Search results for: uneven surface
2072 Experiments of a Free Surface Flow in a Hydraulic Channel over an Uneven Bottom
Authors: M. Bouinoun, M. Bouhadef
The present study is concerned with the problem of determining the shape of the free surface flow in a hydraulic channel which has an uneven bottom. For the mathematical formulation of the problem, the fluid of the two-dimensional irrotational steady flow in water is assumed inviscid and incompressible. The solutions of the nonlinear problem are obtained by using the usual conformal mapping theory and Hilbert’s technique. An experimental study, for comparing the obtained results, has been conducted in a hydraulic channel (subcritical regime and supercritical regime).
Keywords: Free-surface flow, experiments, numerical method, uneven bottom, supercritical regime, subcritical regime.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1395
2071 Effect of Uneven Surface on Magnetic Properties of Fe-Based Amorphous Transformer
Authors: Yeong-Hwa Chang, Chang-Hung Hsu, Huei-Lung Chu, Chia-Wen Chang, Wei-Shou Chan, Chun-Yao Lee; Chia-Shiang Yao, Yan-Lou He
This study reports the preparation of soft magnetic ribbons of Fe-based amorphous alloys using the single-roller melt-spinning technique. Ribbon width varied from 142 mm to 213 mm and, with a thickness of approximately 22 μm 2 μm. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the ribbons were characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and electrical resistivity measurements (ERM). The amorphous material properties dependence of the cooling rate and nozzle pressure have uneven surface in ribbon thicknesses are investigated. Magnetic measurement results indicate that some region of the ribbon exhibits good magnetic properties, higher saturation induction and lower coercivity. However, due to the uneven surface of 213 mm wide ribbon, the magnetic responses are not uniformly distributed. To understand the transformer magnetic performances, this study analyzes the measurements of a three-phase 2 MVA amorphous-cored transformer. Experimental results confirm that the transformer with a ribbon width of 142 mm has better magnetic properties in terms of lower core loss, exciting power, and audible noise.
Keywords: Amorphous ribbon, uneven surface, magnetic properties, and rapid solidificationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2040
2070 Effect of Uneven Surface on Magnetic Properties of Fe-based Amorphous Power Transformer
Authors: Chang-Hung Hsu, Yeong-Hwa Chang, Chun-Yao Lee, Chia-Shiang Yao, Yan-Lou He, Huei-Lung Chu, Chia-Wen Chang, Wei-Shou Chan
Abstract:This study reports the preparation of soft magnetic ribbons of Fe-based amorphous alloys using the single-roller melt-spinning technique. Ribbon width varied from 142 mm to 213 mm and, with a thickness of approximately 22 μm ± 2 μm. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the ribbons were characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and electrical resistivity measurements (ERM). The amorphous material properties dependence of the cooling rate and nozzle pressure have uneven surface in ribbon thicknesses are investigated. Magnetic measurement results indicate that some region of the ribbon exhibits good magnetic properties, higher saturation induction and lower coercivity. However, due to the uneven surface of 213 mm wide ribbon, the magnetic responses are not uniformly distributed. To understand the transformer magnetic performances, this study analyzes the measurements of a three-phase 2 MVA amorphous-cored transformer. Experimental results confirm that the transformer with a ribbon width of 142 mm has better magnetic properties in terms of lower core loss, exciting power, and audible noise.
Keywords: Amorphous ribbon, uneven surface, magnetic properties, and rapid solidificationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1890
2069 Contribution to Experiments of a Free Surface Supercritical Flow over an Uneven Bottom
Authors: M. Bougamouza, M. Bouhadef, T. Zitoun
Abstract:The aim of this study is to examine, through experimentation in the laboratory, the supercritical flow in the presence of an obstacle in a rectangular channel. The supercritical regime in the whole hydraulic channel is achieved by adding a convergent. We will observe the influence of the obstacle shape and dimension on the characteristics of the supercritical flow, mainly the free-surface elevation and the velocity profile. The velocity measurements have been conducted with the one dimension laser anemometry technique.
Keywords: Experiments, free-surface flow, hydraulic channel, uneven bottom, laser anemometry, supercritical regime.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1219
2068 Geometric Modeling of Illumination on the TFT-LCD Panel using Bezier Surface
Authors: Kyong-min Lee, Moon Soo Chang, PooGyeon Park
Abstract:In this paper, we propose a geometric modeling of illumination on the patterned image containing etching transistor. This image is captured by a commercial camera during the inspection of a TFT-LCD panel. Inspection of defect is an important process in the production of LCD panel, but the regional difference in brightness, which has a negative effect on the inspection, is due to the uneven illumination environment. In order to solve this problem, we present a geometric modeling of illumination consisting of an interpolation using the least squares method and 3D modeling using bezier surface. Our computational time, by using the sampling method, is shorter than the previous methods. Moreover, it can be further used to correct brightness in every patterned image.
Keywords: Bezier, defect, geometric modeling, illumination, inspection, LCD, panel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1722
2067 Pavement Roughness Prediction Systems: A Bump Integrator Approach
Authors: Manish Pal, Rumi Sutradhar
Pavement surface unevenness plays a pivotal role on roughness index of road which affects on riding comfort ability. Comfort ability refers to the degree of protection offered to vehicle occupants from uneven elements in the road surface. So, it is preferable to have a lower roughness index value for a better riding quality of road users. Roughness is generally defined as an expression of irregularities in the pavement surface which can be measured using different equipments like MERLIN, Bump integrator, Profilometer etc. Among them Bump Integrator is quite simple and less time consuming in case of long road sections. A case study is conducted on low volume roads in West District in Tripura to determine roughness index (RI) using Bump Integrator at the standard speed of 32 km/h. But it becomes too tough to maintain the requisite standard speed throughout the road section. The speed of Bump Integrator (BI) has to lower or higher in some distinctive situations. So, it becomes necessary to convert these roughness index values of other speeds to the standard speed of 32 km/h. This paper highlights on that roughness index conversional model. Using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) software a generalized equation is derived among the RI value at standard speed of 32 km/h and RI value at other speed conditions.
Keywords: Bump Integrator, Pavement Distresses, Roughness Index, SPSS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6544
2066 Assessment of the Influence of External Earth Terrain at Construction of the Physicmathematical Models or Finding the Dynamics of Pollutants' Distribution in Urban Atmosphere
Authors: Stanislav Aryeh V. Fradkin, Sharif E.Guseynov
There is a complex situation on the transport environment in the cities of the world. For the analysis and prevention of environmental problems an accurate calculation hazardous substances concentrations at each point of the investigated area is required. In the turbulent atmosphere of the city the wellknown methods of mathematical statistics for these tasks cannot be applied with a satisfactory level of accuracy. Therefore, to solve this class of problems apparatus of mathematical physics is more appropriate. In such models, because of the difficulty as a rule the influence of uneven land surface on streams of air masses in the turbulent atmosphere of the city are not taken into account. In this paper the influence of the surface roughness, which can be quite large, is mathematically shown. The analysis of this problem under certain conditions identified the possibility of areas appearing in the atmosphere with pressure tending to infinity, i.e. so-called "wall effect".
Keywords: Air pollution, concentration of harmful substances, physical-mathematical model, urban area.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1248
2065 Analysis and Measuring Surface Roughness of Nonwovens Using Machine Vision Method
Authors: Dariush Semnani, Javad Yekrang, Hossein Ghayoor
Abstract:Concerning the measurement of friction properties of textiles and fabrics using Kawabata Evaluation System (KES), whose output is constrained to the surface friction factor of fabric, and no other data would be generated; this research has been conducted to gain information about surface roughness regarding its surface friction factor. To assess roughness properties of light nonwovens, a 3-dimensional model of a surface has been simulated with regular sinuous waves through it as an ideal surface. A new factor was defined, namely Surface Roughness Factor, through comparing roughness properties of simulated surface and real specimens. The relation between the proposed factor and friction factor of specimens has been analyzed by regression, and results showed a meaningful correlation between them. It can be inferred that the new presented factor can be used as an acceptable criterion for evaluating the roughness properties of light nonwoven fabrics.
Keywords: Surface roughness, Nonwoven, Machine vision, Image processing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2832
2064 The Dependence of the Liquid Application on the Coverage of the Sprayed Objects in Terms of the Characteristics of the Sprayed Object during Spraying
Authors: Beata Cieniawska, Deta Łuczycka, Katarzyna Dereń
When assessing the quality of the spraying procedure, three indicators are used: uneven distribution of precipitation of liquid sprayed, degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces, and deposition of liquid spraying However, there is a lack of information on the relationship between the quality parameters of the procedure. Therefore, the research was carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Engineering of Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces and the deposition of liquid in the aspect of the parametric characteristics of the protected plant using selected single and double stream nozzles. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. The carrier of nozzles acted as an independent self-propelled sprayer used for spraying, whereas the parametric characteristics of plants were determined using artificial plants as the ratio of the vertical projection surface and the horizontal projection surface. The results and their analysis showed a strong and very strong correlation between the analyzed parameters in terms of the characteristics of the sprayed object.
Keywords: Degree of coverage, deposition of liquid, nozzle, spraying.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 640
2063 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology
Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan
Abstract:Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.
Keywords: Surface roughness, fused deposition modelling, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system, ANFIS, orientation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1695
2062 Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations
Authors: C. Agrawal, R. Kumar, A. Gupta, B. Chatterjee
An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 oC temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5- 4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000 -24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.
Keywords: Hot-Surface, Jet Impingement, Quenching, Stagnation Point.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2126
2061 Mathematical Modeling of Surface Roughness in Surface Grinding Operation
Authors: M.A. Kamely, S.M. Kamil, C.W. Chong
Abstract:A mathematical model of the surface roughness has been developed by using response surface methodology (RSM) in grinding of AISI D2 cold work tool steels. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to check the validity of the model. Low and high value for work speed and feed rate are decided from design of experiment. The influences of all machining parameters on surface roughness have been analyzed based on the developed mathematical model. The developed prediction equation shows that both the feed rate and work speed are the most important factor that influences the surface roughness. The surface roughness was found to be the lowers with the used of low feed rate and low work speed. Accuracy of the best model was proved with the testing data.
Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Response surfacemethodology, Surface roughness, Cylindrical Grinding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3117
2060 Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating
Authors: T. Zlámal, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, P. Krajkovič
For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.
Keywords: Machining, plasma sprayed coating, surface integrity, strengthening.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 759
2059 Determination of Surface Roughness by Ball Burnishing Process Using Factorial Techniques
Authors: P. S. Dabeer, G. K. Purohit
Burnishing is a method of finishing and hardening machined parts by plastic deformation of the surface. Experimental work based on central composite second order rotatable design has been carried out on a lathe machine to establish the effects of ball burnishing parameters on the surface roughness of brass material. Analysis of the results by the analysis of variance technique and the F-test show that the parameters considered, have significant effects on the surface roughness.
Keywords: Ball burnishing, Response surface Methodology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2343
2058 Surface Roughness Evaluation for EDM of En31 with Cu-Cr-Ni Powder Metallurgy Tool
Authors: Amoljit S. Gill, Sanjeev Kumar
In this study, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is used to modify the surface of high carbon steel En31 with the help of tool electrode (Copper-Chromium-Nickel) manufactured by powder metallurgy (PM) process. The effect of EDM on surface roughness during surface alloying is studied. Taguchi’s Design of experiment (DOE) and L18 orthogonal array is used to find the best level of input parameters in order to achieve high surface finish. Six input parameters are considered and their percentage contribution towards surface roughness is investigated by analysis of variances (ANOVA). Experimental results show that an hard alloyed surface (1.21% carbon, 2.14% chromium and 1.38% nickel) with surface roughness of 3.19µm can be generated using EDM with PM tool. Additionally, techniques like Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are used to analyze the machined surface and EDMed layer composition, respectively. The increase in machined surface micro-hardness (101%) may be related to the formation of carbides containing chromium.
Keywords: Electrical Discharge Machining, Surface Roughness, Powder metallurgy compact tools, Taguchi DOE technique.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2716
2057 Translation Surfaces in Euclidean 3-Space
Authors: Muhammed Çetin, Yılmaz Tunçer, Nejat Ekmekçi
Abstract:In this paper, the translation surfaces in 3-dimensional Euclidean space generated by two space curves have been investigated. It has been indicated that Scherk surface is not only minimal translation surface.
Keywords: Minimal surface, Surface of Scherk, TranslationsurfaceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1771
2056 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel
Authors: O. Takakuwa, Y. Mano, H. Soyama
This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.
Keywords: Hydrogen embrittlement, Residual stress, Surface finishing, Stainless steel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2594
2055 The Influence of Surface Potential on the Kinetics of Bovine Serum Albumin Adsorption on a Biomedical Grade 316LVM Stainless Steel Surface
Authors: Khawtar Hasan Ahmed, Sasha Omanovic
Abstract:Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) in combination with electrochemistry, was employed to study the influence of surface charge (potential) on the kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption on a biomedical-grade 316LVM stainless steel surface is discussed. The BSA adsorption kinetics was found to greatly depend on the surface potential. With an increase in surface potential towards more negative values, both the BSA initial adsorption rate and the equilibrium (saturated) surface concentration also increased. Both effects were explained on the basis of replacement of well-ordered water molecules at the 316LVM / solution interface, i.e. by the increase in entropy of the system.
Keywords: adsorption, biomedical grade stainless steel, bovine serum albumin (BSA), electrode surface potential / charge, kinetics, PM-IRRAS, protein/surface interactionsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1841
2054 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites
Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah
Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.
Keywords: Burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, Surface hardness, Surface roughness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2140
2053 Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants
Authors: Busra Balli, Tuncay Dikici, Mustafa Toparli
Abstract:Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.
Keywords: Dental implant, etching, surface modifications, surface morphology, surface roughness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1122
2052 An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Deep cold Rolling Parameters on Surface Roughness and Hardness of AISI 4140 Steel
Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma
Deep cold rolling (DCR) is a cold working process, which easily produces a smooth and work-hardened surface by plastic deformation of surface irregularities. In the present study, the influence of main deep cold rolling process parameters on the surface roughness and the hardness of AISI 4140 steel were studied by using fractional factorial design of experiments. The assessment of the surface integrity aspects on work material was done, in terms of identifying the predominant factor amongst the selected parameters, their order of significance and setting the levels of the factors for minimizing surface roughness and/or maximizing surface hardness. It was found that the ball diameter, rolling force, initial surface roughness and number of tool passes are the most pronounced parameters, which have great effects on the work piece-s surface during the deep cold rolling process. A simple, inexpensive and newly developed DCR tool, with interchangeable collet for using different ball diameters, was used throughout the experimental work presented in this paper.
Keywords: Deep cold rolling, design of experiments, surface hardness, surface roughnessProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2035
2051 Effect of Surface Stress on the Deformation around a Nanosized Elliptical Hole: a Finite Element Study
Authors: Weifeng Wang, Xianwei Zeng, Jianping Ding
Abstract:When the characteristic length of an elastic solid is down to the nanometer level, its deformation behavior becomes size dependent. Surface energy /surface stress have recently been applied to explain such dependency. In this paper, the effect of strain-independent surface stress on the deformation of an isotropic elastic solid containing a nanosized elliptical hole is studied by the finite element method. Two loading cases are considered, in the first case, hoop stress along the rim of the elliptical hole induced by pure surface stress is studied, in the second case, hoop stress around the elliptical opening under combined remote tension and surface stress is investigated. It has been shown that positive surface stress induces compressive hoop stress along the hole, and negative surface stress has opposite effect, maximum hoop stress occurs near the major semi-axes of the ellipse. Under combined loading of remote tension and surface stress, stress concentration around the hole can be either intensified or weakened depending on the sign of the surface stress.
Keywords: Surface stress, finite element method, stress concentration, nanosized elliptical holeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1933
2050 Analysis of Surface Spalling on a First Intermediate Roll in Sendzirmir Mills
Authors: Shiang-Cheng Jeng, Horng-Shing Chiou
Abstract:A first intermediate roll of Sendzirmir mills was failure by surface spalling during operation. After analyzing by visual, stereo microscope, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, glow-discharged spectrometer and hardness test, respectively, the results show that some voids and cracks existed on the contact surface as well as subsurface. Further examination verified inadequate hardness and inclusions were responsible for the failure of surface spalling.
Keywords: Sendzirmir mills; surface spalling; fatigue failure;inclusion; contact stressProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2150
2049 Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness, and Near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process
Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U.
In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the surface hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor hobson talysurf tester, micro vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer.
Keywords: Surface hardness, response surface methodology, microstructure, central composite design, deep cold rolling, surface roughness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1637
2048 A Molding Surface Auto-Inspection System
Authors: Ssu-Han Chen, Der-Baau Perng
Molding process in IC manufacturing secures chips against the harms done by hot, moisture or other external forces. While a chip was being molded,defects like cracks, dilapidation, or voids may be embedding on the molding surface. The molding surfaces the study poises to treat and the ones on the market, though, differ in the surface where texture similar to defects is everywhere. Manual inspection usually passes over low-contrast cracks or voids; hence an automatic optical inspection system for molding surface is necessary. The proposed system is consisted of a CCD, a coaxial light, a back light as well as a motion control unit. Based on the property of statistical textures of the molding surface, a series of digital image processing and classification procedure is carried out. After training of the parameter associated with above algorithm, result of the experiment suggests that the accuracy rate is up to 93.75%, contributing to the inspection quality of IC molding surface.
Keywords: Molding surface, machine vision, statistical texture, discrete Fourier transformation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2447
2047 Surface Roughness Effects in Pure Sliding EHL Line Contacts with Carreau-Type Shear-Thinning Lubricants
Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar
The influence of transverse surface roughness on EHL characteristics has been investigated numerically using an extensive set of full EHL line contact simulations for shear-thinning lubricants under pure sliding condition. The shear-thinning behavior of lubricant is modeled using Carreau viscosity equation along with Doolittle-Tait equation for lubricant compressibility. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the stationary surface. It is found that surface roughness causes sharp pressure peaks along with reduction in central and minimum film thickness. With increasing amplitude of surface roughness, the minimum film thickness decreases much more rapidly as compared to the central film thickness.
Keywords: EHL, Carreau, Shear-thinning, Surface Roughness, Amplitude, Wavelength.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2179
2046 Advance in Monitoring and Process Control of Surface Roughness
Authors: Somkiat Tangjitsitcharoen, Siripong Damrongthaveesak
This paper presents an advance in monitoring and process control of surface roughness in CNC machine for the turning and milling processes. An integration of the in-process monitoring and process control of the surface roughness is proposed and developed during the machining process by using the cutting force ratio. The previously developed surface roughness models for turning and milling processes of the author are adopted to predict the inprocess surface roughness, which consist of the cutting speed, the feed rate, the tool nose radius, the depth of cut, the rake angle, and the cutting force ratio. The cutting force ratios obtained from the turning and the milling are utilized to estimate the in-process surface roughness. The dynamometers are installed on the tool turret of CNC turning machine and the table of 5-axis machining center to monitor the cutting forces. The in-process control of the surface roughness has been developed and proposed to control the predicted surface roughness. It has been proved by the cutting tests that the proposed integration system of the in-process monitoring and the process control can be used to check the surface roughness during the cutting by utilizing the cutting force ratio.
Keywords: Turning, milling, monitoring, surface roughness, cutting force ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1895
2045 Feature Extraction for Surface Classification – An Approach with Wavelets
Authors: Smriti H. Bhandari, S. M. Deshpande
Surface metrology with image processing is a challenging task having wide applications in industry. Surface roughness can be evaluated using texture classification approach. Important aspect here is appropriate selection of features that characterize the surface. We propose an effective combination of features for multi-scale and multi-directional analysis of engineering surfaces. The features include standard deviation, kurtosis and the Canny edge detector. We apply the method by analyzing the surfaces with Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT). We used Canberra distance metric for similarity comparison between the surface classes. Our database includes the surface textures manufactured by three machining processes namely Milling, Casting and Shaping. The comparative study shows that DT-CWT outperforms DWT giving correct classification performance of 91.27% with Canberra distance metric.
Keywords: Dual-tree complex wavelet transform, surface metrology, surface roughness, texture classification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2120
2044 Development of Regression Equation for Surface Finish and Analysis of Surface Integrity in EDM
Authors: Md. Ashikur Rahman Khan, M. M. Rahman
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a relatively modern machining process having distinct advantages over other machining processes and can machine Ti-alloys effectively. The present study emphasizes the features of the development of regression equation based on response surface methodology (RSM) for correlating the interactive and higher-order influences of machining parameters on surface finish of Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The process parameters selected in this study are discharge current, pulse on time, pulse off time and servo voltage. Machining has been accomplished using negative polarity of Graphite electrode. Analysis of variance is employed to ascertain the adequacy of the developed regression model. Experiments based on central composite of response surface method are carried out. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to investigate the surface topography of the EDMed job. The results evidence that the proposed regression equation can predict the surface roughness effectively. The lower ampere and short pulse on time yield better surface finish.
Keywords: Graphite electrode, regression model, response surface methodology, surface roughness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2433
2043 Optimal Estimation of Surface Reflectance from Landsat TM Visible and Mid Infrared Data over Penang Island
Authors: H. S. Lim, M. Z. MatJafri, K. Abdullah, N. Mohd. Saleh
Abstract:Retrieval of the surface reflectance is important in the remotely sensed data analysis to obtain the atmospheric reflectance or atmospheric correction. The relationship between visible and mid infrared reflectance over land was investigated and developed in this study. The surface reflectances of the two visible bands were measured using a handheld spectroradiometer collected around Penang Island. In this study, we use the assumption that the 2.1 μm band is not affected by aerosol and it is transparent to most aerosol types (except dust). Therefore the satellite observed signal is the same as the surface signal in 2.1 μm band. The correlation between the surface reflectance measured by the spectroradiometer in the blue and red region and the 2.1 μm observed by the satellite has been established. We investigate five dates of Landsat TM scenes in this study. The finding obtained by this study indicates that the surface reflectance can be retrieved from the 2.1 μm band.
Keywords: Surface Reflectance, Landsat TM, Aerosol, Spectroradiometer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1092