Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 544

Search results for: unstructured grid.

544 Finite Volume Method for Flow Prediction Using Unstructured Meshes

Authors: Juhee Lee, Yongjun Lee

Abstract:

In designing a low-energy-consuming buildings, the heat transfer through a large glass or wall becomes critical. Multiple layers of the window glasses and walls are employed for the high insulation. The gravity driven air flow between window glasses or wall layers is a natural heat convection phenomenon being a key of the heat transfer. For the first step of the natural heat transfer analysis, in this study the development and application of a finite volume method for the numerical computation of viscous incompressible flows is presented. It will become a part of the natural convection analysis with high-order scheme, multi-grid method, and dual-time step in the future. A finite volume method based on a fully-implicit second-order is used to discretize and solve the fluid flow on unstructured grids composed of arbitrary-shaped cells. The integrations of the governing equation are discretised in the finite volume manner using a collocated arrangement of variables. The convergence of the SIMPLE segregated algorithm for the solution of the coupled nonlinear algebraic equations is accelerated by using a sparse matrix solver such as BiCGSTAB. The method used in the present study is verified by applying it to some flows for which either the numerical solution is known or the solution can be obtained using another numerical technique available in the other researches. The accuracy of the method is assessed through the grid refinement.

Keywords: Finite volume method, fluid flow, laminar flow, unstructured grid.

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543 An Unstructured Finite-volume Technique for Shallow-water Flows with Wetting and Drying Fronts

Authors: Rajendra K. Ray, Kim Dan Nguyen

Abstract:

An unstructured finite volume numerical model is presented here for simulating shallow-water flows with wetting and drying fronts. The model is based on the Green-s theorem in combination with Chorin-s projection method. A 2nd-order upwind scheme coupled with a Least Square technique is used to handle convection terms. An Wetting and drying treatment is used in the present model to ensures the total mass conservation. To test it-s capacity and reliability, the present model is used to solve the Parabolic Bowl problem. We compare our numerical solutions with the corresponding analytical and existing standard numerical results. Excellent agreements are found in all the cases.

Keywords: Finite volume method, Projection method, Shallow water, Unstructured grid, wetting/drying fronts.

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542 Grid Learning; Computer Grid Joins to e- Learning

Authors: A. Nassiry, A. Kardan

Abstract:

According to development of communications and web-based technologies in recent years, e-Learning has became very important for everyone and is seen as one of most dynamic teaching methods. Grid computing is a pattern for increasing of computing power and storage capacity of a system and is based on hardware and software resources in a network with common purpose. In this article we study grid architecture and describe its different layers. In this way, we will analyze grid layered architecture. Then we will introduce a new suitable architecture for e-Learning which is based on grid network, and for this reason we call it Grid Learning Architecture. Various sections and layers of suggested architecture will be analyzed; especially grid middleware layer that has key role. This layer is heart of grid learning architecture and, in fact, regardless of this layer, e-Learning based on grid architecture will not be feasible.

Keywords: Distributed learning, Grid Learning, Grid network, SCORM standard.

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541 Clustering Unstructured Text Documents Using Fading Function

Authors: Pallav Roxy, Durga Toshniwal

Abstract:

Clustering unstructured text documents is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as document archive filtering, document organization and topic detection and subject tracing. In the real world, some of the already clustered documents may not be of importance while new documents of more significance may evolve. Most of the work done so far in clustering unstructured text documents overlooks this aspect of clustering. This paper, addresses this issue by using the Fading Function. The unstructured text documents are clustered. And for each cluster a statistics structure called Cluster Profile (CP) is implemented. The cluster profile incorporates the Fading Function. This Fading Function keeps an account of the time-dependent importance of the cluster. The work proposes a novel algorithm Clustering n-ary Merge Algorithm (CnMA) for unstructured text documents, that uses Cluster Profile and Fading Function. Experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed technique are also included.

Keywords: Clustering, Text Mining, Unstructured TextDocuments, Fading Function.

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540 Resource Discovery in Web-Services Based Grids

Authors: Damandeep Kaur, Jyotsna Sengupta

Abstract:

A Web-services based grid infrastructure is evolving to be readily available in the near future. In this approach, the Web services are inherited (encapsulated or functioned) into the same existing Grid services class. In practice there is not much difference between the existing Web and grid infrastructure. Grid services emerged as stateful web services. In this paper, we present the key components of web-services based grid and also how the resource discovery is performed on web-services based grid considering resource discovery, as a critical service, to be provided by any type of grid.

Keywords: Web services, resource discovery, grid computing, OGSA.

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539 Exploiting Query Feedback for Efficient Query Routing in Unstructured Peer-to-peer Networks

Authors: Iskandar Ishak, Naomie Salim

Abstract:

Unstructured peer-to-peer networks are popular due to its robustness and scalability. Query schemes that are being used in unstructured peer-to-peer such as the flooding and interest-based shortcuts suffer various problems such as using large communication overhead long delay response. The use of routing indices has been a popular approach for peer-to-peer query routing. It helps the query routing processes to learn the routing based on the feedbacks collected. In an unstructured network where there is no global information available, efficient and low cost routing approach is needed for routing efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for query-feedback oriented routing indices to achieve routing efficiency in unstructured network at a minimal cost. The approach also applied information retrieval technique to make sure the content of the query is understandable and will make the routing process not just based to the query hits but also related to the query content. Experiments have shown that the proposed mechanism performs more efficient than flood-based routing.

Keywords: Unstructured peer-to-peer, Searching, Retrieval, Internet.

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538 Parallel and Distributed Mining of Association Rule on Knowledge Grid

Authors: U. Sakthi, R. Hemalatha, R. S. Bhuvaneswaran

Abstract:

In Virtual organization, Knowledge Discovery (KD) service contains distributed data resources and computing grid nodes. Computational grid is integrated with data grid to form Knowledge Grid, which implements Apriori algorithm for mining association rule on grid network. This paper describes development of parallel and distributed version of Apriori algorithm on Globus Toolkit using Message Passing Interface extended with Grid Services (MPICHG2). The creation of Knowledge Grid on top of data and computational grid is to support decision making in real time applications. In this paper, the case study describes design and implementation of local and global mining of frequent item sets. The experiments were conducted on different configurations of grid network and computation time was recorded for each operation. We analyzed our result with various grid configurations and it shows speedup of computation time is almost superlinear.

Keywords: Association rule, Grid computing, Knowledge grid, Mobility prediction.

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537 Numerical Grid Generation of Oceanic Model for the Andaman Sea

Authors: Nitima Aschariyaphotha, Pratan Sakkaplangkul, Anirut Luadsong

Abstract:

The study of the Andaman Sea can be studied by using the oceanic model; therefore the grid covering the study area should be generated. This research aims to generate grid covering the Andaman Sea, situated between longitudes 90◦E to 101◦E and latitudes 1◦N to 18◦N. A horizontal grid is an orthogonal curvilinear with 87 × 217 grid points. The methods used in this study are cubic spline and bilinear interpolations. The boundary grid points are generated by spline interpolation while the interior grid points have to be specified by bilinear interpolation method. A vertical grid is sigma coordinate with 15 layers of water column.

Keywords: Sigma Coordinate, Curvilinear Coordinate, AndamanSea.

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536 Cost-Effective Private Grid Using Object-based Grid Architecture

Authors: M. Victor Jose, V. Seenivasagam

Abstract:

This paper proposes a cost-effective private grid using Object-based Grid Architecture (OGA). In OGA, the data process privacy and inter communication are increased through an object- oriented concept. The limitation of the existing grid is that the user can enter or leave the grid at any time without schedule and dedicated resource. To overcome these limitations, cost-effective private grid and appropriate algorithms are proposed. In this, each system contains two platforms such as grid and local platforms. The grid manager service running in local personal computer can act as grid resource. When the system is on, it is intimated to the Monitoring and Information System (MIS) and details are maintained in Resource Object Table (ROT). The MIS is responsible to select the resource where the file or the replica should be stored. The resource storage is done within virtual single private grid nodes using random object addressing to prevent stolen attack. If any grid resource goes down, then the resource ID will be removed from the ROT, and resource recovery is efficiently managed by the replicas. This random addressing technique makes the grid storage a single storage and the user views the entire grid network as a single system.

Keywords: Object Grid Architecture, Grid Manager Service, Resource Object table, Random object addressing, Object storage, Dynamic Object Update.

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535 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Euler equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-offreedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters and wing pressure distribution during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD Modelling, Quasi-steady Flow, Moving-body Trajectories, Transonic Store Separation, Moving-body Trajectories.

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534 Optimal Planning of Ground Grid Based on Particle Swam Algorithm

Authors: Chun-Yao Lee, Yi-Xing Shen

Abstract:

This paper presents an application of particle swarm optimization (PSO) to the grounding grid planning which compares to the application of genetic algorithm (GA). Firstly, based on IEEE Std.80, the cost function of the grounding grid and the constraints of ground potential rise, step voltage and touch voltage are constructed for formulating the optimization problem of grounding grid planning. Secondly, GA and PSO algorithms for obtaining optimal solution of grounding grid are developed. Finally, a case of grounding grid planning is shown the superiority and availability of the PSO algorithm and proposal planning results of grounding grid in cost and computational time.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, grounding grid.

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533 Resource Matching and a Matchmaking Service for an Intelligent Grid

Authors: Xin Bai, Han Yu, Yongchang Ji, Dan C. Marinescu

Abstract:

We discuss the application of matching in the area of resource discovery and resource allocation in grid computing. We present a formal definition of matchmaking, overview algorithms to evaluate different matchmaking expressions, and develop a matchmaking service for an intelligent grid environment.

Keywords: Grid, Matchmaking, Ontology

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532 2D Validation of a High-order Adaptive Cartesian-grid finite-volume Characteristic- flux Model with Embedded Boundaries

Authors: C. Leroy, G. Oger, D. Le Touzé, B. Alessandrini

Abstract:

A Finite Volume method based on Characteristic Fluxes for compressible fluids is developed. An explicit cell-centered resolution is adopted, where second and third order accuracy is provided by using two different MUSCL schemes with Minmod, Sweby or Superbee limiters for the hyperbolic part. Few different times integrator is used and be describe in this paper. Resolution is performed on a generic unstructured Cartesian grid, where solid boundaries are handled by a Cut-Cell method. Interfaces are explicitely advected in a non-diffusive way, ensuring local mass conservation. An improved cell cutting has been developed to handle boundaries of arbitrary geometrical complexity. Instead of using a polygon clipping algorithm, we use the Voxel traversal algorithm coupled with a local floodfill scanline to intersect 2D or 3D boundary surface meshes with the fixed Cartesian grid. Small cells stability problem near the boundaries is solved using a fully conservative merging method. Inflow and outflow conditions are also implemented in the model. The solver is validated on 2D academic test cases, such as the flow past a cylinder. The latter test cases are performed both in the frame of the body and in a fixed frame where the body is moving across the mesh. Adaptive Cartesian grid is provided by Paramesh without complex geometries for the moment.

Keywords: Finite volume method, cartesian grid, compressible solver, complex geometries, Paramesh.

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531 A Survey of Job Scheduling and Resource Management in Grid Computing

Authors: Raksha Sharma, Vishnu Kant Soni, Manoj Kumar Mishra, Prachet Bhuyan

Abstract:

Grid computing is a form of distributed computing that involves coordinating and sharing computational power, data storage and network resources across dynamic and geographically dispersed organizations. Scheduling onto the Grid is NP-complete, so there is no best scheduling algorithm for all grid computing systems. An alternative is to select an appropriate scheduling algorithm to use in a given grid environment because of the characteristics of the tasks, machines and network connectivity. Job and resource scheduling is one of the key research area in grid computing. The goal of scheduling is to achieve highest possible system throughput and to match the application need with the available computing resources. Motivation of the survey is to encourage the amateur researcher in the field of grid computing, so that they can understand easily the concept of scheduling and can contribute in developing more efficient scheduling algorithm. This will benefit interested researchers to carry out further work in this thrust area of research.

Keywords: Grid Computing, Job Scheduling, ResourceScheduling.

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530 Mobile Ad-Hoc Service Grid – MASGRID

Authors: Imran Ihsan, Muhammad Abdul Qadir, Nadeem Iftikhar

Abstract:

Mobile devices, which are progressively surrounded in our everyday life, have created a new paradigm where they interconnect, interact and collaborate with each other. This network can be used for flexible and secure coordinated sharing. On the other hand Grid computing provides dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to high-end computational capabilities. In this paper, efforts are made to map the concepts of Grid on Ad-Hoc networks because both exhibit similar kind of characteristics like Scalability, Dynamism and Heterogeneity. In this context we propose “Mobile Ad-Hoc Services Grid – MASGRID".

Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Grid Computing, Resource Discovery, Routing

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529 Metadata Update Mechanism Improvements in Data Grid

Authors: S. Farokhzad, M. Reza Salehnamadi

Abstract:

Grid environments include aggregation of geographical distributed resources. Grid is put forward in three types of computational, data and storage. This paper presents a research on data grid. Data grid is used for covering and securing accessibility to data from among many heterogeneous sources. Users are not worry on the place where data is located in it, provided that, they should get access to the data. Metadata is used for getting access to data in data grid. Presently, application metadata catalogue and SRB middle-ware package are used in data grids for management of metadata. At this paper, possibility of updating, streamlining and searching is provided simultaneously and rapidly through classified table of preserving metadata and conversion of each table to numerous tables. Meanwhile, with regard to the specific application, the most appropriate and best division is set and determined. Concurrency of implementation of some of requests and execution of pipeline is adaptability as a result of this technique.

Keywords: Grids, data grid, metadata, update.

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528 A Review on Impacts of Grid-Connected PV System on Distribution Networks

Authors: Davud Mostafa Tobnaghi

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate and emphasize the importance of the grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems regarding the intermittent nature of renewable generation, and the characterization of PV generation with regard to grid code compliance. The development of Photovoltaic systems and expansion plans relating to the futuristic in worldwide is elaborated. The most important impacts of grid connected photovoltaic systems on distribution networks as well as the Penetration level of PV system was investigated.

Keywords: Grid-connected photovoltaic system, distribution network, penetration levels, power quality.

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527 3A Distributed Method Algorithm for Exact Side Load Managing Smart Grid Using LABVIEW

Authors: N. Ravi Kumar, R. Kamalakannan

Abstract:

The advancement of hybrid energy resources such as solar and wind power leading to the emergence of customer owned grid. It provides an opportunity to regulars to obtain low energy costs as well as enabling the power supplier to regulate the utility grid. There is a need to develop smart systems that will automatically submit energy demand schedule and monitors energy price signals in real-time without the prompt of customers. In this paper, a demand side energy management for a grid connected household and also smart preparation of electrical appliance have been presented. It also reduces electricity bill for the consumers in the grid. In addition to this, when production is high, the surplus energy fashioned in the customer owned grid is given to main grid or neighboring micro grids. The simulation of the entire system is presented using LabVIEW software.

Keywords: Distributed renewable energy resource, power storage devices, scheduling, smart meters, smart micro grid, electric vehicle.

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526 Grid Artifacts Suppression in Computed Radiographic Images

Authors: Igor Belykh

Abstract:

Anti-scatter grids used in radiographic imaging for the contrast enhancement leave specific artifacts. Those artifacts may be visible or may cause Moiré effect when digital image is resized on a diagnostic monitor. In this paper we propose an automated grid artifactsdetection and suppression algorithm which is still an actual problem. Grid artifacts detection is based on statistical approach in spatial domain. Grid artifacts suppression is based on Kaiser bandstop filter transfer function design and application avoiding ringing artifacts. Experimental results are discussed and concluded with description of advantages over existing approaches.

Keywords: Computed radiography, grid artifacts, image filtering.

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525 Optimized Hybrid Renewable Energy System of Isolated Islands in Smart-Grid Scenario - A Case Study in Indian Context

Authors: Aurobi Das, V. Balakrishnan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the integration of hybrid renewable energy resources available in remote isolated islands of Sundarban-24 Parganas-South of Eastern part of India to National Grid of conventional power supply to give a Smart-Grid scenario. Before grid-integration, feasibility of optimization of hybrid renewable energy system is monitored through an Intelligent Controller proposed to be installed at Moushuni Island of Sundarban. The objective is to ensure the reliability and efficiency of the system to optimize the utilization of the hybrid renewable energy sources and also a proposition of how theses isolated Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems at remote islands can be grid-connected is analyzed towards vision of green smart-grid.

Keywords: Intelligent controller, hybrid renewable, solar photo voltaic, smart-grid.

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524 Smart Grid Communication Architecture Modeling for Heterogeneous Network Based Advanced Metering Infrastructure

Authors: S. Prem Kumar, H. Thameemul Ansari, V. Saminadan

Abstract:

A smart grid is an emerging technology in the power delivery system which provides an intelligent, self-recovery and homeostatic grid in delivering power to the users. Smart grid communication network provides transmission capacity for information transformation within the connected nodes in the network, in favor of functional and operational needs. In the electric grids communication network delay is based on choosing the appropriate technology and the types of devices enforced. In distinction, the combination of IEEE 802.16 based WiMAX and IEEE 802.11 based WiFi technologies provides improved coverage and gives low delay performances to meet the smart grid needs. By incorporating this method in Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) the performance of the smart grid will be considerably improved. This work deals with the implementation of WiMAX-WLAN integrated network architecture for WAMS and AMI in the smart grid.

Keywords: WiMAX, WLAN, WAMS, Smart Grid, HetNet, AMI.

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523 A Context-Aware based Authorization System for Pervasive Grid Computing

Authors: Marilyn Lim Chien Hui, Nabil Elmarzouqi, Chan Huah Yong

Abstract:

This paper describes the authorization system architecture for Pervasive Grid environment. It discusses the characteristics of classical authorization system and requirements of the authorization system in pervasive grid environment as well. Based on our analysis of current systems and taking into account the main requirements of such pervasive environment, we propose new authorization system architecture as an extension of the existing grid authorization mechanisms. This architecture not only supports user attributes but also context attributes which act as a key concept for context-awareness thought. The architecture allows authorization of users dynamically when there are changes in the pervasive grid environment. For this, we opt for hybrid authorization method that integrates push and pull mechanisms to combine the existing grid authorization attributes with dynamic context assertions. We will investigate the proposed architecture using a real testing environment that includes heterogeneous pervasive grid infrastructures mapped over multiple virtual organizations. Various scenarios are described in the last section of the article to strengthen the proposed mechanism with different facilities for the authorization procedure.

Keywords: Pervasive Grid, Authorization System, Contextawareness, Ubiquity.

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522 Grouping-Based Job Scheduling Model In Grid Computing

Authors: Vishnu Kant Soni, Raksha Sharma, Manoj Kumar Mishra

Abstract:

Grid computing is a high performance computing environment to solve larger scale computational applications. Grid computing contains resource management, job scheduling, security problems, information management and so on. Job scheduling is a fundamental and important issue in achieving high performance in grid computing systems. However, it is a big challenge to design an efficient scheduler and its implementation. In Grid Computing, there is a need of further improvement in Job Scheduling algorithm to schedule the light-weight or small jobs into a coarse-grained or group of jobs, which will reduce the communication time, processing time and enhance resource utilization. This Grouping strategy considers the processing power, memory-size and bandwidth requirements of each job to realize the real grid system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheduling algorithm efficiently reduces the processing time of jobs in comparison to others.

Keywords: Grid computing, Job grouping and Jobscheduling.

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521 Study on a Nested Cartesian Grid Method

Authors: Yih-Ferng Peng

Abstract:

In this paper, the local grid refinement is focused by using a nested grid technique. The Cartesian grid numerical method is developed for simulating unsteady, viscous, incompressible flows with complex immersed boundaries. A finite volume method is used in conjunction with a two-step fractional-step procedure. The key aspects that need to be considered in developing such a nested grid solver are imposition of interface conditions on the inter-block and accurate discretization of the governing equation in cells that are with the inter-block as a control surface. A new interpolation procedure is presented which allows systematic development of a spatial discretization scheme that preserves the spatial accuracy of the underlying solver. The present nested grid method has been tested by two numerical examples to examine its performance in the two dimensional problems. The numerical examples include flow past a circular cylinder symmetrically installed in a Channel and flow past two circular cylinders with different diameters. From the numerical experiments, the ability of the solver to simulate flows with complicated immersed boundaries is demonstrated and the nested grid approach can efficiently speed up the numerical solutions.

Keywords: local grid refinement, Cartesian grid, nested grid, fractional-step method.

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520 Discovery and Capture of Organizational Knowledge from Unstructured Information

Authors: J. Gu, W.B. Lee, C.F. Cheung, E. Tsui, W.M. Wang

Abstract:

Knowledge of an organization does not merely reside in structured form of information and data; it is also embedded in unstructured form. The discovery of such knowledge is particularly difficult as the characteristic is dynamic, scattered, massive and multiplying at high speed. Conventional methods of managing unstructured information are considered too resource demanding and time consuming to cope with the rapid information growth. In this paper, a Multi-faceted and Automatic Knowledge Elicitation System (MAKES) is introduced for the purpose of discovery and capture of organizational knowledge. A trial implementation has been conducted in a public organization to achieve the objective of decision capture and navigation from a number of meeting minutes which are autonomously organized, classified and presented in a multi-faceted taxonomy map in both document and content level. Key concepts such as critical decision made, key knowledge workers, knowledge flow and the relationship among them are elicited and displayed in predefined knowledge model and maps. Hence, the structured knowledge can be retained, shared and reused. Conducting Knowledge Management with MAKES reduces work in searching and retrieving the target decision, saves a great deal of time and manpower, and also enables an organization to keep pace with the knowledge life cycle. This is particularly important when the amount of unstructured information and data grows extremely quickly. This system approach of knowledge management can accelerate value extraction and creation cycles of organizations.

Keywords: Knowledge-Based System, Knowledge Elicitation, Knowledge Management, Taxonomy, Unstructured Information Management

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519 A Graph-Based Approach for Placement of No-Replicated Databases in Grid

Authors: Cherif Haddad, Faouzi Ben Charrada

Abstract:

On a such wide-area environment as a Grid, data placement is an important aspect of distributed database systems. In this paper, we address the problem of initial placement of database no-replicated fragments in Grid architecture. We propose a graph based approach that considers resource restrictions. The goal is to optimize the use of computing, storage and communication resources. The proposed approach is developed in two phases: in the first phase, we perform fragment grouping using knowledge about fragments dependency and, in the second phase, we determine an efficient placement of the fragment groups on the Grid. We also show, via experimental analysis that our approach gives solutions that are close to being optimal for different databases and Grid configurations.

Keywords: Grid computing, Distributed systems, Data resourcesmanagement, Database systems, Database placement.

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518 Increasing Replica Consistency Performances with Load Balancing Strategy in Data Grid Systems

Authors: Sarra Senhadji, Amar Kateb, Hafida Belbachir

Abstract:

Data replication in data grid systems is one of the important solutions that improve availability, scalability, and fault tolerance. However, this technique can also bring some involved issues such as maintaining replica consistency. Moreover, as grid environment are very dynamic some nodes can be more uploaded than the others to become eventually a bottleneck. The main idea of our work is to propose a complementary solution between replica consistency maintenance and dynamic load balancing strategy to improve access performances under a simulated grid environment.

Keywords: Consistency, replication, data grid, load balancing.

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517 Technical and Economic Analysis of Smart Micro-Grid Renewable Energy Systems: An Applicable Case Study

Authors: M. A. Fouad, M. A. Badr, Z. S. Abd El-Rehim, Taher Halawa, Mahmoud Bayoumi, M. M. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Renewable energy-based micro-grids are presently attracting significant consideration. The smart grid system is presently considered a reliable solution for the expected deficiency in the power required from future power systems. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal components sizes of a micro-grid, investigating technical and economic performance with the environmental impacts. The micro grid load is divided into two small factories with electricity, both on-grid and off-grid modes are considered. The micro-grid includes photovoltaic cells, back-up diesel generator wind turbines, and battery bank. The estimated load pattern is 76 kW peak. The system is modeled and simulated by MATLAB/Simulink tool to identify the technical issues based on renewable power generation units. To evaluate system economy, two criteria are used: the net present cost and the cost of generated electricity. The most feasible system components for the selected application are obtained, based on required parameters, using HOMER simulation package. The results showed that a Wind/Photovoltaic (W/PV) on-grid system is more economical than a Wind/Photovoltaic/Diesel/Battery (W/PV/D/B) off-grid system as the cost of generated electricity (COE) is 0.266 $/kWh and 0.316 $/kWh, respectively. Considering the cost of carbon dioxide emissions, the off-grid will be competitive to the on-grid system as COE is found to be (0.256 $/kWh, 0.266 $/kWh), for on and off grid systems.

Keywords: Optimum energy systems, renewable energy sources, smart grid, micro-grid system, on- grid system, off-grid system, modeling and simulation, economical evaluation, net present value, cost of energy, environmental impacts.

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516 Significance of Splitting Method in Non-linear Grid system for the Solution of Navier-Stokes Equation

Authors: M. Zamani, O. Kahar

Abstract:

Solution to unsteady Navier-Stokes equation by Splitting method in physical orthogonal algebraic curvilinear coordinate system, also termed 'Non-linear grid system' is presented. The linear terms in Navier-Stokes equation are solved by Crank- Nicholson method while the non-linear term is solved by the second order Adams-Bashforth method. This work is meant to bring together the advantage of Splitting method as pressure-velocity solver of higher efficiency with the advantage of consuming Non-linear grid system which produce more accurate results in relatively equal number of grid points as compared to Cartesian grid. The validation of Splitting method as a solution of Navier-Stokes equation in Nonlinear grid system is done by comparison with the benchmark results for lid driven cavity flow by Ghia and some case studies including Backward Facing Step Flow Problem.

Keywords: Navier-Stokes, 'Non-linear grid system', Splitting method.

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515 Towards Design of Context-Aware Sensor Grid Framework for Agriculture

Authors: Aqeel-ur-Rehman, Zubair A. Shaikh

Abstract:

This paper is to present context-aware sensor grid framework for agriculture and its design challenges. Use of sensor networks in the domain of agriculture is not new. However, due to the unavailability of any common framework, solutions that are developed in this domain are location, environment and problem dependent. Keeping the need of common framework for agriculture, Context-Aware Sensor Grid Framework is proposed. It will be helpful in developing solutions for majority of the problems related to irrigation, pesticides spray, use of fertilizers, regular monitoring of plot and yield etc. due to the capability of adjusting according to location and environment. The proposed framework is composed of three layer architecture including context-aware application layer, grid middleware layer and sensor network layer.

Keywords: Agriculture, Context-Awareness, Grid Computing, and Sensor Grid.

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