Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 201

Search results for: timing synchronization

201 Implementation of Channel Estimation and Timing Synchronization Algorithms for MIMO-OFDM System Using NI USRP 2920

Authors: Ali Beydoun, Hamzé H. Alaeddine

Abstract:

MIMO-OFDM communication system presents a key solution for the next generation of mobile communication due to its high spectral efficiency, high data rate and robustness against multi-path fading channels. However, MIMO-OFDM system requires a perfect knowledge of the channel state information and a good synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver to achieve the expected performances. Recently, we have proposed two algorithms for channel estimation and timing synchronization with good performances and very low implementation complexity compared to those proposed in the literature. In order to validate and evaluate the efficiency of these algorithms in real environments, this paper presents in detail the implementation of 2 × 2 MIMO-OFDM system based on LabVIEW and USRP 2920. Implementation results show a good agreement with the simulation results under different configuration parameters.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM system, timing synchronization, channel estimation, STBC, USRP 2920.

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200 A Novel Spectrum Sensing Scheme Based on Periodicity of DVB-T Pilot Signals

Authors: Hyung-Weon Cho, Youngyoon Lee, Seung Goo Kang, Dahae Chong, Myungsoo Lee, Chonghan Song, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel spectrum sensing technique for the digital video broadcasting-terrestrial (DVB-T) systems, which utilizes the periodicity of pilot signals in the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols. The proposed scheme can overcome the effect of the timing synchronization error by recorrelating the correlation values in the same sample distances. The numerical results demonstrate that the detection probability performance of the proposed scheme outperforms that of the conventional scheme when there exists a timing synchronization error.

Keywords: DVB-T, spectrum sensing, OFDM, timing synchronizationerror.

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199 Synchronization between the Slow Oscillations in the Human Cardiovascular System

Authors: M. D. Prokhorov, V. I. Ponomarenko, A. S. Karavaev, A. R. Kiselev, V. I. Gridnev

Abstract:

Synchronization between the slow oscillations of heart rate and blood pressure having in humans a basic frequency close to 0.1 Hz is investigated. A method is proposed for quantitative estimation of synchronization between these oscillating processes based on calculation of relative time of phase synchronization of oscillations. It is shown that healthy subjects exhibit in average substantially longer epochs of synchronization between the slow oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure than patients after acute myocardial infarction

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, slow oscillating processes, synchronization.

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198 Synchronization Between Two Chaotic Systems: Numerical and Circuit Simulation

Authors: J. H. Park, T. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, H. Y. Jung

Abstract:

In this paper, a generalized synchronization scheme, which is called function synchronization, for chaotic systems is studied. Based on Lyapunov method and active control method, we design the synchronization controller for the system such that the error dynamics between master and slave chaotic systems is asymptotically stable. For verification of our theory, computer and circuit simulations for a specific chaotic system is conducted.

Keywords: Chaotic systems, synchronization, Lyapunov method, simulation.

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197 Distributed Frequency Synchronization for Global Synchronization in Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Jung-Hyun Kim, Jihyung Kim, Kwangjae Lim, Dong Seung Kwon

Abstract:

In this paper, our focus is to assure a global frequency synchronization in OFDMA-based wireless mesh networks with local information. To acquire the global synchronization in distributed manner, we propose a novel distributed frequency synchronization (DFS) method. DFS is a method that carrier frequencies of distributed nodes converge to a common value by repetitive estimation and averaging step and sharing step. Experimental results show that DFS achieves noteworthy better synchronization success probability than existing schemes in OFDMA-based mesh networks where the estimation error is presented.

Keywords: OFDMA systems, Frequency synchronization, Distributed networks, Multiple groups.

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196 Aspect based Reusable Synchronization Schemes

Authors: Nathar Shah

Abstract:

Concurrency and synchronization are becoming big issues as every new PC comes with multi-core processors. A major reason for Object-Oriented Programming originally was to enable easier reuse: encode your algorithm into a class and thoroughly debug it, then you can reuse the class again and again. However, when we get to concurrency and synchronization, this is often not possible. Thread-safety issues means that synchronization constructs need to be entangled into every class involved. We contributed a detailed literature review of issues and challenges in concurrent programming and present a methodology that uses the Aspect- Oriented paradigm to address this problem. Aspects will allow us to extract the synchronization concerns as schemes to be “weaved in" later into the main code. This allows the aspects to be separately tested and verified. Hence, the functional components can be weaved with reusable synchronization schemes that are robust and scalable.

Keywords: Aspect-orientation, development methodologysoftware concurrency, synchronization.

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195 Finite Time Symplectic Synchronization between Two Different Chaotic Systems

Authors: Chunming Xu

Abstract:

In this paper, the finite-time symplectic synchronization between two different chaotic systems is investigated. Based on the finite-time stability theory, a simple adaptive feedback scheme is proposed to realize finite-time symplectic synchronization for the Lorenz and L¨u systems. Numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Chaotic systems, symplectic synchronization, finite-time synchronization, adaptive controller.

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194 Discrete Polyphase Matched Filtering-based Soft Timing Estimation for Mobile Wireless Systems

Authors: Thomas O. Olwal, Michael A. van Wyk, Barend J. van Wyk

Abstract:

In this paper we present a soft timing phase estimation (STPE) method for wireless mobile receivers operating in low signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Discrete Polyphase Matched (DPM) filters, a Log-maximum a posterior probability (MAP) and/or a Soft-output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) are combined to derive a new timing recovery (TR) scheme. We apply this scheme to wireless cellular communication system model that comprises of a raised cosine filter (RCF), a bit-interleaved turbo-coded multi-level modulation (BITMM) scheme and the channel is assumed to be memory-less. Furthermore, no clock signals are transmitted to the receiver contrary to the classical data aided (DA) models. This new model ensures that both the bandwidth and power of the communication system is conserved. However, the computational complexity of ideal turbo synchronization is increased by 50%. Several simulation tests on bit error rate (BER) and block error rate (BLER) versus low SNR reveal that the proposed iterative soft timing recovery (ISTR) scheme outperforms the conventional schemes.

Keywords: discrete polyphase matched filters, maximum likelihood estimators, soft timing phase estimation, wireless mobile systems.

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193 Time Synchronization between the eNBs in E-UTRAN under the Asymmetric IP Network

Authors: M. Kollar, A. Zieba

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a method for a time synchronization between the two eNodeBs (eNBs) in E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) network. The two eNBs are cooperating in so-called inter eNB CA (Carrier Aggregation) case and connected via asymmetrical IP network. We solve the problem by using broadcasting signals generated in E-UTRAN as synchronization signals. The results show that the time synchronization with the proposed method is possible with the error significantly less than 1 ms which is sufficient considering the time transmission interval is 1 ms in E-UTRAN. This makes this method (with low complexity) more suitable than Network Time Protocol (NTP) in the mobile applications with generated broadcasting signals where time synchronization in asymmetrical network is required.

Keywords: E-UTRAN, IP scheduled throughput, initial burst delay, synchronization, NTP, delay, asymmetric network.

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192 H∞ Approach to Functional Projective Synchronization for Chaotic Systems with Disturbances

Authors: S. M. Lee, J. H. Park, H. Y. Jung

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for functional projective H∞ synchronization problem of chaotic systems with external disturbance. Based on Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) formulation, the novel feedback controller is established to not only guarantee stable synchronization of both drive and response systems but also reduce the effect of external disturbance to an H∞ norm constraint.

Keywords: Chaotic systems, functional projective H∞ synchronization, LMI.

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191 Coding based Synchronization Algorithm for Secondary Synchronization Channel in WCDMA

Authors: Deng Liao, Dongyu Qiu, Ahmed K. Elhakeem

Abstract:

A new code synchronization algorithm is proposed in this paper for the secondary cell-search stage in wideband CDMA systems. Rather than using the Cyclically Permutable (CP) code in the Secondary Synchronization Channel (S-SCH) to simultaneously determine the frame boundary and scrambling code group, the new synchronization algorithm implements the same function with less system complexity and less Mean Acquisition Time (MAT). The Secondary Synchronization Code (SSC) is redesigned by splitting into two sub-sequences. We treat the information of scrambling code group as data bits and use simple time diversity BCH coding for further reliability. It avoids involved and time-costly Reed-Solomon (RS) code computations and comparisons. Analysis and simulation results show that the Synchronization Error Rate (SER) yielded by the new algorithm in Rayleigh fading channels is close to that of the conventional algorithm in the standard. This new synchronization algorithm reduces system complexities, shortens the average cell-search time and can be implemented in the slot-based cell-search pipeline. By taking antenna diversity and pipelining correlation processes, the new algorithm also shows its flexible application in multiple antenna systems.

Keywords: WCDMA cell-search, synchronization algorithm, secondary synchronization channel, antenna diversity.

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190 Synchronization of a Perturbed Satellite Attitude Motion

Authors: Sadaoui Djaouida

Abstract:

In the paper, the predictive control method is proposed to control the synchronization of two perturbed satellites attitude motion. Based on delayed feedback control of continuous-time systems combines with the prediction-based method of discrete-time systems, this approach only needs a single controller to realize synchronization, which has considerable significance in reducing the cost and complexity for controller implementation.

Keywords: Predictive control, Synchronization, Satellite attitude.

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189 Synchronization of 0.1 Hz Oscillations in Heart Rate and Blood Pressure: Application to Treatment of Myocardial Infarction Patients

Authors: M. D. Prokhorov, A. R. Kiselev, A. S. Karavaev, O. M. Posnenkova, V. I. Gridnev, V. I. Ponomarenko

Abstract:

Synchronization between 0.1 Hz oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure is studied and its change during vertical tilt is evaluated in 37 myocardial infarction patients. Two groups of patients are identified with decreased and increased, respectively, synchronization of the studied oscillations as a response to a tilt test. It is shown that assessment of synchronization of 0.1 Hz oscillations as a response to vertical tilt can be used as a guideline for selecting optimal dose of beta-blocker treatment in post-myocardial infarction patients.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, heart rate variability, synchronization.

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188 Synchronization of Chaos in a Food Web in Ecological Systems

Authors: Anuraj Singh, Sunita Gakkhar

Abstract:

The three-species food web model proposed and investigated by Gakkhar and Naji is known to have chaotic behaviour for a choice of parameters. An attempt has been made to synchronize the chaos in the model using bidirectional coupling. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the analytical results. Numerical results show that for higher value of coupling strength, chaotic synchronization is achieved. Chaos can be controlled to achieve stable synchronization in natural systems.

Keywords: Lyapunov Exponent, Bidirectional Coupling, ChaosSynchronization, Synchronization Manifold

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187 Performance Analysis of QS-CDMA Systems

Authors: Cuiran Li, Jianli Xie, Chengshu Li

Abstract:

In the paper, the performance of quasi-synchronous CDMA (QS-CDMA) system, which can allow an increased timing error in synchronized access, is discussed. Average BER performance of the system is analyzed in the condition of different access timing error and different asynchronous users by simulation in AWGN channel. The results show that QS-CDMA system is shown to have great performance gain over the asynchronous system when access timing error is within a few chips and asynchronous users is tolerable. However, with access timing error increasing and asynchronous users increasing, the performance of QS-CDMA will degrade. Also, we can determine the number of tolerable asynchronous users for different access timing error by simulation figures.

Keywords: Code-division multiple access, Quasi-SynchronousCDMA, Access timing error

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186 Controlled Synchronization of an Array of Nonlinear System with Time Delays

Authors: S.M. Lee, J.H. Koo, J.H. Park, S.C. Won

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose synchronization of an array of nonlinear systems with time delays. The array of systems is decomposed into isolated systems to establish appropriate Lyapunov¬Krasovskii functional. Using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a sufficient condition for the synchronization is derived in terms of LMIs(Linear Matrix Inequalities). Delayed feedback control gains are obtained by solving the sufficient condition. Numerical examples are given to show the validity the proposed method.

Keywords: Synchronization, Delay, Lyapunov method, LMI.

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185 Adaptive Functional Projective Lag Synchronization of Lorenz System

Authors: Tae H. Lee, J.H. Park, S.M. Lee, H.Y. Jung

Abstract:

This paper addresses functional projective lag synchronization of Lorenz system with four unknown parameters, where the output of the master system lags behind the output of the slave system proportionally. For this purpose, an adaptive control law is proposed to make the states of two identical Lorenz systems asymptotically synchronize up. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a novel criterion is given for asymptotical stability of the null solution of an error dynamics. Finally, some numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of our results.

Keywords: Adaptive function projective synchronization, Chaotic system, Lag synchronization, Lyapunov method

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184 Efficient Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shehzad Ashraf Ch., Aftab Ahmed Khan, Zahid Mehmood, Muhammad Ahsan Habib, Qasim Mehmood

Abstract:

Energy efficiency is the key requirement in wireless sensor network as sensors are small, cheap and are deployed in very large number in a large geographical area, so there is no question of replacing the batteries of the sensors once deployed. Different ways can be used for efficient energy transmission including Multi-Hop algorithms, collaborative communication, cooperativecommunication, Beam- forming, routing algorithm, phase, frequency and time synchronization. The paper reviews the need for time synchronization and proposed a BFS based synchronization algorithm to achieve energy efficiency. The efficiency of our protocol has been tested and verified by simulation

Keywords: time synchronization, sensor networks, energy efficiency, breadth first search

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183 Encrypted Audio Transmission Using Synchronized Nd: YAG Lasers

Authors: R.M. López-Gutiérrez, C. Cruz-Hernández, C. Posadas-Castillo, E.E.García-Guerrero

Abstract:

Encoded information based on synchronization of coupled chaotic Nd:YAG lasers in master-slave configuration is numerically studied. Encoding, transmission, and decoding of information in optical chaotic communication with a single channel is presented. We analyze the robustness of the encrypted audio transmission in a channel noise. In order to illustrate this synchronization robustness, we present two cases of study: synchronization and transmission with a single channel without and with noise in the channel.

Keywords: Encryption, Secure coomunication, Chaos, Synchronization, Complex networks, Nd:YAG laser.

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182 Chaos Synchronization Using Sliding Mode Technique

Authors: Behzad Khademian, Mohammad Haeri

Abstract:

In this paper, an effective sliding mode design is applied to chaos synchronization. The proposed controller can make the states of two identical modified Chua-s circuits globally asymptotically synchronized. Numerical results are provided to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Sliding mode, Chaos synchronization, Modified Chua's circuit.

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181 Observer Design for Chaos Synchronization of Time-delayed Power Systems

Authors: Jui-Sheng Lin, Yi-Sung Yang, Meei-Ling Hung, Teh-Lu Liao, Jun-Juh Yan

Abstract:

The global chaos synchronization for a class of time-delayed power systems is investigated via observer-based approach. By employing the concepts of quadratic stability theory and generalized system model, a new sufficient criterion for constructing an observer is deduced. In contrast to the previous works, this paper proposes a theoretical and systematic design procedure to realize chaos synchronization for master-slave power systems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the applicability of the obtained scheme.

Keywords: Chaos, Synchronization, Quadratic stability theory, Observer

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180 Design and Implementation of a Microcontroller Based LCD Screen Digital Stop Watch

Authors: Mr. Khalid I. Saad, Ms. Nusrat Afrin, Mr. Rajib Mikail

Abstract:

The stop watch is used to measure the time required for a certain event. This is different from normal clocks in many ways, one of which is the accuracy of time. The stop watch requires much more accuracy than the normal clocks. In this paper, an ATmega8535 microcontroller was used to control the stop watch, by which perfect accuracy can be ensured. For compiling the C code and for loading the compiled .hex file into the microcontroller, AVR studio and PonyProg were used respectively. The stop watch is also different from traditional stop watches, as it contains two different timing modes namely 'Split timing' and 'Lap timing'.

Keywords: Stop Watch, Microcontroller, Split timing, Laptiming, LCD.

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179 Delay-range-Dependent Exponential Synchronization of Lur-e Systems with Markovian Switching

Authors: Xia Zhou, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

The problem of delay-range-dependent exponential synchronization is investigated for Lur-e master-slave systems with delay feedback control and Markovian switching. Using Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional and nonsingular M-matrix method, novel delayrange- dependent exponential synchronization in mean square criterions are established. The systems discussed in this paper is advanced system, and takes all the features of interval systems, Itˆo equations, Markovian switching, time-varying delay, as well as the environmental noise, into account. Finally, an example is given to show the validity of the main result.

Keywords: Synchronization, delay-range-dependent, Markov chain, generalized Itō's formula, brownian motion, M-matrix.

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178 Capacity of Overloaded DS-CDMA System on Rayleigh Fading Channel with Timing Error

Authors: Preetam Kumar

Abstract:

The number of users supported in a DS-CDMA cellular system is typically less than spreading factor (N), and the system is said to be underloaded. Overloading is a technique to accommodate more number of users than the spreading factor N. In O/O overloading scheme, the first set is assigned to the N synchronous users and the second set is assigned to the additional synchronous users. An iterative multistage soft decision interference cancellation (SDIC) receiver is used to remove high level of interference between the two sets. Performance is evaluated in terms of the maximum number acceptable users so that the system performance is degraded slightly compared to the single user performance at a specified BER. In this paper, the capacity of CDMA based O/O overloading scheme is evaluated with SDIC receiver. It is observed that O/O scheme using orthogonal Gold codes provides 25% channel overloading (N=64) for synchronous DS-CDMA system on an AWGN channel in the uplink at a BER of 1e-5.For a Rayleigh faded channel, the critical capacity is 40% at a BER of 5e-5 assuming synchronous users. But in practical systems, perfect chip timing is very difficult to maintain in the uplink.. We have shown that the overloading performance reduces to 11% for a timing synchronization error of 0.02Tc for a BER of 1e-5.

Keywords: DS-CDMA, Interference Cancellation, MultiuserDetection, Orthogonal codes, Overloading.

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177 Projective Synchronization of a Class of Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems

Authors: Zahra Yaghoubi, Nooshin Bigdeli, Karim Afshar

Abstract:

This paper at first presents approximate analytical solutions for systems of fractional differential equations using the differential transform method. The application of differential transform method, developed for differential equations of integer order, is extended to derive approximate analytical solutions of systems of fractional differential equations. The solutions of our model equations are calculated in the form of convergent series with easily computable components. After that a drive-response synchronization method with linear output error feedback is presented for “generalized projective synchronization" for a class of fractional-order chaotic systems via a scalar transmitted signal. Genesio_Tesi and Duffing systems are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method.

Keywords: Generalized projective synchronization; Fractionalorder;Chaos; Caputo derivative; Differential transform method

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176 Anti-Synchronization of two Different Chaotic Systems via Active Control

Authors: Amir Abbas Emadzadeh, Mohammad Haeri

Abstract:

This paper presents anti-synchronization of chaos between two different chaotic systems using active control method. The proposed technique is applied to achieve chaos antisynchronization for the Lü and Rössler dynamical systems. Numerical simulations are implemented to verify the results.

Keywords: Active control, Anti-Synchronization, Chaos, Lü system, Rössler system.

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175 Discrete-time Phase and Delay Locked Loops Analyses in Tracking Mode

Authors: Jiri Sebesta

Abstract:

Phase locked loops (PLL) and delay locked loops (DLL) play an important role in establishing coherent references (phase of carrier and symbol timing) in digital communication systems. Fully digital receiver including digital carrier synchronizer and symbol timing synchronizer fulfils the conditions for universal multi-mode communication receiver with option of symbol rate setting over several digit places and long-term stability of requirement parameters. Afterwards it is necessary to realize PLL and DLL in synchronizer in digital form and to approach to these subsystems as a discrete representation of analog template. Analysis of discrete phase locked loop (DPLL) or discrete delay locked loop (DDLL) and technique to determine their characteristics based on analog (continuous-time) template is performed in this posed paper. There are derived transmission response and error function for 1st order discrete locked loop and resulting equations and graphical representations for 2nd order one. It is shown that the spectrum translation due to sampling takes effect at frequency characteristics computing for specific values of loop parameters.

Keywords: Carrier synchronization, coherent demodulation, software defined receiver, symbol timing.

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174 Global Chaos Synchronization of Identical and Nonidentical Chaotic Systems Using Only Two Nonlinear Controllers

Authors: Azizan Bin Saaban, Adyda Binti Ibrahim, Mohammad Shehzad, Israr Ahmad

Abstract:

In chaos synchronization, the main goal is to design such controller(s) that synchronizes the states of master and slave system asymptotically globally. This paper studied and investigated the synchronization problem of two identical Chen, and identical Tigan chaotic systems and two non-identical Chen and Tigan chaotic systems using Non-linear active control algorithm. In this study, based on Lyapunov stability theory and using non-linear active control algorithm, it has been shown that the proposed schemes have excellent transient performance using only two nonlinear controllers and have shown analytically as well as graphically that synchronization is asymptotically globally stable.

Keywords: Nonlinear Active Control, Chen and Tigan Chaotic systems, Lyapunov Stability theory, Synchronization.

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173 Synchronization of Oestrus in Goats with Progestogen Sponges and Short Term Combined FGA, PGF2α Protocols

Authors: G. Martemucci, D. Casamassima, A. G. D'Alessandro

Abstract:

The study aimed to evaluated the reproductive performance response to short term oestrus synchronization during the transition period. One hundred and sixty-five indigenous multiparous non-lactating goats were subdivided into the following six treatment groups for oestrus synchronization: NT control Group (N= 30), Fe-21d, FGA vaginal sponge for 21days+eCG at 19thd; FPe- 11d, FGA 11d + PGF2α and eCG at 9th d; FPe-10d, FGA 10d+ PGF2α and eCG at 8th d; FPe-9d, FGA 9d +PGF2α and eCG at 7thd; PFe-5d, PGF2α at d0 + FGA 5d + eCG at 5thd. The goats were natural mated (1 male/6 females). Fecundity rates (n. births /n. females treated x 100) were statistically higher (P < 0.05) in short term FPe-9d (157.9%), FPe- 11d (115.4%), FPe-10d (111.1%) and PFe-5d (107.7%) groups compared to the NT control Group (66.7%).

Keywords: Goats, oestrus synchronization, short-term protocols.

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172 Synchronization of Traveling Waves within a Hollow-Core Vortex

Authors: H. Ait Abderrahmane, M. Fayed, H. D. Ng, G. H. Vatistas

Abstract:

The present paper expands details and confirms the transition mechanism between two subsequent polygonal patterns of the hollow-core vortex. Using power spectral analysis, we confirm in this work that the transition from any N-gon to (N+1)-gon pattern observed within a hollow-core vortex of shallow rotating flows occurs in two steps. The regime was quasi-periodic before the frequencies lock (synchronization). The ratios of locking frequencies were found to be equal to (N-1)/N.

Keywords: Patterns, quasi-periodic, swirling, synchronization, transition.

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