Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: trapezoidally corrugated web girders.

39 Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance of Trapezoidally Corrugated Web Girders

Authors: Annamária Käferné Rácz, Bence Jáger, Balázs Kövesdi, László Dunai

Abstract:

Due to the numerous advantages of steel corrugated web girders, its application field is growing for bridges as well as for buildings. The global stability behavior of such girders is significantly larger than those of conventional I-girders with flat web, thus the application of the structural steel material can be significantly reduced. Design codes and specifications do not provide clear and complete rules or recommendations for the determination of the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) resistance of corrugated web girders. Therefore, the authors made a thorough investigation regarding the LTB resistance of the corrugated web girders. Finite element (FE) simulations have been performed to develop new design formulas for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders. FE model is developed considering geometrical and material nonlinear analysis using equivalent geometric imperfections (GMNI analysis). The equivalent geometric imperfections involve the initial geometric imperfections and residual stresses coming from rolling, welding and flame cutting. Imperfection sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the necessary magnitudes regarding only the first eigenmodes shape imperfections. By the help of the validated FE model, an extended parametric study is carried out to investigate the LTB resistance for different trapezoidal corrugation profiles. First, the critical moment of a specific girder was calculated by FE model. The critical moments from the FE calculations are compared to the previous analytical calculation proposals. Then, nonlinear analysis was carried out to determine the ultimate resistance. Due to the numerical investigations, new proposals are developed for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders through a modification factor on the design method related to the conventional flat web girders.

Keywords: Critical moment, FE modeling, lateral torsional buckling, trapezoidally corrugated web girders.

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38 A New Developed Formula to Determine the Shear Buckling Stress in Welded Aluminum Plate Girders

Authors: Badr Alsulami, Ahmed S. Elamary

Abstract:

This paper summarizes and presents main results of an in-depth numerical analysis dealing with the shear buckling resistance of aluminum plate girders. The studies conducted have permitted the development of a simple design expression to determine the critical shear buckling stress in aluminum web panels. This expression takes into account the effects of reduction of strength in aluminum alloys due to welding process. Ultimate shear resistance (USR) of plate girders can be obtained theoretically using Cardiff theory or Hӧglunds theory. USR of aluminum alloy plate girders predicted theoretically using BS8118 appear inconsistent when compared with test data. Theoretical predictions based on Hӧglunds theory, are more realistic. Cardiff theory proposed to predict the USR of steel plate girders only. Welded aluminum alloy plate girders studied experimentally by others; the USR resulted from tests are reviewed. Comparison between the test results with the values obtained from Hӧglunds theory, BS8118 design method and Cardiff theory performed theoretically. Finally, a new equation based on Cardiff tension-field theory, proposed to predict theoretically the USR of aluminum plate girders.

Keywords: Shear resistance, Aluminum, Cardiff theory, Hӧglund's theory, Plate girder.

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37 Exergy Based Performance Analysis of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber

Authors: S. P. Sharma, Som Nath Saha

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance, based on exergy analysis of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater based on energy balance equations has been presented and the results obtained have been compared with that of a conventional flat-plate solar air heater. The double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater performs thermally better than the flat plate double flow and conventional flat-plate solar air heater under same operating conditions. However, the corrugated absorber leads to higher pressure drop thereby increasing pumping power. The results revealed that the energy and exergy efficiencies of double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater is much higher than conventional solar air heater with the concept involving of increase in heat transfer surface area and turbulence in air flow. The results indicate that the energy efficiency increases, however, exergy efficiency decreases with increase in mass flow rate.

Keywords: Corrugated absorber, double flow, exergy efficiency, solar air heater.

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36 Flow and Heat Transfer Mechanism Analysis in Outward Convex Asymmetrical Corrugated Tubes

Authors: Huaizhi Han, Bingxi Li, Yurong He, Rushan Bie, Zhao Wu

Abstract:

The flow and heat transfer mechanism in convex corrugated tubes have been investigated through numerical simulations in this paper. Two kinds of tube types named as symmetric corrugated tube (SCT) and asymmetric corrugated tube (ACT) are modeled and studied numerically based on the RST model. The predictive capability of RST model is examined in the corrugation wall in order to check the reliability of RST model under the corrugation wall condition. We propose a comparison between the RST modelling the corrugation wall with existing direct numerical simulation of Maaß C and Schumann U [14]. The numerical results pressure coefficient at different profiles between RST and DNS are well matched. The influences of large corrugation tough radii to heat transfer and flow characteristic had been considered. Flow and heat transfer comparison between SCT and ACT had been discussed. The numerical results show that ACT exhibits higher overall heat transfer performance than SCT.

Keywords: Asymmetric corrugated tube, RST, DNS, flow and heat transfer mechanism.

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35 Numerical Analysis of End Plate Bolted Connection with Corrugated Beam

Authors: M. A. Sadeghian, J. Yang, Q. F. Liu

Abstract:

Steel extended end plate bolted connections are recommended to be widely utilized in special moment-resisting frame subjected to monotonic loading. Improper design of steel beam to column connection can lead to the collapse and fatality of structures. Therefore comprehensive research studies of beam to column connection design should be carried out. Also the performance and effect of corrugated on the strength of beam column end plate connection up to failure under monotonic loading in horizontal direction is presented in this paper. The non-linear elastic–plastic behavior has been considered through a finite element analysis using the multi-purpose software package LUSAS. The effect of vertically and horizontally types of corrugated web was also investigated.

Keywords: Corrugated beam, monotonic loading, finite element analysis, end plate connection.

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34 Methods for Manufacture of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminates

Authors: Jeongho Choi, Krishna Shankar, Alan Fien, Andrew Neely

Abstract:

Corrugated wire mesh laminates (CWML) are a class of engineered open cell structures that have potential for applications in many areas including aerospace and biomedical engineering. Two different methods of fabricating corrugated wire mesh laminates from stainless steel, one using a high temperature Lithobraze alloy and the other using a low temperature Eutectic solder for joining the corrugated wire meshes are described herein. Their implementation is demonstrated by manufacturing CWML samples of 304 and 316 stainless steel (SST). It is seen that due to the facility of employing wire meshes of different densities and wire diameters, it is possible to create CWML laminates with a wide range of effective densities. The fabricated laminates are tested under uniaxial compression. The variation of the compressive yield strength with relative density of the CWML is compared to the theory developed by Gibson and Ashby for open cell structures [22]. It is shown that the compressive strength of the corrugated wire mesh laminates can be described using the same equations by using an appropriate value for the linear coefficient in the Gibson-Ashby model.

Keywords: cellular solids, corrugation, foam, open-cell, metal mesh, laminate, stainless steel

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33 Flow Characteristics and Heat Transfer Enhancement in 2D Corrugated Channels

Authors: Veli Ozbolat, Nehir Tokgoz, Besir Sahin

Abstract:

Present study numerically investigates the flow field and heat transfer of water in two dimensional sinusoidal and rectangular corrugated wall channels. Simulations are performed for fully developed flow conditions at inlet sections of the channels that have 12 waves. The temperature of the input fluid is taken to be less than that temperature of wavy walls. The governing continuity, momentum and energy equations are numerically solved using finite volume method based on SIMPLE technique. The investigation covers Reynolds number in the rage of 100-1000. The effects of the distance between upper and lower corrugated walls are studied by varying Hmin/Hmax ratio from 0.3 to 0.5 for keeping wave length and wave amplitude values fixed for both geometries. The effects of the wall geometry, Reynolds number and the distance between walls on the flow characteristics, the local Nusselt number and heat transfer are studied. It is found that heat transfer enhancement increases by usage of corrugated horizontal walls in an appropriate Reynolds number regime and channel height.

Keywords: Corrugated Channel, CFD, Flow Characteristics, Heat Transfer.

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32 Theoretical Study on Torsional Strengthening of Multi-cell RC Box Girders

Authors: Abeer A. M., Allawi A. A., Chai H. K.

Abstract:

A new analytical method to predict the torsional capacity and behavior of R.C multi-cell box girders strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets is presented. Modification was done on the Softened Truss Model (STM) in the proposed method; the concrete torsional problem is solved by combining the equilibrium conditions, compatibility conditions and constitutive laws of materials by taking into account the confinement of concrete with CFRP sheets. A specific algorithm is developed to predict the torsional behavior of reinforced concrete multi-cell box girders with or without strengthening by CFRP sheets. Applications of the developed method as an assessment tool to strengthened multicell box girders with CFRP and first analytical example that demonstrate the contribution of the CFRP materials on the torsional response is also included.

Keywords: Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Concrete torsion, Modified Softened Truss Model, Multi-Cell box girder.

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31 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: Contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation.

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30 Advantages of Large Strands in Precast/Prestressed Concrete Highway Application

Authors: Amin Akhnoukh

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to investigate the advantages of using large-diameter 0.7 inch prestressing strands in pretention applications. The advantages of large-diameter strands are mainly beneficial in the heavy construction applications. Bridges and tunnels are subjected to a higher daily traffic with an exponential increase in trucks ultimate weight, which raise the demand for higher structural capacity of bridges and tunnels. In this research, precast prestressed I-girders were considered as a case study. Flexure capacities of girders fabricated using 0.7 inch strands and different concrete strengths were calculated and compared to capacities of 0.6 inch strands girders fabricated using equivalent concrete strength. The effect of bridge deck concrete strength on composite deck-girder section capacity was investigated due to its possible effect on final section capacity. Finally, a comparison was made to compare the bridge cross-section of girders designed using regular 0.6 inch strands and the large-diameter 0.7 inch. The research findings showed that structural advantages of 0.7 inch strands allow for using fewer bridge girders, reduced material quantity, and light-weight members. The structural advantages of 0.7 inch strands are maximized when high strength concrete (HSC) are used in girder fabrication, and concrete of minimum 5ksi compressive strength is used in pouring bridge decks. The use of 0.7 inch strands in bridge industry can partially contribute to the improvement of bridge conditions, minimize construction cost, and reduce the construction duration of the project.

Keywords: 0.7 Inch Strands, I-Girders, Pretension, Flexure Capacity

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29 Thermohydraulic Performance of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber

Authors: S. P. Sharma, Som Nath Saha

Abstract:

This paper deals with the analytical investigation of thermal and thermohydraulic performance of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater has been presented, and a computer program in C++ language is developed to estimate the outlet temperature of air for the evaluation of thermal and thermohydraulic efficiency by solving the governing equations numerically using relevant correlations for heat transfer coefficients. The results obtained from the mathematical model is compared with the available experimental results and it is found to be reasonably good. The results show that the double flow solar air heaters have higher efficiency than conventional solar air heater, although the double flow corrugated absorber is superior to that of flat plate double flow solar air heater. It is also observed that the thermal efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate; however, thermohydraulic efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate up to a certain limit, attains the maximum value, then thereafter decreases sharply.

Keywords: Corrugated absorber, double flow, solar air heater, thermohydraulic efficiency.

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28 Experimental Investigation on the Fire Performance of Corrugated Sandwich Panels made from Renewable Material

Authors: Avishek Chanda, Nam Kyeun Kim, Debes Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The use of renewable substitutes in various semi-structural and structural applications has experienced an increase since the last few decades. Sandwich panels have been used for many decades, although research on understanding the effects of the core structures on the panels’ fire-reaction properties is limited. The current work investigates the fire-performance of a corrugated sandwich panel made from renewable, biodegradable, and sustainable material, plywood. The bench-scale fire testing apparatus, cone-calorimeter, was employed to evaluate the required fire-reaction properties of the sandwich core in a panel configuration, with three corrugated layers glued together with face-sheets under a heat irradiance of 50 kW/m2. The study helped in documenting a unique heat release trend associated with the fire performance of the 3-layered corrugated sandwich panels and in understanding the structural stability of the samples in the event of a fire. Furthermore, the total peak heat release rate was observed to be around 421 kW/m2, which is significantly low compared to many polymeric materials in the literature. The total smoke production was also perceived to be very limited compared to other structural materials, and the total heat release was also nominal. The time to ignition of 21.7 s further outlined the advantages of using the plywood component since polymeric composites, even with flame-retardant additives, tend to ignite faster. Overall, the corrugated plywood sandwich panels had significant fire-reaction properties and could have important structural applications. The possible use of structural panels made from bio-degradable material opens a new avenue for the use of similar structures in sandwich panel preparation.

Keywords: Corrugated sandwich panel, fire-reaction properties, plywood, renewable material.

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27 Ultimate Shear Resistance of Plate Girders Part 2- Höglund Theory

Authors: Ahmed S. Elamary

Abstract:

Ultimate shear resistance (USR) of slender plate girders can be predicted theoretically using Cardiff theory or Höglund theory. This paper will be concerned with predicting the USR using Höglund theory and EC3. Two main factors can affect the USR, the panel width “b” and the web depth “d”, consequently, the panel aspect ratio (b/d) has to be identified by limits. In most of the previous study, there is no limit for panel aspect ratio indicated. In this paper theoretical analysis has been conducted to study the effect of (b/d) on the USR. The analysis based on ninety six test results of steel plate girders subjected to shear executed and collected by others. New formula proposed to predict the percentage of the distance between the plastic hinges form in the flanges “c” to panel width “b”. Conservative limits of (c/b) have been suggested to get a consistent value of USR.

Keywords: Ultimate shear resistance, Plate Girder, Höglund’s theory, EC3.

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26 Modeling of Fluid Flow in 2D Triangular, Sinusoidal, and Square Corrugated Channels

Authors: Abdulbasit G. A. Abdulsayid

Abstract:

The main focus of the work was concerned with hydrodynamic and thermal analysis of the plate heat exchanger channel with corrugation patterns suggested to be triangular, sinusoidal, and square corrugation. This study was to numerically model and validate the triangular corrugated channel with dimensions/parameters taken from open literature, and then model/analyze both sinusoidal, and square corrugated channel referred to the triangular model. Initially, 2D modeling with local extensive analysis for triangular corrugated channel was carried out. By that, all local pressure drop, wall shear stress, friction factor, static temperature, heat flux, Nusselt number, and surface heat coefficient, were analyzed to interpret the hydrodynamic and thermal phenomena occurred in the flow. Furthermore, in order to facilitate confidence in this model, a comparison between the values predicted, and experimental results taken from literature for almost the same case, was done. Moreover, a holistic numerical study for sinusoidal and square channels together with global comparisons with triangular corrugation under the same condition, were handled. Later, a comparison between electric, and fluid cooling through varying the boundary condition was achieved. The constant wall temperature and constant wall heat flux boundary conditions were employed, and the different resulted Nusselt numbers as a consequence were justified. The results obtained can be used to come up with an optimal design, a 'compromise' between heat transfer and pressure drop.

Keywords: Corrugated Channel, CFD, Heat Exchanger, Heat Enhancement.

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25 Elasto-Visco-Plastic-Damage Model for Pre-Strained 304L Stainless Steel Subjected to Low Temperature

Authors: Jeong-Hyeon Kim, Ki-Yeob Kang, Myung-Hyun Kim, Jae-Myung Lee

Abstract:

Primary barrier of membrane type LNG containment system consist of corrugated 304L stainless steel. This 304L stainless steel is austenitic stainless steel which shows different material behaviors owing to phase transformation during the plastic work. Even though corrugated primary barriers are subjected to significant amounts of pre-strain due to press working, quantitative mechanical behavior on the effect of pre-straining at cryogenic temperatures are not available. In this study, pre-strain level and pre-strain temperature dependent tensile tests are carried to investigate mechanical behaviors. Also, constitutive equations with material parameters are suggested for a verification study.

Keywords: Constitutive equation, corrugated sheet, pre-strain effect, elasto-visco-plastic-damage model, 304L stainless steel.

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24 Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer in Primary Surface with Corrugations Recuperators

Authors: Liu Xuedong, Liu Hanpeng, Zhou Ling

Abstract:

Study fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of microchannel in a primary Cross-corrugated(CC) surface recuperators with corrugations and without corrugations, using CFD method. The pitch-over-height ratios P/H of Cross-corrugated (CC) surface is from 1.5 to 4.0, included angles β=75º. The study was performed using CFD software FLUENT to create unit model and simulate fluid temperature, velocity, heat transfer coefficient and other parameters. The results from these simulations were compared to experimental data. It is concluded that, when the Reynolds number is constant, if increase P/H, j/f will decrease, also the decreasing trend will become weak. Under the condition of P/H=2.2, if increase the inlet velocity j/f will decrease; in addition, the heat transfer performance in surface with corrugation will increase 10% compared to that without corrugation. The study results can provide the basis to optimize the design, select the type of heat transfer surface, the scale structure, and heat-transfer surface arrangement for recuperators.

Keywords: Cross-corrugated surface, Primary surface, Numerical simulation, Heat transfer.

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23 Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Steel Girder Systems Braced by Solid Web Crossbeams

Authors: Ruoyang Tang, Jianguo Nie

Abstract:

Lateral-torsional bracing members are critical to the stability of girder systems during the construction phase of steel-concrete composite bridges, and the interaction effect of multiple girders plays an essential role in the determination of buckling load. In this paper, an investigation is conducted on the lateral-torsional buckling behavior of the steel girder system which is composed of three or four I-shaped girders and braced by solid web crossbeams. The buckling load for such girder system is comprehensively analyzed and an analytical solution is developed for uniform pressure loading conditions. Furthermore, post-buckling analysis including initial geometric imperfections is performed and parametric studies in terms of bracing density, stiffness ratio as well as the number and spacing of girders are presented in order to find the optimal bracing plans for an arbitrary girder layout. The theoretical solution of critical load on account of local buckling mode shows good agreement with the numerical results in eigenvalue analysis. In addition, parametric analysis results show that both bracing density and stiffness ratio have a significant impact on the initial stiffness, global stability and failure mode of such girder system. Taking into consideration the effect of initial geometric imperfections, an increase in bracing density between adjacent girders can effectively improve the bearing capacity of the structure, and higher beam-girder stiffness ratio can result in a more ductile failure mode.

Keywords: Bracing member, construction stage, lateral-torsional buckling, steel girder system.

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22 Tensile Test of Corroded Strand and Maintenance of Corroded Prestressed Concrete Girders

Authors: Jeon Chi-Ho, Lee Jae-Bin, Shim Chang-Su

Abstract:

National bridge inventory in Korea shows that the number of old prestressed concrete (PSC) bridgeover 30 years of service life is rapidly increasing. Recently tendon corrosion is one of the most critical issues in the maintenance of PSC bridges. In this paper, mechanical properties of corroded strands, which were removed from old bridges, were evaluated using tensile test. In the result, the equations to express the mechanical behavior of corroded strand were derived and compared to existing equation. For the decision of tendon replacement, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of corrosion level on strength and ductility of the structure. Considerations on analysis of PSC girders were introduced, and decision making on tendon replacement was also proposed.

Keywords: Prestressed concrete bridge, prestressing steel, corrosion, strength, ductility.

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21 Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridges Using Large 0.7 Inch Strands

Authors: Amin Akhnoukh

Abstract:

The National Bridge Inventory (NBI) includes more than 600,000 bridges within the United States of America. Prestressed concrete girder bridges represent one of the most widely used bridge systems. The majority of these girder bridges were constructed using 0.5 and 0.6 inch diameter strands. The main impediments to using larger strand diameters are: 1) lack of prestress bed capacities, 2) lack of structural knowledge regarding the transfer and development length of larger strands, and 3) the possibility of developing wider end zone cracks upon strand release. This paper presents a study about using 0.7 inch strands in girder fabrication. Transfer and development length were evaluated, and girders were fabricated using 0.7 inch strands at different spacings. Results showed that 0.7 inch strands can be used at 2.0 inch spacing without violating the AASHTO LRFD Specifications, while attaining superior performance in shear and flexure.

Keywords: 0.7 inch strands, prestress, I-girders, bridges

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20 Optimization Approach on Flapping Aerodynamic Characteristics of Corrugated Airfoil

Authors: Wei-Hsin Sun, Jr-Ming Miao, Chang-Hsien Tai, Chien-Chun Hung

Abstract:

The development of biomimetic micro-aerial-vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings is the future trend in military/domestic field. The successful flight of MAVs is strongly related to the understanding of unsteady aerodynamic performance of low Reynolds number airfoils under dynamic flapping motion. This study explored the effects of flapping frequency, stroke amplitude, and the inclined angle of stroke plane on lift force and thrust force of a bio-inspiration corrugated airfoil with 33 full factorial design of experiment and ANOVA analysis. Unsteady vorticity flows over a corrugated thin airfoil executing flapping motion are computed with time-dependent two-dimensional laminar incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the conformal hybrid mesh. The tested freestream Reynolds number based on the chord length of airfoil as characteristic length is fixed of 103. The dynamic mesh technique is applied to model the flapping motion of a corrugated airfoil. Instant vorticity contours over a complete flapping cycle clearly reveals the flow mechanisms for lift force generation are dynamic stall, rotational circulation, and wake capture. The thrust force is produced as the leading edge vortex shedding from the trailing edge of airfoil to form a reverse von Karman vortex. Results also indicated that the inclined angle is the most significant factor on both the lift force and thrust force. There are strong interactions between tested factors which mean an optimization study on parameters should be conducted in further runs.

Keywords: biomimetic, MAVs, aerodynamic, ANOVA analysis.

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19 Development of 25A-Size Three-Layer Metal Gasket by Using FEM Simulation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, I Made Gatot Karohika, Akinori Sato, Didik Nurhadiyanto, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important design parameters for optimizing corrugated metal gasket performance based on elastic and plastic contact stress. In this study, we used a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, Ni as the outer layer, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which are forming and tightening simulation. The simulation result shows that aluminum with tangent modulus, Ehal = Eal/150 has the highest slope for contact width. The slope of contact width for plastic mode gasket was higher than the elastic mode gasket.

Keywords: Contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation.

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18 Effect of Cladding and Secondary Members on the Elastic Stability of Main Columns

Authors: Mohamed Massoud El Sadaawy, Ehab Hasan Ahmed Hasan Ali

Abstract:

The corrugated steel cladding used to cover most of steel buildings is considered as non-structural element. This research will reflect the effect of cladding as a shear diaphragm in increasing the normal elastic capacity of columns. This study is important because of the lack of information of the behavior of cladding and secondary members in various codes. Mathematical models for six different cases are carried by software. The results extracted from the program have been plotted showing the effects of different variables on the ultimate load of column. The variables considered in our research are the spacing between columns and the thickness of the corrugated sheet representing the sheet stiffness.

Keywords: Stability of frames about minor axis, The effective length factor, Effect of secondary members on elastic buckling load column, The stiffness of sheeting.

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17 A Study on Application of Elastic Theory for Computing Flexural Stresses in Preflex Beam

Authors: Nasiri Ahmadullah, Shimozato Tetsuhiro, Masayuki Tai

Abstract:

This paper presents the step-by-step procedure for using Elastic Theory to calculate the internal stresses in composite bridge girders prestressed by the Preflexing Technology, called Prebeam in Japan and Preflex beam worldwide. Elastic Theory approaches preflex beams the same way as it does the conventional composite girders. Since preflex beam undergoes different stages of construction, calculations are made using different sectional and material properties. Stresses are calculated in every stage using the properties of the specific section. Stress accumulation gives the available stress in a section of interest. Concrete presence in the section implies prestress loss due to creep and shrinkage, however; more work is required to be done in this field. In addition to the graphical presentation of this application, this paper further discusses important notes of graphical comparison between the results of an experimental-only research carried out on a preflex beam, with the results of simulation based on the elastic theory approach, for an identical beam using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) by the author.

Keywords: Composite girder, elastic theory, preflex beam, prestressing.

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16 Experimental Testing of Composite Tubes with Different Corrugation Profile Subjected to Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Elfetori F. Abdewi

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of corrugation profile geometry on the crushing behavior, energy absorption, failure mechanism, and failure mode of woven roving glass fibre/epoxy laminated composite tube. Experimental investigations were carried out on composite tubes with three different profile shapes: sinusoidal, triangular and trapezoidal. The tubes were subjected to lateral compressive loading. On the addition to a radial corrugated composite tube, cylindrical composite tube, were fabricated and tested under the same condition in order to know the effect of corrugation geometry. Typical histories of their deformation are presented. Behavior of tubes as regards the peak crushing load, energy absorbed and mode of crushing has been discussed. The results show that the behavior of the tube under lateral compression load is influenced by the geometry of the tube itself.

Keywords: Corrugated composite specimens, Energy absorption, Lateral crushing.

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15 Design and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Corrugated-GFRP Infill Panels

Authors: WooYoung Jung, HoYoung Son

Abstract:

This study presented to reduce earthquake damage and emergency rehabilitation of critical structures such as schools, hightech factories, and hospitals due to strong ground motions associated with climate changes. Regarding recent trend, a strong earthquake causes serious damage to critical structures and then the critical structure might be influenced by sequence aftershocks (or tsunami) due to fault plane adjustments. Therefore, in order to improve seismic performance of critical structures, retrofitted or strengthening study of the structures under aftershocks sequence after emergency rehabilitation of the structures subjected to strong earthquakes is widely carried out. Consequently, this study used composite material for emergency rehabilitation of the structure rather than concrete and steel materials because of high strength and stiffness, lightweight, rapid manufacturing, and dynamic performance. Also, this study was to develop or improve the seismic performance or seismic retrofit of critical structures subjected to strong ground motions and earthquake aftershocks, by utilizing GFRP-Corrugated Infill Panels (GCIP).

Keywords: Composite material, GFRP, Infill Panel, Aftershock, Seismic Retrofitting.

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14 Investigation of Seismic T-Resisting Frame with Shear and Flexural Yield of Horizontal Plate Girders

Authors: Helia Barzegar Sedigh, Farzaneh Hamedi, Payam Ashtari

Abstract:

There are some limitations in common structural systems, such as providing appropriate lateral stiffness, adequate ductility, and architectural openings at the same time. Consequently, the concept of T-Resisting Frame (TRF) has been introduced to overcome all these deficiencies. The configuration of TRF in this study is a Vertical Plate Girder (VPG) which is placed within the span and two Horizontal Plate Girders (HPGs) connect VPG to side columns at each story level by the use of rigid connections. System performance is improved by utilizing rigid connections in side columns base joint. Shear yield of HPGs causes energy dissipation in TRF; therefore, high plastic deformation in web of HPGs and VPG affects the ductility of system. Moreover, in order to prevent shear buckling in web of TRF’s members and appropriate criteria for placement of web stiffeners are applied. In this paper, an experimental study is conducted by applying cyclic loading and using finite element models and numerical studies such as push over method are assessed on shear and flexural yielding of HPGs. As a result, seismic parameters indicate adequate lateral stiffness, and high ductility factor of 6.73, and HPGs’ shear yielding achieved as a proof of TRF’s better performance.

Keywords: Experimental study, finite element model, flexural and shear yielding, T-resisting frame.

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13 Diagnostics of Existing Steel Structures of Winter Sport Halls

Authors: Marcela Karmazínová, Jindrich Melcher, Lubomír Vítek, Petr Cikrle

Abstract:

The paper deals with the diagnostics of steel roof structure of the winter sports halls built in 1970 year. The necessity of the diagnostics has been given by the requirement to the evaluation design of this structure, which has been caused by the new situation in the field of the loadings given by the validity of the European Standards in the Czech Republic from 2010 year. Due to these changes in the normative rules, in practice existing structures are gradually subjected to the evaluation design and depending on its results to the strengthening or reconstruction, respectively. Steel roof is composed of plane truss main girders, purlins and bracings and the roof structure is supported by two arch main girders with the span of L = 84 m. The in situ diagnostics of the roof structure was oriented to the following parts: (i) determination and evaluation of the actual material properties of used steel and (ii) verification of the actual dimensions of the structural members. For the solution the nondestructive methods have been used for in situ measurement. For the indicative determination of steel strengths the modified method based on the determination of Rockwell’s hardness has been used. For the verification of the member’s dimensions (thickness of hollow sections) the ultrasound method has been used. This paper presents the results obtained using these testing methods and their evaluation, from the viewpoint of the usage for the subsequent static assessment and design evaluation of the existing structure. For the comparison, the examples of the similar evaluations realized for steel structures of the stadiums in Olomouc and Jihlava cities are briefly illustrated, too.

Keywords: Diagnostics, existing steel structure, sport hall, steel strength, indirect non-destructive methods, Rockwel’s hardness, destructive methods, actual dimensions, ultrasound method.

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12 FRC – A New Sustainable Option for Construction to Mitigate Earthquakes

Authors: P. J. Sa sturkar

Abstract:

Ten simply supported grossly underreinforced tapered concrete beams of full size were tested upto complete collapse under flexural effect .Out of 10 beams, 5 beams were nonfibrous and the remaining beams contained fibres. The beams had a variation in the tapered angle as 2°, 4°, 6°, 8° and 10°. The concrete mix, conventional steel and the type of fibre used were held constant. Flat corrugated steel fibres were utilized as secondary reinforcement. The strength and stability parameters were measured. It is established that the fibrous tapered beams can be used economically in earthquake prone areas.

Keywords: Earthquake, Grossly underreinforced sections, Fibre reinforced concrete, Tapered beams.

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11 Approximate Tension Buckling Capacity of Thin Edge-Cracked Web Plate Subjected to Pure Bending

Authors: Sebastian B. Mendes

Abstract:

The presence of a vertical edge-crack within a web plate subjected to pure bending induces local compressive stresses about the crack which may cause tension buckling. Approximate theoretical expressions were derived for the critical far-field tensile stress and bending moment capacity of an edge-cracked web plate associated with tension buckling. These expressions were validated with finite element analyses and used to investigate the possibility of tension buckling in web-cracked trial girders. It was found that tension buckling is an unlikely occurrence unless the web is relatively thin or the crack is very long.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, tension buckling, Rayleigh-Ritz, structural stability.

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10 Comparison of Methods of Testing Composite Slabs

Authors: J. Holomek, R. Karásek, M. Bajer, J. Barnat

Abstract:

Composite steel-concrete slabs using thin-walled corrugated steel sheets with embossments represent a modern and effective combination of steel and concrete. However, the design of new types of sheeting is conditional on the execution of expensive and time-consuming laboratory testing. The effort to develop a cheaper and faster method has lead to many investigations all over the world. In our paper we compare the results from our experiments involving vacuum loading, four-point bending and small-scale shear tests.

Keywords: Composite slab, embossment, four-point bending, small-scale test, steel sheet, thin-walled, vacuum loading

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