Torrefaction of Malaysian Palm Kernel Shell into Value-Added Solid Fuels
Authors: Amin A. Jaafar, Murni M. Ahmad
Abstract:This project aims to investigate the potential of torrefaction to improve the properties of Malaysian palm kernel shell (PKS) as a solid fuel. A study towards torrefaction of PKS was performed under various temperature and residence time of 240, 260, and 280oC and 30, 60, and 90 minutes respectively. The torrefied PKS was characterized in terms of the mass yield, energy yield, elemental composition analysis, calorific value analysis, moisture and volatile matter contents, and ash and fixed carbon contents. The mass and energy yield changes in the torrefied PKS were observed to prove that the temperature has more effect compare to residence time in the torrefaction process. The C content of PKS increases while H and O contents decrease after torrefaction, which resulted in higher heating value between 5 to 16%. Meanwhile, torrefaction caused the ash and fixed carbon content of PKS to increase, and the moisture and volatile matter to decrease.
Keywords: biomass, palm kernel shell, pretreatment, solid fuel, torrefactionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3445
94 The Effect of Feedstock Type and Slow Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Yield from Coconut Wastes
Authors: Adilah Shariff, Nur Syairah Mohamad Aziz, Norsyahidah Md Saleh, Nur Syuhada Izzati Ruzali
The first objective of this study is to investigate the suitability of coconut frond (CF) and coconut husk (CH) as feedstocks using a laboratory-scale slow pyrolysis experimental setup. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar yield. The properties of CF and CH feedstocks were compared. The properties of the CF and CH feedstocks were investigated using proximate and elemental analysis, lignocellulosic determination, and also thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The CF and CH feedstocks were pyrolysed at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C for 2 hours at 10 °C/min heating rate. The proximate analysis showed that CF feedstock has 89.96 mf wt% volatile matter, 4.67 mf wt% ash content and 5.37 mf wt% fixed carbon. The lignocelluloses analysis showed that CF feedstock contained 21.46% lignin, 39.05% cellulose and 22.49% hemicelluloses. The CH feedstock contained 84.13 mf wt% volatile matter, 0.33 mf wt% ash content, 15.54 mf wt% fixed carbon, 28.22% lignin, 33.61% cellulose and 22.03% hemicelluloses. Carbon and oxygen are the major component of the CF and CH feedstock compositions. Both of CF and CH feedstocks contained very low percentage of sulfur, 0.77% and 0.33%, respectively. TGA analysis indicated that coconut wastes are easily degraded. It may be due to their high volatile content. Between the temperature ranges of 300 and 800 °C, the TGA curves showed that the weight percentage of CF feedstock is lower than CH feedstock by 0.62%-5.88%. From the D TGA curves, most of the weight loss occurred between 210 and 400 °C for both feedstocks. The maximum weight loss for both CF and CH are 0.0074 wt%/min and 0.0061 wt%/min, respectively, which occurred at 324.5 °C. The yield percentage of both CF and CH biochars decreased significantly as the pyrolysis temperature was increased. For CF biochar, the yield decreased from 49.40 wt% to 28.12 wt% as the temperature increased from 300 to 700 °C. The yield for CH biochars also decreased from 52.18 wt% to 28.72 wt%. The findings of this study indicated that both CF and CH are suitable feedstock for slow pyrolysis of biochar.
Keywords: Biochar, biomass, coconut wastes, slow pyrolysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1418
93 Volatile Profile of Monofloral Honeys Produced by Stingless Bees from the Brazilian Semiarid Region
Authors: Ana Caroliny Vieira da Costa, Marta Suely Madruga
In Brazil, there is a diverse fauna of social bees, known by Meliponinae or native stingless bees. These bees are important for providing a differentiated product, especially regarding unique sweetness, flavor, and aroma. However, information about the volatile fraction in honey produced by stingless native bees is still lacking. The aim of this work was to characterize the volatile compound profile of monofloral honey produced by jandaíra bees (Melipona subnitida Ducke) which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC) as their floral sources; and by uruçu bees (Melipona scutellaris Latrelle), which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and angico (Anadenanthera colubrina) as their floral sources. The volatiles were extracted using HS-SPME-GC-MS technique. The condition for the extraction was: equilibration time of 15 minutes, extraction time of 45 min and extraction temperature of 45°C. Through the results obtained, it was observed that the floral source had a strong influence on the aroma profile of the honey under evaluation, since the chemical profiles were marked primarily by the classes of terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Furthermore, the results obtained suggest the existence of differentiator compounds and potential markers for the botanical sources evaluated, such as linalool, D-sylvestrene, rose oxide and benzenethanol. These reports represent a valuable contribution to certifying the authenticity of those honey and provides for the first time, information intended for the construction of chemical knowledge of the aroma and flavor that characterize these honey produced in Brazil.
Keywords: Aroma, honey, semiarid, stingless, volatiles.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1225
92 Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds from the Residential Combustion of Pyrenean Oak and Black Poplar
Authors: M. Evtyugina, C. A. Alves, A. I. Calvo, T. Nunes, L. Tarelho, M. Duarte, S. O. Prozil
Abstract:Smoke from domestic wood burning has been identified as a major contributor to air pollution, motivating detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. A series of experiments was performed to characterise the emissions from wood combustion in a fireplace and in a woodstove of two common species of trees grown in Spain: Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica) and black poplar (Populus nigra). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaust emissions were collected in Tedlar bags, re-sampled in sorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection. Pyrenean oak presented substantially higher emissions in the woodstove than in the fireplace, for the majority of compounds. The opposite was observed for poplar. Among the 45 identified species, benzene and benzenerelated compounds represent the most abundant group, followed by oxygenated VOCs and aliphatics. Emission factors obtained in this study are generally of the same order than those reported for residential experiments in the USA.
Keywords: Fireplace, VOC emissions, woodstove.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1624
91 Rubber Wood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis
Authors: Adilah Shariff, Radin Hakim, Nurhayati Abdullah
Abstract:Utilisation of biomass feedstock for biochar has received increasing attention because of their potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of rubber wood as a biomass feedstock for biochar via slow pyrolysis process. This was achieved by using proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as heating value, pH and lignocellulosic determination. Rubber wood contains 4.13 mf wt.% moisture, 86.30 mf wt.% volatile matter, 0.60 mf wt.% ash content, and 13.10 mf wt.% fixed carbon. The ultimate analysis shows that rubber wood consists of 44.33 mf wt.% carbon, 6.26 mf wt.% hydrogen, 19.31 mf wt.% nitrogen, 0.31 mf wt.% sulphur, and 29.79 mf wt.% oxygen. The higher heating value of rubber wood is 22.5 MJ/kg, and its lower heating value is 21.2 MJ/kg. At 27 °C, the pH value of rubber wood is 6.83 which is acidic. The lignocellulosic analysis revealed that rubber wood composition consists of 2.63 mf wt.% lignin, 20.13 mf wt.% cellulose, and 65.04 mf wt.% hemicellulose. The volatile matter to fixed carbon ratio is 6.58. This led to a biochar yield of 25.14 wt.% at 500 °C. Rubber wood is an environmental friendly feedstock due to its low sulphur content. Rubber wood therefore is a suitable and a potential feedstock for biochar production via slow pyrolysis.
Keywords: Biochar, biomass, rubber wood, slow pyrolysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1698
90 Optimum Conditions for Effective Decomposition of Toluene as VOC Gas by Pilot-Scale Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer
Authors: S. Iijima, K. Nakayama, D. Kuchar, M. Kubota, H. Matsuda
Abstract:Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer (RTO) is one of the best solutions for removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from industrial processes. In the RTO, VOC in a raw gas are usually decomposed at 950-1300 K and the combustion heat of VOC is recovered by regenerative heat exchangers charged with ceramic honeycombs. The optimization of the treatment of VOC leads to the reduction of fuel addition to VOC decomposition, the minimization of CO2 emission and operating cost as well. In the present work, the thermal efficiency of the RTO was investigated experimentally in a pilot-scale RTO unit using toluene as a typical representative of VOC. As a result, it was recognized that the radiative heat transfer was dominant in the preheating process of a raw gas when the gas flow rate was relatively low. Further, it was found that a minimum heat exchanger volume to achieve self combustion of toluene without additional heating of the RTO by fuel combustion was dependent on both the flow rate of a raw gas and the concentration of toluene. The thermal efficiency calculated from fuel consumption and the decomposed toluene ratio, was found to have a maximum value of 0.95 at a raw gas mass flow rate of 1810 kg·h-1 and honeycombs height of 1.5m.
Keywords: Regenerative Heat Exchange, Self Combustion, Toluene, Volatile Organic Compounds.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2270