Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1211

Search results for: urban traffic.

1211 Proposed Alternative System to Existing Traffic Signal System

Authors: Alluri Swaroopa, Lakkakula Venkata Narasimha Prasad

Abstract:

Alone with fast urbanization in world, traffic control became a big issue in urban construction. Having an efficient and reliable traffic control system is crucial to macro-traffic control. Traffic signal is used to manage conflicting requirement by allocating different sets of mutually compatible traffic movement during distinct time interval. Many approaches have been made proposed to solve this discrete stochastic problem. Recognizing the need to minimize right-of-way impacts while efficiently handling the anticipated high traffic volumes, the proposed alternative system gives effective design. This model allows for increased traffic capacity and reduces delays by eliminating a step in maneuvering through the freeway interchange. The concept proposed in this paper involves construction of bridges and ramps at intersection of four roads to control the vehicular congestion and to prevent traffic breakdown.

Keywords: Bridges, junctions, ramps, urban traffic control.

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1210 Multimode Dynamics of the Beijing Road Traffic System

Authors: Zundong Zhang, Limin Jia, Xiaoliang Sun

Abstract:

The Beijing road traffic system, as a typical huge urban traffic system, provides a platform for analyzing the complex characteristics and the evolving mechanisms of urban traffic systems. Based on dynamic network theory, we construct the dynamic model of the Beijing road traffic system in which the dynamical properties are described completely. Furthermore, we come into the conclusion that urban traffic systems can be viewed as static networks, stochastic networks and complex networks at different system phases by analyzing the structural randomness. As well as, we demonstrate the evolving process of the Beijing road traffic network based on real traffic data, validate the stochastic characteristics and the scale-free property of the network at different phases

Keywords: Dynamic Network Models, Structural Randomness, Scale-free Property, Multi-mode character

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1209 Simulation of Ethical Behavior in Urban Transportation

Authors: Ali Reza Honarvar , Naser Ghasem Agaee

Abstract:

For controlling urban transportations, traffic lights show similar behavior for different kinds of vehicles at intersections. Emergency vehicles need special behavior at intersections, so traffic lights should behave in different manner when emergency vehicles approach them. At the present time, intelligent traffic lights control urban transportations intelligently. In this paper the ethical aspect of this topic is considered. A model is proposed for adding special component to emergency vehicles and traffic lights for controlling traffic in ethical manner. The proposed model is simulated by JADE.

Keywords: Ethical traffic control, intelligent transportation, Ethical agent, Multi-agent system.

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1208 Information Delivery and Advanced Traffic Information Systems in Istanbul

Authors: Kevser Simsek, Rahime Gunay

Abstract:

In this paper, we focused primarily on Istanbul data that is gathered by using intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and considered the developments in traffic information delivery and future applications that are being planned for implementation. Since traffic congestion is increasing and travel times are becoming less consistent and less predictable, traffic information delivery has become a critical issue. Considering the fuel consumption and wasted time in traffic, advanced traffic information systems are becoming increasingly valuable which enables travelers to plan their trips more accurately and easily.

Keywords: Data Fusion, Istanbul, ITS, Real Time Information, Traffic Information, Travel Time, Urban Mobility

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1207 Classification System for a Collaborative Urban Retail Logistics

Authors: Volker Lange, Stephanie Moede, Christiane Auffermann

Abstract:

From an economic standpoint the current and future road traffic situation in urban areas is a cost factor. Traffic jams and congestion prolong journey times and tie up resources in trucks and personnel. Many discussions about imposing charges or tolls for cities in Europe in order to reduce traffic congestion are currently in progress. Both of these effects lead – directly or indirectly - to additional costs for the urban distribution systems in retail companies. One approach towards improving the efficiency of retail distribution systems, and thus towards avoiding negative environmental factors in urban areas, is horizontal collaboration for deliveries to retail outlets – Urban Retail Logistics. This paper presents a classification system to help reveal where cooperation between retail companies is possible and makes sense for deliveries to retail outlets in urban areas.

Keywords: City Logistics, Horizontal Collaboration, Urban Freight Transport, Urban Retail Logistics.

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1206 Processing Web-Cam Images by a Neuro-Fuzzy Approach for Vehicular Traffic Monitoring

Authors: A. Faro, D. Giordano, C. Spampinato

Abstract:

Traffic management in an urban area is highly facilitated by the knowledge of the traffic conditions in every street or highway involved in the vehicular mobility system. Aim of the paper is to propose a neuro-fuzzy approach able to compute the main parameters of a traffic system, i.e., car density, velocity and flow, by using the images collected by the web-cams located at the crossroads of the traffic network. The performances of this approach encourage its application when the traffic system is far from the saturation. A fuzzy model is also outlined to evaluate when it is suitable to use more accurate, even if more time consuming, algorithms for measuring traffic conditions near to saturation.

Keywords: Neuro-fuzzy networks, computer vision, Fuzzy systems, intelligent transportation system.

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1205 Online Web Service based Solution for Urban Traffic Management

Authors: A. Ionita, A. Zafiu, C. Ghita

Abstract:

In this article, we present a web server based solution for implementing a system for intelligent navigation. In this solution we use real time collected data and traffic history to establish the best route for navigation. This is a low cost solution that is easily to implement and extend. There is no need any infrastructure at road network level except only a device that collect data about traffic in key road crossing. The presented solution creates a strong base for traffic pursuit and offers an infrastructure for navigation applications.

Keywords: navigation, real time, route, traffic pursuit, webservice.

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1204 Modeling Ambient Carbon Monoxide Pollutant Due to Road Traffic

Authors: Anjaneyulu M.V.L.R., Harikrishna M., Chenchuobulu S.

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization, industrialization and population growth have led to an increase in number of automobiles that cause air pollution. It is estimated that road traffic contributes 60% of air pollution in urban areas. A case by case assessment is required to predict the air quality in urban situations, so as to evolve certain traffic management measures to maintain the air quality levels with in the tolerable limits. Calicut city in the state of Kerala, India has been chosen as the study area. Carbon Monoxide (CO) concentration was monitored at 15 links in Calicut city and air quality performance was evaluated over each link. The CO pollutant concentration values were compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and the CO values were predicted by using CALINE4 and IITLS and Linear regression models. The study has revealed that linear regression model performs better than the CALINE4 and IITLS models. The possible association between CO pollutant concentration and traffic parameters like traffic flow, type of vehicle, and traffic stream speed was also evaluated.

Keywords: CO pollution, Modelling, Traffic stream parameters.

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1203 Feasibility Study of Distributed Lightless Intersection Control with Level 1 Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Bo Yang, Christopher Monterola

Abstract:

Urban intersection control without the use of the traffic light has the potential to vastly improve the efficiency of the urban traffic flow. For most proposals in the literature, such lightless intersection control depends on the mass market commercialization of highly intelligent autonomous vehicles (AV), which limits the prospects of near future implementation. We present an efficient lightless intersection traffic control scheme that only requires Level 1 AV as defined by NHTSA. The technological barriers of such lightless intersection control are thus very low. Our algorithm can also accommodate a mixture of AVs and conventional vehicles. We also carry out large scale numerical analysis to illustrate the feasibility, safety and robustness, comfort level, and control efficiency of our intersection control scheme.

Keywords: Intersection control, autonomous vehicles, traffic modelling, intelligent transport system.

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1202 Traffic Flow Prediction using Adaboost Algorithm with Random Forests as a Weak Learner

Authors: Guy Leshem, Ya'acov Ritov

Abstract:

Traffic Management and Information Systems, which rely on a system of sensors, aim to describe in real-time traffic in urban areas using a set of parameters and estimating them. Though the state of the art focuses on data analysis, little is done in the sense of prediction. In this paper, we describe a machine learning system for traffic flow management and control for a prediction of traffic flow problem. This new algorithm is obtained by combining Random Forests algorithm into Adaboost algorithm as a weak learner. We show that our algorithm performs relatively well on real data, and enables, according to the Traffic Flow Evaluation model, to estimate and predict whether there is congestion or not at a given time on road intersections.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Boosting, Classification, TrafficCongestion, Data Collecting, Magnetic Loop Detectors, SignalizedIntersections, Traffic Signal Timing Optimization.

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1201 Speed Characteristics of Mixed Traffic Flow on Urban Arterials

Authors: Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra

Abstract:

Speed and traffic volume data are collected on different sections of four lane and six lane roads in three metropolitan cities in India. Speed data are analyzed to fit the statistical distribution to individual vehicle speed data and all vehicles speed data. It is noted that speed data of individual vehicle generally follows a normal distribution but speed data of all vehicle combined at a section of urban road may or may not follow the normal distribution depending upon the composition of traffic stream. A new term Speed Spread Ratio (SSR) is introduced in this paper which is the ratio of difference in 85th and 50th percentile speed to the difference in 50th and 15th percentile speed. If SSR is unity then speed data are truly normally distributed. It is noted that on six lane urban roads, speed data follow a normal distribution only when SSR is in the range of 0.86 – 1.11. The range of SSR is validated on four lane roads also.

Keywords: Normal distribution, percentile speed, speed spread ratio, traffic volume.

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1200 The Application of the Queuing Theory in the Traffic Flow of Intersection

Authors: Shuguo Yang, Xiaoyan Yang

Abstract:

It is practically significant to research the traffic flow of intersection because the capacity of intersection affects the efficiency of highway network directly. This paper analyzes the traffic conditions of an intersection in certain urban by the methods of queuing theory and statistical experiment, sets up a corresponding mathematical model and compares it with the actual values. The result shows that queuing theory is applied in the study of intersection traffic flow and it can provide references for the other similar designs.

Keywords: Intersection, Queuing theory, Statistical experiment, System metrics.

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1199 On the Analysis of IP Traffic Distribution in the Network of Suranaree University of Technology

Authors: Paramet Nualmuenwai, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

This paper presents the IP traffic analysis. The traffic was collected from the network of Suranaree University of Technology using the software based on the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). In particular, we analyze the distribution of the aggregated traffic during the hours of peak load and light load. The traffic profiles including the parameters described the traffic distributions were derived. From the statistical analysis applying three different methods, including the Kolmogorov Smirnov test, Anderson Darling test, and Chi-Squared test, we found that the IP traffic distribution is a non-normal distribution and the distributions during the peak load and the light load are different. The experimental study and analysis show high uncertainty of the IP traffic.

Keywords: IP traffic analysis, IP traffic distribution, Traffic uncertainty

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1198 Measuring Heterogeneous Traffic Density

Authors: V. Thamizh Arasan, G. Dhivya

Abstract:

Traffic Density provides an indication of the level of service being provided to the road users. Hence, there is a need to study the traffic flow characteristics with specific reference to density in detail. When the length and speed of the vehicles in a traffic stream vary significantly, the concept of occupancy, rather than density, is more appropriate to describe traffic concentration. When the concept of occupancy is applied to heterogeneous traffic condition, it is necessary to consider the area of the road space and the area of the vehicles as the bases. Hence, a new concept named, 'area-occupancy' is proposed here. It has been found that the estimated area-occupancy gives consistent values irrespective of change in traffic composition.

Keywords: Density Measurement, Heterogeneity, Occupancy, Traffic Flow.

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1197 Road Traffic Accidents Analysis in Mexico City through Crowdsourcing Data and Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Gabriela V. Angeles Perez, Jose Castillejos Lopez, Araceli L. Reyes Cabello, Emilio Bravo Grajales, Adriana Perez Espinosa, Jose L. Quiroz Fabian

Abstract:

Road traffic accidents are among the principal causes of traffic congestion, causing human losses, damages to health and the environment, economic losses and material damages. Studies about traditional road traffic accidents in urban zones represents very high inversion of time and money, additionally, the result are not current. However, nowadays in many countries, the crowdsourced GPS based traffic and navigation apps have emerged as an important source of information to low cost to studies of road traffic accidents and urban congestion caused by them. In this article we identified the zones, roads and specific time in the CDMX in which the largest number of road traffic accidents are concentrated during 2016. We built a database compiling information obtained from the social network known as Waze. The methodology employed was Discovery of knowledge in the database (KDD) for the discovery of patterns in the accidents reports. Furthermore, using data mining techniques with the help of Weka. The selected algorithms was the Maximization of Expectations (EM) to obtain the number ideal of clusters for the data and k-means as a grouping method. Finally, the results were visualized with the Geographic Information System QGIS.

Keywords: Data mining, K-means, road traffic accidents, Waze, Weka.

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1196 Investigating the Effective Parameters in Determining the Type of Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

Abstract:

Traffic congestion pricing – as a strategy in travel demand management in urban areas to reduce traffic congestion, air pollution and noise pollution – has drawn many attentions towards itself. Unlike the satisfying findings in this method, there are still problems in determining the best functional congestion pricing scheme with regard to the situation. The so-called problems in this process will result in further complications and even the scheme failure. That is why having proper knowledge of the significance of congestion pricing schemes and the effective factors in choosing them can lead to the success of this strategy. In this study, first, a variety of traffic congestion pricing schemes and their components are introduced; then, their functional usage is discussed. Next, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations and advantages, the selection criteria of pricing schemes are described. The results, accordingly, show that the selection of the best scheme depends on various parameters. Finally, based on examining the effective parameters, it is concluded that the implementation of area-based schemes (cordon and zonal) has been more successful in non-diversion of traffic. That is considering the topology of the cities and the fact that traffic congestion is often created in the city centers, area-based schemes would be notably functional and appropriate.

Keywords: Congestion pricing, demand management, flat toll, variable toll.

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1195 Optimization and GIS-Based Intelligent Decision Support System for Urban Transportation Systems Analysis

Authors: Mohamad K. Hasan, Hameed Al-Qaheri

Abstract:

Optimization plays an important role in most real world applications that support decision makers to take the right decision regarding the strategic directions and operations of the system they manage. Solutions for traffic management and traffic congestion problems are considered major problems that most decision making authorities for cities around the world are looking for. This review paper gives a full description of the traffic problem as part of the transportation planning process and present a view as a framework of urban transportation system analysis where the core of the system is a transportation network equilibrium model that is based on optimization techniques and that can also be used for evaluating an alternative solution or a combination of alternative solutions for the traffic congestion. Different transportation network equilibrium models are reviewed from the sequential approach to the multiclass combining trip generation, trip distribution, modal split, trip assignment and departure time model. A GIS-Based intelligent decision support system framework for urban transportation system analysis is suggested for implementation where the selection of optimized alternative solutions, single or packages, will be based on an intelligent agent rather than human being which would lead to reduction in time, cost and the elimination of the difficulty, by human being, for finding the best solution to the traffic congestion problem.

Keywords: Multiclass simultaneous transportation equilibrium models, transportation planning, urban transportation systems analysis, intelligent decision support system.

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1194 Characteristics of Speed Dispersion in Urban Expressway

Authors: Fujian Wang, Shubin Ruan, Meiwei Dai

Abstract:

Speed dispersion has tight relation to traffic safety. In this paper, several kinds of indicating parameters (the standard speed deviation, the coefficient of variation, the deviation of V85 and V15, the mean speed deviations, and the difference between adjacent car speeds) are applied to investigate the characteristics of speed dispersion, where V85 and V15 are 85th and 15th percentile speed, respectively. Their relationships are into full investigations and the results show that: there exists a positive relation (linear) between mean speed and the deviation of V85 and V15; while a negative relation (quadratic) between traffic flow and standard speed deviation. The mean speed deviation grows exponentially with mean speed while the absolute speed deviation between adjacent cars grows linearly with the headway. The results provide some basic information for traffic management.

Keywords: Headway, indicating parameters, speed dispersion, urban expressway.

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1193 Assessing Traffic Calming Measures for Safe and Accessible Emergency Routes in Norrkoping City in Sweden

Authors: Ghazwan Al-Haji

Abstract:

Most accidents occur in urban areas, and the most related casualties are vulnerable road users (pedestrians and cyclists). The traffic calming measures (TCMs) are widely used and considered to be successful in reducing speed and traffic volume. However, TCMs create unwanted effects include: noise, emissions, energy consumption, vehicle delays and emergency response time (ERT). Different vertical and horizontal TCMs have been already applied nationally (Sweden) and internationally with different impacts. It is a big challenge among traffic engineers, planners, and policy-makers to choose and priorities the best TCMs to be implemented. This study will assess the existing guidelines for TCMs in relation to safety and ERT with focus on data from Norrkoping city in Sweden. The expected results will save lives, time, and money on particularly Swedish Roads. The study will also review newly technologies and how they can improve safety and reduce ERT.

Keywords: Traffic safety, traffic calming measures, speeding, emergency response time.

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1192 Comparison of Different k-NN Models for Speed Prediction in an Urban Traffic Network

Authors: Seyoung Kim, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu

Abstract:

A database that records average traffic speeds measured at five-minute intervals for all the links in the traffic network of a metropolitan city. While learning from this data the models that can predict future traffic speed would be beneficial for the applications such as the car navigation system, building predictive models for every link becomes a nontrivial job if the number of links in a given network is huge. An advantage of adopting k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) as predictive models is that it does not require any explicit model building. Instead, k-NN takes a long time to make a prediction because it needs to search for the k-nearest neighbors in the database at prediction time. In this paper, we investigate how much we can speed up k-NN in making traffic speed predictions by reducing the amount of data to be searched for without a significant sacrifice of prediction accuracy. The rationale behind this is that we had a better look at only the recent data because the traffic patterns not only repeat daily or weekly but also change over time. In our experiments, we build several different k-NN models employing different sets of features which are the current and past traffic speeds of the target link and the neighbor links in its up/down-stream. The performances of these models are compared by measuring the average prediction accuracy and the average time taken to make a prediction using various amounts of data.

Keywords: Big data, k-NN, machine learning, traffic speed prediction.

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1191 Estimating the Traffic Impacts of Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory Systems Using Microsimulation

Authors: C. B. Masera, M. Imprialou, L. Budd, C. Morton

Abstract:

Even though signalised intersections are necessary for urban road traffic management, they can act as bottlenecks and disrupt traffic operations. Interrupted traffic flow causes congestion, delays, stop-and-go conditions (i.e. excessive acceleration/deceleration) and longer journey times. Vehicle and infrastructure connectivity offers the potential to provide improved new services with additional functions of assisting drivers. This paper focuses on one of the applications of vehicle-to-infrastructure communication namely Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA). To assess the effectiveness of GLOSA in the urban road network, an integrated microscopic traffic simulation framework is built into VISSIM software. Vehicle movements and vehicle-infrastructure communications are simulated through the interface of External Driver Model. A control algorithm is developed for recommending an optimal speed that is continuously updated in every time step for all vehicles approaching a signal-controlled point. This algorithm allows vehicles to pass a traffic signal without stopping or to minimise stopping times at a red phase. This study is performed with all connected vehicles at 100% penetration rate. Conventional vehicles are also simulated in the same network as a reference. A straight road segment composed of two opposite directions with two traffic lights per lane is studied. The simulation is implemented under 150 vehicles per hour and 200 per hour traffic volume conditions to identify how different traffic densities influence the benefits of GLOSA. The results indicate that traffic flow is improved by the application of GLOSA. According to this study, vehicles passed through the traffic lights more smoothly, and waiting times were reduced by up to 28 seconds. Average delays decreased for the entire network by 86.46% and 83.84% under traffic densities of 150 vehicles per hour per lane and 200 vehicles per hour per lane, respectively.

Keywords: Connected vehicles, GLOSA, intelligent transportation systems, infrastructure-to-vehicle communication.

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1190 Towards Modeling for Crashes A Low-Cost Adaptive Methodology for Karachi

Authors: Mohammad Ahmed Rehmatullah

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to discuss a low-cost methodology that can predict traffic flow conflicts and quantitatively rank crash expectancies (based on relative probability) for various traffic facilities. This paper focuses on the application of statistical distributions to model traffic flow and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate traffic and discusses how to create a tool in order to predict the possibility of a traffic crash. A low-cost data collection methodology has been discussed for the heterogeneous traffic flow that exists and a GIS platform has been proposed to thematically represent traffic flow from simulations and the probability of a crash. Furthermore, discussions have been made to reflect the dynamism of the model in reference to its adaptability, adequacy, economy, and efficiency to ensure adoption.

Keywords: Heterogeneous traffic data collection, Monte CarloSimulation, Traffic Flow Modeling, GIS.

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1189 Usage-based Traffic Control for P2P Content Delivery

Authors: Megumi Shibuya, Tomohiko Ogishi

Abstract:

Recently, content delivery services have grown rapidly over the Internet. For ASPs (Application Service Provider) providing content delivery services, P2P architecture is beneficial to reduce outgoing traffic from content servers. On the other hand, ISPs are suffering from the increase in P2P traffic. The P2P traffic is unnecessarily redundant because the same content or the same fractions of content are transferred through an inter-ISP link several times. Subscriber ISPs have to pay a transit fee to upstream ISPs based on the volume of inter-ISP traffic. In order to solve such problems, several works have been done for the purpose of P2P traffic reduction. However, these existing works cannot control the traffic volume of a certain link. In order to solve such an ISP-s operational requirement, we propose a method to control traffic volume for a link within a preconfigured upper bound value. We evaluated that the proposed method works well by conducting a simulation on a 1,000-user scale. We confirm that the traffic volume could be controlled at a lower level than the upper bound for all evaluated conditions. Moreover, our method could control the traffic volume at 98.95% link usage against the target value.

Keywords: P2P, traffic control, traffic localization, ALTO.

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1188 The Effect of User Comments on Traffic Application Usage

Authors: I. Gokasar, G. Bakioglu

Abstract:

With the unprecedented rates of technological improvements, people start to solve their problems with the help of technological tools. According to application stores and websites in which people evaluate and comment on the traffic apps, there are more than 100 traffic applications which have different features with respect to their purpose of usage ranging from the features of traffic apps for public transit modes to the features of traffic apps for private cars. This study focuses on the top 30 traffic applications which were chosen with respect to their download counts. All data about the traffic applications were obtained from related websites. The purpose of this study is to analyze traffic applications in terms of their categorical attributes with the help of developing a regression model. The analysis results suggest that negative interpretations (e.g., being deficient) does not lead to lower star ratings of the applications. However, those negative interpretations result in a smaller increase in star rate. In addition, women use higher star rates than men for the evaluation of traffic applications.

Keywords: Traffic App, real–time information, traffic congestion, regression analysis, dummy variables.

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1187 Conventional Four Steps Travel Demand Modeling for Kabul New City

Authors: Ahmad Mansoor Stanikzai, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

This research is a very essential towards transportation planning of Kabul New City. In this research, the travel demand of Kabul metropolitan area (Existing and Kabul New City) are evaluated for three different target years (2015, current, 2025, mid-term, 2040, long-term). The outcome of this study indicates that, though currently the vehicle volume is less the capacity of existing road networks, Kabul city is suffering from daily traffic congestions. This is mainly due to lack of transportation management, the absence of proper policies, improper public transportation system and violation of traffic rules and regulations by inhabitants. On the other hand, the observed result indicates that the current vehicle to capacity ratio (VCR) which is the most used index to judge traffic status in the city is around 0.79. This indicates the inappropriate traffic condition of the city. Moreover, by the growth of population in mid-term (2025) and long-term (2040) and in the case of no development in the road network and transportation system, the VCR value will dramatically increase to 1.40 (2025) and 2.5 (2040). This can be a critical situation for an urban area from an urban transportation perspective. Thus, by introducing high-capacity public transportation system and the development of road network in Kabul New City and integrating these links with the existing city road network, significant improvements were observed in the value of VCR.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Kabul New City, planning, policy, urban transportation.

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1186 Sustainable Urban Transport Management and Its Strategies

Authors: Touba Amirazodi

Abstract:

Rapid process of urbanism development has increased the demand for some infrastructures such as supplying potable water, electricity network and transportation facilities and etc. Nonefficiency of the existing system with parallel managements of urban traffic management has increased the gap between supply and demand of traffic facilities. A sustainable transport system requires some activities more important than air pollution control, traffic or fuel consumption reduction and the studies show that there is no unique solution for solving complicated transportation problems and solving such a problem needs a comprehensive, dynamic and reliable mechanism. Sustainable transport management considers the effects of transportation development on economic efficiency, environmental issues, resources consumption, land use and social justice and helps reduction of environmental effects, increase of transportation system efficiency as well as improvement of social life and aims to enhance efficiency, goods transportation, provide services with minimum access problems that cannot be realized without reorganization of strategies, policies and plans.

Keywords: Sustainable Urban Transport, Environment, Social Justice, Air Pollution

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1185 Application of AIMSUN Microscopic Simulation Model in Evaluating Side Friction Impacts on Traffic Stream Performance

Authors: H. Naghawi, M. Abu Shattal, W. Idewu

Abstract:

Side friction factors can be defined as all activities taking place at the side of the road and within the traffic stream, which would negatively affect the traffic stream performance. If the effect of these factors is adequately addressed and managed, traffic stream performance and capacity could be improved. The main objective of this paper is to identify and assess the impact of different side friction factors on traffic stream performance of a hypothesized urban arterial road. Hypothetical data were assumed mainly because there is no road operating under ideal conditions, with zero side friction, in the developing countries. This is important for the creation of the base model which is important for comparison purposes. For this purpose, three essential steps were employed. Step one, a hypothetical base model was developed under ideal traffic and geometric conditions. Step two, 18 hypothetical alternative scenarios were developed including side friction factors such as on-road parking, pedestrian movement, and the presence of trucks in the traffic stream. These scenarios were evaluated for one, two, and three lane configurations and under different traffic volumes ranging from low to high. Step three, the impact of side friction, of each scenario, on speed-flow models was evaluated using AIMSUN microscopic traffic simulation software. Generally, it was found that, a noticeable negative shift in the speed flow curves from the base conditions was observed for all scenarios. This indicates negative impact of the side friction factors on free flow speed and traffic stream average speed as well as on capacity.

Keywords: AIMSUN, parked vehicles, pedestrians, side friction, traffic performance, trucks.

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1184 Impact of Vehicle Travel Characteristics on Level of Service: A Comparative Analysis of Rural and Urban Freeways

Authors: Anwaar Ahmed, Muhammad Bilal Khurshid, Samuel Labi

Abstract:

The effect of trucks on the level of service is determined by considering passenger car equivalents (PCE) of trucks. The current version of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) uses a single PCE value for all tucks combined. However, the composition of truck traffic varies from location to location; therefore, a single PCE value for all trucks may not correctly represent the impact of truck traffic at specific locations. Consequently, present study developed separate PCE values for single-unit and combination trucks to replace the single value provided in the HCM on different freeways. Site specific PCE values, were developed using concept of spatial lagging headways (that is the distance between rear bumpers of two vehicles in a traffic stream) measured from field traffic data. The study used data from four locations on a single urban freeway and three different rural freeways in Indiana. Three-stage-leastsquares (3SLS) regression techniques were used to generate models that predicted lagging headways for passenger cars, single unit trucks (SUT), and combination trucks (CT). The estimated PCE values for single-unit and combination truck for basic urban freeways (level terrain) were: 1.35 and 1.60, respectively. For rural freeways the estimated PCE values for single-unit and combination truck were: 1.30 and 1.45, respectively. As expected, traffic variables such as vehicle flow rates and speed have significant impacts on vehicle headways. Study results revealed that the use of separate PCE values for different truck classes can have significant influence on the LOS estimation.

Keywords: Level of Service, Capacity Analysis, Lagging Headway.

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1183 Analysis and Evaluation of the Public Responses to Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

Abstract:

Traffic congestion pricing in urban streets is one of the most suitable options for solving the traffic problems and environment pollutions in the cities of the country. Unlike its acceptable outcomes, there are problems concerning the necessity to pay by the mass. Regarding the fact that public response in order to succeed in this strategy is so influential, studying their response and behavior to get the feedback and improve the strategies is of great importance. In this study, a questionnaire was used to examine the public reactions to the traffic congestion pricing schemes at the center of Tehran metropolis and the factors involved in people’s decision making in accepting or rejecting the congestion pricing schemes were assessed based on the data obtained from the questionnaire as well as the international experiences. Then, by analyzing and comparing the schemes, guidelines to reduce public objections to them are discussed. The results of reviewing and evaluating the public reactions show that all the pros and cons must be considered to guarantee the success of these projects. Consequently, with targeted public education and consciousness-raising advertisements, prior to initiating a scheme and ensuring the mechanism of the implementation after the start of the project, the initial opposition is reduced and, with the gradual emergence of the real and tangible benefits of its implementation, users’ satisfaction will increase.

Keywords: Demand management, international experiences, traffic congestion pricing, public acceptance, public objection.

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1182 Dynamic Traffic Simulation for Traffic Congestion Problem Using an Enhanced Algorithm

Authors: Wong Poh Lee, Mohd. Azam Osman, Abdullah Zawawi Talib, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail

Abstract:

Traffic congestion has become a major problem in many countries. One of the main causes of traffic congestion is due to road merges. Vehicles tend to move slower when they reach the merging point. In this paper, an enhanced algorithm for traffic simulation based on the fluid-dynamic algorithm and kinematic wave theory is proposed. The enhanced algorithm is used to study traffic congestion at a road merge. This paper also describes the development of a dynamic traffic simulation tool which is used as a scenario planning and to forecast traffic congestion level in a certain time based on defined parameter values. The tool incorporates the enhanced algorithm as well as the two original algorithms. Output from the three above mentioned algorithms are measured in terms of traffic queue length, travel time and the total number of vehicles passing through the merging point. This paper also suggests an efficient way of reducing traffic congestion at a road merge by analyzing the traffic queue length and travel time.

Keywords: Dynamic, fluid-dynamic, kinematic wave theory, simulation, traffic congestion.

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