Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 582

Search results for: text annotation

582 A New Approach to Annotate the Text's of the Websites and Documents with a Quite Comprehensive Knowledge Base

Authors: Mohammad Yasrebi, Mehran Mohsenzadeh, Mashalla Abbasi-Dezfuli

Abstract:

Machine-understandable data when strongly interlinked constitutes the basis for the SemanticWeb. Annotating web documents is one of the major techniques for creating metadata on the Web. Annotating websites defines the containing data in a form which is suitable for interpretation by machines. In this paper, we present a new approach to annotate websites and documents by promoting the abstraction level of the annotation process to a conceptual level. By this means, we hope to solve some of the problems of the current annotation solutions.

Keywords: Knowledge base, ontology, semantic annotation, semantic web.

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581 Data Annotation Models and Annotation Query Language

Authors: Neerja Bhatnagar, Benjoe A. Juliano, Renee S. Renner

Abstract:

This paper presents data annotation models at five levels of granularity (database, relation, column, tuple, and cell) of relational data to address the problem of unsuitability of most relational databases to express annotations. These models do not require any structural and schematic changes to the underlying database. These models are also flexible, extensible, customizable, database-neutral, and platform-independent. This paper also presents an SQL-like query language, named Annotation Query Language (AnQL), to query annotation documents. AnQL is simple to understand and exploits the already-existent wide knowledge and skill set of SQL.

Keywords: annotation query language, data annotations, data annotation models, semantic data annotations

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580 AnQL: A Query Language for Annotation Documents

Authors: Neerja Bhatnagar, Ben A. Juliano, Renee S. Renner

Abstract:

This paper presents data annotation models at five levels of granularity (database, relation, column, tuple, and cell) of relational data to address the problem of unsuitability of most relational databases to express annotations. These models do not require any structural and schematic changes to the underlying database. These models are also flexible, extensible, customizable, database-neutral, and platform-independent. This paper also presents an SQL-like query language, named Annotation Query Language (AnQL), to query annotation documents. AnQL is simple to understand and exploits the already-existent wide knowledge and skill set of SQL.

Keywords: Annotation query language, data annotations, data annotation models, semantic data annotations.

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579 Semi-Automatic Approach for Semantic Annotation

Authors: Mohammad Yasrebi, Mehran Mohsenzadeh

Abstract:

The third phase of web means semantic web requires many web pages which are annotated with metadata. Thus, a crucial question is where to acquire these metadata. In this paper we propose our approach, a semi-automatic method to annotate the texts of documents and web pages and employs with a quite comprehensive knowledge base to categorize instances with regard to ontology. The approach is evaluated against the manual annotations and one of the most popular annotation tools which works the same as our tool. The approach is implemented in .net framework and uses the WordNet for knowledge base, an annotation tool for the Semantic Web.

Keywords: Semantic Annotation, Metadata, Information Extraction, Semantic Web, knowledge base.

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578 UTMGO: A Tool for Searching a Group of Semantically Related Gene Ontology Terms and Application to Annotation of Anonymous Protein Sequence

Authors: Razib M. Othman, Safaai Deris, Rosli M. Illias

Abstract:

Gene Ontology terms have been actively used to annotate various protein sets. SWISS-PROT, TrEMBL, and InterPro are protein databases that are annotated according to the Gene Ontology terms. However, direct implementation of the Gene Ontology terms for annotation of anonymous protein sequences is not easy, especially for species not commonly represented in biological databases. UTMGO is developed as a tool that allows the user to quickly and easily search for a group of semantically related Gene Ontology terms. The applicability of the UTMGO is demonstrated by applying it to annotation of anonymous protein sequence. The extended UTMGO uses the Gene Ontology terms together with protein sequences associated with the terms to perform the annotation task. GOPET, GOtcha, GoFigure, and JAFA are used to compare the performance of the extended UTMGO.

Keywords: Anonymous protein sequence, Gene Ontology, Protein sequence annotation, Protein sequence alignment

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577 Continuous Text Translation Using Text Modeling in the Thetos System

Authors: Nina Suszczanska, Przemyslaw Szmal, Slawomir Kulikow

Abstract:

In the paper a method of modeling text for Polish is discussed. The method is aimed at transforming continuous input text into a text consisting of sentences in so called canonical form, whose characteristic is, among others, a complete structure as well as no anaphora or ellipses. The transformation is lossless as to the content of text being transformed. The modeling method has been worked out for the needs of the Thetos system, which translates Polish written texts into the Polish sign language. We believe that the method can be also used in various applications that deal with the natural language, e.g. in a text summary generator for Polish.

Keywords: anaphora, machine translation, NLP, sign language, text syntax.

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576 Soccer Video Edition Using a Multimodal Annotation

Authors: Fendri Emna, Ben-Abdallah HanĂȘne, Ben-Hamadou Abdelmajid

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an approach for soccer video edition using a multimodal annotation. We propose to associate with each video sequence of a soccer match a textual document to be used for further exploitation like search, browsing and abstract edition. The textual document contains video meta data, match meta data, and match data. This document, generated automatically while the video is analyzed, segmented and classified, can be enriched semi automatically according to the user type and/or a specialized recommendation system.

Keywords: XML, Multimodal Annotation, recommendation system.

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575 OCR/ICR Text Recognition Using ABBYY FineReader as an Example Text

Authors: A. R. Bagirzade, A. Sh. Najafova, S. M. Yessirkepova, E. S. Albert

Abstract:

This article describes a text recognition method based on Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The features of the OCR method were examined using the ABBYY FineReader program. It describes automatic text recognition in images. OCR is necessary because optical input devices can only transmit raster graphics as a result. Text recognition describes the task of recognizing letters shown as such, to identify and assign them an assigned numerical value in accordance with the usual text encoding (ASCII, Unicode). The peculiarity of this study conducted by the authors using the example of the ABBYY FineReader, was confirmed and shown in practice, the improvement of digital text recognition platforms developed by Electronic Publication.

Keywords: ABBYY FineReader system, algorithm symbol recognition, OCR/ICR techniques, recognition technologies.

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574 Computational Method for Annotation of Protein Sequence According to Gene Ontology Terms

Authors: Razib M. Othman, Safaai Deris, Rosli M. Illias

Abstract:

Annotation of a protein sequence is pivotal for the understanding of its function. Accuracy of manual annotation provided by curators is still questionable by having lesser evidence strength and yet a hard task and time consuming. A number of computational methods including tools have been developed to tackle this challenging task. However, they require high-cost hardware, are difficult to be setup by the bioscientists, or depend on time intensive and blind sequence similarity search like Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. This paper introduces a new method of assigning highly correlated Gene Ontology terms of annotated protein sequences to partially annotated or newly discovered protein sequences. This method is fully based on Gene Ontology data and annotations. Two problems had been identified to achieve this method. The first problem relates to splitting the single monolithic Gene Ontology RDF/XML file into a set of smaller files that can be easy to assess and process. Thus, these files can be enriched with protein sequences and Inferred from Electronic Annotation evidence associations. The second problem involves searching for a set of semantically similar Gene Ontology terms to a given query. The details of macro and micro problems involved and their solutions including objective of this study are described. This paper also describes the protein sequence annotation and the Gene Ontology. The methodology of this study and Gene Ontology based protein sequence annotation tool namely extended UTMGO is presented. Furthermore, its basic version which is a Gene Ontology browser that is based on semantic similarity search is also introduced.

Keywords: automatic clustering, bioinformatics tool, gene ontology, protein sequence annotation, semantic similarity search

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573 A New Version of Annotation Method with a XML-based Knowledge Base

Authors: Mohammad Yasrebi, Somayeh Khosravi

Abstract:

Machine-understandable data when strongly interlinked constitutes the basis for the SemanticWeb. Annotating web documents is one of the major techniques for creating metadata on the Web. Annotating websitexs defines the containing data in a form which is suitable for interpretation by machines. In this paper, we present a better and improved approach than previous [1] to annotate the texts of the websites depends on the knowledge base.

Keywords: Knowledge base, ontology, semantic annotation, XML.

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572 Powerful Tool to Expand Business Intelligence: Text Mining

Authors: Li Gao, Elizabeth Chang, Song Han

Abstract:

With the extensive inclusion of document, especially text, in the business systems, data mining does not cover the full scope of Business Intelligence. Data mining cannot deliver its impact on extracting useful details from the large collection of unstructured and semi-structured written materials based on natural languages. The most pressing issue is to draw the potential business intelligence from text. In order to gain competitive advantages for the business, it is necessary to develop the new powerful tool, text mining, to expand the scope of business intelligence. In this paper, we will work out the strong points of text mining in extracting business intelligence from huge amount of textual information sources within business systems. We will apply text mining to each stage of Business Intelligence systems to prove that text mining is the powerful tool to expand the scope of BI. After reviewing basic definitions and some related technologies, we will discuss the relationship and the benefits of these to text mining. Some examples and applications of text mining will also be given. The motivation behind is to develop new approach to effective and efficient textual information analysis. Thus we can expand the scope of Business Intelligence using the powerful tool, text mining.

Keywords: Business intelligence, document warehouse, text mining.

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571 Optimal Classifying and Extracting Fuzzy Relationship from Query Using Text Mining Techniques

Authors: Faisal Alshuwaier, Ali Areshey

Abstract:

Text mining techniques are generally applied for classifying the text, finding fuzzy relations and structures in data sets. This research provides plenty text mining capabilities. One common application is text classification and event extraction, which encompass deducing specific knowledge concerning incidents referred to in texts. The main contribution of this paper is the clarification of a concept graph generation mechanism, which is based on a text classification and optimal fuzzy relationship extraction. Furthermore, the work presented in this paper explains the application of fuzzy relationship extraction and branch and bound (BB) method to simplify the texts.

Keywords: Extraction, Max-Prod, Fuzzy Relations, Text Mining, Memberships, Classification.

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570 A Web Text Mining Flexible Architecture

Authors: M. Castellano, G. Mastronardi, A. Aprile, G. Tarricone

Abstract:

Text Mining is an important step of Knowledge Discovery process. It is used to extract hidden information from notstructured o semi-structured data. This aspect is fundamental because much of the Web information is semi-structured due to the nested structure of HTML code, much of the Web information is linked, much of the Web information is redundant. Web Text Mining helps whole knowledge mining process to mining, extraction and integration of useful data, information and knowledge from Web page contents. In this paper, we present a Web Text Mining process able to discover knowledge in a distributed and heterogeneous multiorganization environment. The Web Text Mining process is based on flexible architecture and is implemented by four steps able to examine web content and to extract useful hidden information through mining techniques. Our Web Text Mining prototype starts from the recovery of Web job offers in which, through a Text Mining process, useful information for fast classification of the same are drawn out, these information are, essentially, job offer place and skills.

Keywords: Web text mining, flexible architecture, knowledgediscovery.

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569 Key Based Text Watermarking of E-Text Documents in an Object Based Environment Using Z-Axis for Watermark Embedding

Authors: Mussarat Abdullah, Fazal Wahab

Abstract:

Data hiding into text documents itself involves pretty complexities due to the nature of text documents. A robust text watermarking scheme targeting an object based environment is presented in this research. The heart of the proposed solution describes the concept of watermarking an object based text document where each and every text string is entertained as a separate object having its own set of properties. Taking advantage of the z-ordering of objects watermark is applied with the z-axis letting zero fidelity disturbances to the text. Watermark sequence of bits generated against user key is hashed with selected properties of given document, to determine the bit sequence to embed. Bits are embedded along z-axis and the document has no fidelity issues when printed, scanned or photocopied.

Keywords: Digital Watermarking, Object Based Environment, Watermark, z-ordering.

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568 Application of Smooth Ergodic Hidden Markov Model in Text to Speech Systems

Authors: Armin Ghayoori, Faramarz Hendessi, Asrar Sheikh

Abstract:

In developing a text-to-speech system, it is well known that the accuracy of information extracted from a text is crucial to produce high quality synthesized speech. In this paper, a new scheme for converting text into its equivalent phonetic spelling is introduced and developed. This method is applicable to many applications in text to speech converting systems and has many advantages over other methods. The proposed method can also complement the other methods with a purpose of improving their performance. The proposed method is a probabilistic model and is based on Smooth Ergodic Hidden Markov Model. This model can be considered as an extension to HMM. The proposed method is applied to Persian language and its accuracy in converting text to speech phonetics is evaluated using simulations.

Keywords: Hidden Markov Models, text, synthesis.

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567 Fuzzy C-Means Clustering for Biomedical Documents Using Ontology Based Indexing and Semantic Annotation

Authors: S. Logeswari, K. Premalatha

Abstract:

Search is the most obvious application of information retrieval. The variety of widely obtainable biomedical data is enormous and is expanding fast. This expansion makes the existing techniques are not enough to extract the most interesting patterns from the collection as per the user requirement. Recent researches are concentrating more on semantic based searching than the traditional term based searches. Algorithms for semantic searches are implemented based on the relations exist between the words of the documents. Ontologies are used as domain knowledge for identifying the semantic relations as well as to structure the data for effective information retrieval. Annotation of data with concepts of ontology is one of the wide-ranging practices for clustering the documents. In this paper, indexing based on concept and annotation are proposed for clustering the biomedical documents. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm is used to cluster the documents. The performances of the proposed methods are analyzed with traditional term based clustering for PubMed articles in five different diseases communities. The experimental results show that the proposed methods outperform the term based fuzzy clustering.

Keywords: MeSH Ontology, Concept Indexing, Annotation, semantic relations, Fuzzy c-means.

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566 RB-Matcher: String Matching Technique

Authors: Rajender Singh Chillar, Barjesh Kochar

Abstract:

All Text processing systems allow their users to search a pattern of string from a given text. String matching is fundamental to database and text processing applications. Every text editor must contain a mechanism to search the current document for arbitrary strings. Spelling checkers scan an input text for words in the dictionary and reject any strings that do not match. We store our information in data bases so that later on we can retrieve the same and this retrieval can be done by using various string matching algorithms. This paper is describing a new string matching algorithm for various applications. A new algorithm has been designed with the help of Rabin Karp Matcher, to improve string matching process.

Keywords: Algorithm, Complexity, Matching-patterns, Pattern, Rabin-Karp, String, text-processing.

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565 An Semantic Algorithm for Text Categoritation

Authors: Xu Zhao

Abstract:

Text categorization techniques are widely used to many Information Retrieval (IR) applications. In this paper, we proposed a simple but efficient method that can automatically find the relationship between any pair of terms and documents, also an indexing matrix is established for text categorization. We call this method Indexing Matrix Categorization Machine (IMCM). Several experiments are conducted to show the efficiency and robust of our algorithm.

Keywords: Text categorization, Sub-space learning, Latent Semantic Space

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564 Information Extraction from Unstructured and Ungrammatical Data Sources for Semantic Annotation

Authors: Quratulain N. Rajput, Sajjad Haider, Nasir Touheed

Abstract:

The internet has become an attractive avenue for global e-business, e-learning, knowledge sharing, etc. Due to continuous increase in the volume of web content, it is not practically possible for a user to extract information by browsing and integrating data from a huge amount of web sources retrieved by the existing search engines. The semantic web technology enables advancement in information extraction by providing a suite of tools to integrate data from different sources. To take full advantage of semantic web, it is necessary to annotate existing web pages into semantic web pages. This research develops a tool, named OWIE (Ontology-based Web Information Extraction), for semantic web annotation using domain specific ontologies. The tool automatically extracts information from html pages with the help of pre-defined ontologies and gives them semantic representation. Two case studies have been conducted to analyze the accuracy of OWIE.

Keywords: Ontology, Semantic Annotation, Wrapper, Information Extraction.

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563 A Method to Annotate Programs with High-Level Knowledge of Computation

Authors: Nobuhiko Hishinuma, Jun Igari, Rentaro Yoshioka

Abstract:

When programming in languages such as C, Java, etc., it is difficult to reconstruct the programmer's ideas only from the program code. This occurs mainly because, much of the programmer's ideas behind the implementation are not recorded in the code during implementation. For example, physical aspects of computation such as spatial structures, activities, and meaning of variables are not required as instructions to the computer and are often excluded. This makes the future reconstruction of the original ideas difficult. AIDA, which is a multimedia programming language based on the cyberFilm model, can solve these problems allowing to describe ideas behind programs using advanced annotation methods as a natural extension to programming. In this paper, a development environment that implements the AIDA language is presented with a focus on the annotation methods. In particular, an actual scientific numerical computation code is created and the effects of the annotation methods are analyzed.

Keywords: cyberFilm, development environment, knowledge engineering, multimedia programming language

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562 Binarization of Text Region based on Fuzzy Clustering and Histogram Distribution in Signboards

Authors: Jonghyun Park, Toan Nguyen Dinh, Gueesang Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel approach to accurately detect text regions including shop name in signboard images with complex background for mobile system applications. The proposed method is based on the combination of text detection using edge profile and region segmentation using fuzzy c-means method. In the first step, we perform an elaborate canny edge operator to extract all possible object edges. Then, edge profile analysis with vertical and horizontal direction is performed on these edge pixels to detect potential text region existing shop name in a signboard. The edge profile and geometrical characteristics of each object contour are carefully examined to construct candidate text regions and classify the main text region from background. Finally, the fuzzy c-means algorithm is performed to segment and detected binarize text region. Experimental results show that our proposed method is robust in text detection with respect to different character size and color and can provide reliable text binarization result.

Keywords: Text detection, edge profile, signboard image, fuzzy clustering.

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561 An Edge-based Text Region Extraction Algorithm for Indoor Mobile Robot Navigation

Authors: Jagath Samarabandu, Xiaoqing Liu

Abstract:

Using bottom-up image processing algorithms to predict human eye fixations and extract the relevant embedded information in images has been widely applied in the design of active machine vision systems. Scene text is an important feature to be extracted, especially in vision-based mobile robot navigation as many potential landmarks such as nameplates and information signs contain text. This paper proposes an edge-based text region extraction algorithm, which is robust with respect to font sizes, styles, color/intensity, orientations, and effects of illumination, reflections, shadows, perspective distortion, and the complexity of image backgrounds. Performance of the proposed algorithm is compared against a number of widely used text localization algorithms and the results show that this method can quickly and effectively localize and extract text regions from real scenes and can be used in mobile robot navigation under an indoor environment to detect text based landmarks.

Keywords: Landmarks, mobile robot navigation, scene text, text localization and extraction.

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560 Text Retrieval Relevance Feedback Techniques for Bag of Words Model in CBIR

Authors: Nhu Van NGUYEN, Jean-Marc OGIER, Salvatore TABBONE, Alain BOUCHER

Abstract:

The state-of-the-art Bag of Words model in Content- Based Image Retrieval has been used for years but the relevance feedback strategies for this model are not fully investigated. Inspired from text retrieval, the Bag of Words model has the ability to use the wealth of knowledge and practices available in text retrieval. We study and experiment the relevance feedback model in text retrieval for adapting it to image retrieval. The experiments show that the techniques from text retrieval give good results for image retrieval and that further improvements is possible.

Keywords: Relevance feedback, bag of words model, probabilistic model, vector space model, image retrieval

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559 A System to Adapt Techniques of Text Summarizing to Polish

Authors: Marcin Ciura, Damian Grund, S

Abstract:

This paper describes a system, in which various methods of text summarizing can be adapted to Polish. A structure of the system is presented. A modular construction of the system and access to the system via the Internet are signaled.

Keywords: Automatic summary generation, linguistic analysis, text generation.

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558 A Proposed Hybrid Approach for Feature Selection in Text Document Categorization

Authors: M. F. Zaiyadi, B. Baharudin

Abstract:

Text document categorization involves large amount of data or features. The high dimensionality of features is a troublesome and can affect the performance of the classification. Therefore, feature selection is strongly considered as one of the crucial part in text document categorization. Selecting the best features to represent documents can reduce the dimensionality of feature space hence increase the performance. There were many approaches has been implemented by various researchers to overcome this problem. This paper proposed a novel hybrid approach for feature selection in text document categorization based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Information Gain (IG). We also presented state-of-the-art algorithms by several other researchers.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, feature selection, information gain, text categorization, text representation.

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557 Graph-Based Text Similarity Measurement by Exploiting Wikipedia as Background Knowledge

Authors: Lu Zhang, Chunping Li, Jun Liu, Hui Wang

Abstract:

Text similarity measurement is a fundamental issue in many textual applications such as document clustering, classification, summarization and question answering. However, prevailing approaches based on Vector Space Model (VSM) more or less suffer from the limitation of Bag of Words (BOW), which ignores the semantic relationship among words. Enriching document representation with background knowledge from Wikipedia is proven to be an effective way to solve this problem, but most existing methods still cannot avoid similar flaws of BOW in a new vector space. In this paper, we propose a novel text similarity measurement which goes beyond VSM and can find semantic affinity between documents. Specifically, it is a unified graph model that exploits Wikipedia as background knowledge and synthesizes both document representation and similarity computation. The experimental results on two different datasets show that our approach significantly improves VSM-based methods in both text clustering and classification.

Keywords: Text classification, Text clustering, Text similarity, Wikipedia

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556 Dynamic Decompression for Text Files

Authors: Ananth Kamath, Ankit Kant, Aravind Srivatsa, Harisha J.A

Abstract:

Compression algorithms reduce the redundancy in data representation to decrease the storage required for that data. Lossless compression researchers have developed highly sophisticated approaches, such as Huffman encoding, arithmetic encoding, the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) family, Dynamic Markov Compression (DMC), Prediction by Partial Matching (PPM), and Burrows-Wheeler Transform (BWT) based algorithms. Decompression is also required to retrieve the original data by lossless means. A compression scheme for text files coupled with the principle of dynamic decompression, which decompresses only the section of the compressed text file required by the user instead of decompressing the entire text file. Dynamic decompressed files offer better disk space utilization due to higher compression ratios compared to most of the currently available text file formats.

Keywords: Compression, Dynamic Decompression, Text file format, Portable Document Format, Compression Ratio.

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555 Categorizing Search Result Records Using Word Sense Disambiguation

Authors: R. Babisaraswathi, N. Shanthi, S. S. Kiruthika

Abstract:

Web search engines are designed to retrieve and extract the information in the web databases and to return dynamic web pages. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which it includes semantic content in web pages. The main goal of semantic web is to promote the quality of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, the milestone of semantic web is to have semantic level information in the web. Nowadays, people use different keyword- based search engines to find the relevant information they need from the web. But many of the words are polysemous. When these words are used to query a search engine, it displays the Search Result Records (SRRs) with different meanings. The SRRs with similar meanings are grouped together based on Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). In addition to that semantic annotation is also performed to improve the efficiency of search result records. Semantic Annotation is the process of adding the semantic metadata to web resources. Thus the grouped SRRs are annotated and generate a summary which describes the information in SRRs. But the automatic semantic annotation is a significant challenge in the semantic web. Here ontology and knowledge based representation are used to annotate the web pages.

Keywords: Ontology, Semantic Web, WordNet, Word Sense Disambiguation.

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554 Journals Subheadlines Text Extraction Using Wavelet Thresholding and New Projection Profile

Authors: Davod Zaravi, Habib Rostami, Alireza Malahzaheh, S. S. Mortazavi

Abstract:

In this paper a new robust and efficient algorithm to automatic text extraction from colored book and journal cover sheets is proposed. First, we perform wavelet transform. Next for edge detecting from detail wavelet coefficient, we use dynamic threshold. By blurring approximate coefficients with alternative heuristic thresholding, achieve effective edge,. Afterward, with ROI technique get binary image. Finally text boxes would be extracted with new projection profile.

Keywords: Text extraction, colored cover sheet, wavelet threshold, region of interest.

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553 Text-Mining Approach for Evaluation of Affective Management Practices

Authors: Masaaki Saito, Qin Tang, Hiroyuki Umemuro

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to propose a text mining approach to evaluate companies- practices on affective management. Affective management argues that it is critical to take stakeholders- affects into consideration during decision-making process, along with the traditional numerical and rational indices. CSR reports published by companies were collected as source information. Indices were proposed based on the frequency and collocation of words relevant to affective management concept using text mining approach to analyze the text information of CSR reports. In addition, the relationships between the results obtained using proposed indices and traditional indicators of business performance were investigated using correlation analysis. Those correlations were also compared between manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies. The results of this study revealed the possibility to evaluate affective management practices of companies based on publicly available text documents.

Keywords: Affective management, Affect, Stakeholder, Text mining.

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