Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 573

Search results for: temperature variation

573 Creeping Control Strategy for Direct Shift Gearbox Based on the Investigation of Temperature Variation of the Wet Clutch

Authors: Biao Ma, Jikai Liu, Man Chen, Jianpeng Wu, Liyong Wang, Changsong Zheng

Abstract:

Proposing an appropriate control strategy is an effective and practical way to address the overheat problems of the wet multi-plate clutch in Direct Shift Gearbox under the long-time creeping condition. To do so, the temperature variation of the wet multi-plate clutch is investigated firstly by establishing a thermal resistance model for the gearbox cooling system. To calculate the generated heat flux and predict the clutch temperature precisely, the friction torque model is optimized by introducing an improved friction coefficient, which is related to the pressure, the relative speed and the temperature. After that, the heat transfer model and the reasonable friction torque model are employed by the vehicle powertrain model to construct a comprehensive co-simulation model for the Direct Shift Gearbox (DSG) vehicle. A creeping control strategy is then proposed and, to evaluate the vehicle performance, the safety temperature (250 ℃) is particularly adopted as an important metric. During the creeping process, the temperature of two clutches is always under the safety value (250 ℃), which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in avoiding the thermal failures of clutches.

Keywords: Creeping control strategy, direct shift gearbox, temperature variation, wet clutch.

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572 Influence of Temperature Variations on Calibrated Cameras

Authors: Peter Podbreznik, Božidar Potocnik

Abstract:

The camera parameters are changed due to temperature variations, which directly influence calibrated cameras accuracy. Robustness of calibration methods were measured and their accuracy was tested. An error ratio due to camera parameters change with respect to total error originated during calibration process was determined. It pointed out that influence of temperature variations decrease by increasing distance of observed objects from cameras.

Keywords: camera calibration, perspective projection matrix, epipolar geometry, temperature variation.

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571 Temperature Variation Effects on I-V Characteristics of Cu-Phthalocyanine based OFET

Authors: Q. Zafar, R. Akram, Kh.S. Karimov, T.A. Khan, M. Farooq, M.M. Tahir

Abstract:

In this study we present the effect of elevated temperatures from 300K to 400K on the electrical properties of copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) based organic field effect transistors (OFET). Thin films of organic semiconductor CuPc (40nm) and semitransparent Al (20nm) were deposited in sequence, by vacuum evaporation on a glass substrate with previously deposited Ag source and drain electrodes with a gap of 40 μm. Under resistive mode of operation, where gate was suspended it was observed that drain current of this organic field effect transistor (OFET) show an increase with temperature. While in grounded gate condition metal (aluminum) – semiconductor (Copper Phthalocyanine) Schottky junction dominated the output characteristics and device showed switching effect from low to high conduction states like Zener diode at higher bias voltages. This threshold voltage for switching effect has been found to be inversely proportional to temperature and shows an abrupt decrease after knee temperature of 360K. Change in dynamic resistance (Rd = dV/dI) with respect to temperature was observed to be -1%/K.

Keywords: Copper Phthalocyanine, Metal-Semiconductor Schottky Junction, Organic Field Effect Transistor, Switching effect, Temperature Sensor

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570 Temperature Susceptibility of Multigrade Bitumen Asphalt and an Approach to Account for Temperature Variation through Deep Pavements

Authors: Brody R. Clark, Chaminda Gallage, John Yeaman

Abstract:

Multigrade bitumen asphalt is a quality asphalt product that is not utilised in many places globally. Multigrade bitumen is believed to be less sensitive to temperature, which gives it an advantage over conventional binders. Previous testing has shown that asphalt temperature changes greatly with depth, but currently the industry standard is to nominate a single temperature for design. For detailed design of asphalt roads, perhaps asphalt layers should be divided into nominal layer depths and different modulus and fatigue equations/values should be used to reflect the temperatures of each respective layer. A collaboration of previous laboratory testing conducted on multigrade bitumen asphalt beams under a range of temperatures and loading conditions was analysed. The samples tested included 0% or 15% recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) to determine what impact the recycled material has on the fatigue life and stiffness of the pavement. This paper investigated the temperature susceptibility of multigrade bitumen asphalt pavements compared to conventional binders by combining previous testing that included conducting a sweep of fatigue tests, developing complex modulus master curves for each mix and a study on how pavement temperature changes through pavement depth. This investigation found that the final design of the pavement is greatly affected by the nominated pavement temperature and respective material properties. This paper has outlined a potential revision to the current design approach for asphalt pavements and proposes that further investigation is needed into pavement temperature and its incorporation into design.

Keywords: Asphalt, complex modulus, fatigue life, flexural stiffness, four-point bending, master curves, multigrade bitumen, thermal gradient.

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569 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity and Strain Variation Using Bragg Sensor

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzeddine

Abstract:

Measurement and monitoring of temperature, humidity and strain variation are very requested in great fields and areas such as structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Currently, the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS) is very recommended in SHM systems due to the specifications of these sensors. In this paper, we present the theory of Bragg sensor, therefore we try to measure the efficient variation of strain, temperature and humidity (SV, ST, SH) using Bragg sensor. Thus, we can deduce the fundamental relation between these parameters and the wavelength of Bragg sensor.

Keywords: Optical fiber, strain, temperature, humidity, measurement, Bragg sensor, SHM.

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568 Study of Temperature Changes in Fars Province

Authors: A. Gandomkar, R. Dehghani

Abstract:

Climate change is a phenomenon has been based on the available evidence from a very long time ago and now its existence is very probable. The speed and nature of climate parameters changes at the middle of twentieth century has been different and its quickness more than the before and its trend changed to some extent comparing to the past. Climate change issue now regarded as not only one of the most common scientific topic but also a social political one, is not a new issue. Climate change is a complicated atmospheric oceanic phenomenon on a global scale and long-term. Precipitation pattern change, fast decrease of snowcovered resources and its rapid melting, increased evaporation, the occurrence of destroying floods, water shortage crisis, severe reduction at the rate of harvesting agricultural products and, so on are all the significant of climate change. To cope with this phenomenon, its consequences and events in which public instruction is the most important but it may be climate that no significant cant and effective action has been done so far. The present article is included a part of one surrey about climate change in Fars. The study area having annually mean temperature 14 and precipitation 320 mm .23 stations inside the basin with a common 37 year statistical period have been applied to the meteorology data (1974-2010). Man-kendal and change factor methods are two statistical methods, applying them, the trend of changes and the annual mean average temperature and the annual minimum mean temperature were studied by using them. Based on time series for each parameter, the annual mean average temperature and the mean of annual maximum temperature have a rising trend so that this trend is clearer to the mean of annual maximum temperature.

Keywords: Climate change, Coefficient Variation, Fars province, Man-Kendal method.

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567 Anisotropic Total Fractional Order Variation Model in Seismic Data Denoising

Authors: Jianwei Ma, Diriba Gemechu

Abstract:

In seismic data processing, attenuation of random noise is the basic step to improve quality of data for further application of seismic data in exploration and development in different gas and oil industries. The signal-to-noise ratio of the data also highly determines quality of seismic data. This factor affects the reliability as well as the accuracy of seismic signal during interpretation for different purposes in different companies. To use seismic data for further application and interpretation, we need to improve the signal-to-noise ration while attenuating random noise effectively. To improve the signal-to-noise ration and attenuating seismic random noise by preserving important features and information about seismic signals, we introduce the concept of anisotropic total fractional order denoising algorithm. The anisotropic total fractional order variation model defined in fractional order bounded variation is proposed as a regularization in seismic denoising. The split Bregman algorithm is employed to solve the minimization problem of the anisotropic total fractional order variation model and the corresponding denoising algorithm for the proposed method is derived. We test the effectiveness of theproposed method for synthetic and real seismic data sets and the denoised result is compared with F-X deconvolution and non-local means denoising algorithm.

Keywords: Anisotropic total fractional order variation, fractional order bounded variation, seismic random noise attenuation, Split Bregman Algorithm.

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566 Performance Variation of the TEES According to the Changes in Cold-Side Storage Temperature

Authors: Young-Jin Baik, Minsung Kim, Junhyun Cho, Ho-Sang Ra, Young-Soo Lee, Ki-Chang Chang

Abstract:

Surplus electricity can be converted into potential energy via pumped hydroelectric storage for future usage. Similarly, thermo-electric energy storage (TEES) uses heat pumps equipped with thermal storage to convert electrical energy into thermal energy; the stored energy is then converted back into electrical energy when necessary using a heat engine. The greatest advantage of this method is that, unlike pumped hydroelectric storage and compressed air energy storage, TEES is not restricted by geographical constraints. In this study, performance variation of the TEES according to the changes in cold-side storage temperature was investigated by simulation method.

Keywords: Energy Storage System, Heat Pump.

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565 Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Suparat Niwitpong

Abstract:

In this paper we proposed two new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. This situation occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments where the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. We propose two new confidence intervals for this problem based on the recent work of Searls [5] and the new method proposed in this paper for the first time. We derive analytic expressions for the coverage probability and the expected length of each confidence interval. Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their expected lengths.

Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation.

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564 An Improved Total Variation Regularization Method for Denoising Magnetocardiography

Authors: Yanping Liao, Congcong He, Ruigang Zhao

Abstract:

The application of magnetocardiography signals to detect cardiac electrical function is a new technology developed in recent years. The magnetocardiography signal is detected with Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID) and has considerable advantages over electrocardiography (ECG). It is difficult to extract Magnetocardiography (MCG) signal which is buried in the noise, which is a critical issue to be resolved in cardiac monitoring system and MCG applications. In order to remove the severe background noise, the Total Variation (TV) regularization method is proposed to denoise MCG signal. The approach transforms the denoising problem into a minimization optimization problem and the Majorization-minimization algorithm is applied to iteratively solve the minimization problem. However, traditional TV regularization method tends to cause step effect and lacks constraint adaptability. In this paper, an improved TV regularization method for denoising MCG signal is proposed to improve the denoising precision. The improvement of this method is mainly divided into three parts. First, high-order TV is applied to reduce the step effect, and the corresponding second derivative matrix is used to substitute the first order. Then, the positions of the non-zero elements in the second order derivative matrix are determined based on the peak positions that are detected by the detection window. Finally, adaptive constraint parameters are defined to eliminate noises and preserve signal peak characteristics. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this algorithm can effectively improve the output signal-to-noise ratio and has superior performance.

Keywords: Constraint parameters, derivative matrix, magnetocardiography, regular term, total variation.

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563 Transformer Top-Oil Temperature Modeling and Simulation

Authors: T. C. B. N. Assunção, J. L. Silvino, P. Resende

Abstract:

The winding hot-spot temperature is one of the most critical parameters that affect the useful life of the power transformers. The winding hot-spot temperature can be calculated as function of the top-oil temperature that can estimated by using the ambient temperature and transformer loading measured data. This paper proposes the estimation of the top-oil temperature by using a method based on Least Squares Support Vector Machines approach. The estimated top-oil temperature is compared with measured data of a power transformer in operation. The results are also compared with methods based on the IEEE Standard C57.91-1995/2000 and Artificial Neural Networks. It is shown that the Least Squares Support Vector Machines approach presents better performance than the methods based in the IEEE Standard C57.91-1995/2000 and artificial neural networks.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Hot-spot Temperature, Least Squares Support Vector, Top-oil Temperature.

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562 Screening Wheat Parents of Mapping Population for Heat and Drought Tolerance, Detection of Wheat Genetic Variation

Authors: H.R. Balouchi

Abstract:

To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress. Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b (0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to 36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were studied under heat and water stress.

Keywords: Abiotic stress, genetic variation, fluorescence, wheat genotypes.

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561 Screening Wheat Parents of Mapping Population for Heat and Drought Tolerance, Detection of Wheat Genetic Variation

Authors: H.R. Balouchi

Abstract:

To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress. Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b (0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to 36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were studied under heat and water stress.

Keywords: Abiotic stress, Genetic variation, Fluorescence, Wheat genotypes.

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560 Dynamic Variation in Nano-Scale CMOS SRAM Cells Due to LF/RTS Noise and Threshold Voltage

Authors: M. Fadlallah, G. Ghibaudo, C. G. Theodorou

Abstract:

The dynamic variation in memory devices such as the Static Random Access Memory can give errors in read or write operations. In this paper, the effect of low-frequency and random telegraph noise on the dynamic variation of one SRAM cell is detailed. The effect on circuit noise, speed, and length of time of processing is examined, using the Supply Read Retention Voltage and the Read Static Noise Margin. New test run methods are also developed. The obtained results simulation shows the importance of noise caused by dynamic variation, and the impact of Random Telegraph noise on SRAM variability is examined by evaluating the statistical distributions of Random Telegraph noise amplitude in the pull-up, pull-down. The threshold voltage mismatch between neighboring cell transistors due to intrinsic fluctuations typically contributes to larger reductions in static noise margin. Also the contribution of each of the SRAM transistor to total dynamic variation has been identified.

Keywords: Low-frequency noise, Random Telegraph Noise, Dynamic Variation, SRRV.

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559 An Examination and Validation of the Theoretical Resistivity-Temperature Relationship for Conductors

Authors: Fred Lacy

Abstract:

Electrical resistivity is a fundamental parameter of metals or electrical conductors. Since resistivity is a function of temperature, in order to completely understand the behavior of metals, a temperature dependent theoretical model is needed. A model based on physics principles has recently been developed to obtain an equation that relates electrical resistivity to temperature. This equation is dependent upon a parameter associated with the electron travel time before being scattered, and a parameter that relates the energy of the atoms and their separation distance. Analysis of the energy parameter reveals that the equation is optimized if the proportionality term in the equation is not constant but varies over the temperature range. Additional analysis reveals that the theoretical equation can be used to determine the mean free path of conduction electrons, the number of defects in the atomic lattice, and the ‘equivalent’ charge associated with the metallic bonding of the atoms. All of this analysis provides validation for the theoretical model and provides insight into the behavior of metals where performance is affected by temperatures (e.g., integrated circuits and temperature sensors).

Keywords: Callendar–van Dusen, conductivity, mean free path, resistance temperature detector, temperature sensor.

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558 Confidence Intervals for the Coefficients of Variation with Bounded Parameters

Authors: Jeerapa Sappakitkamjorn, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

In many practical applications in various areas, such as engineering, science and social science, it is known that there exist bounds on the values of unknown parameters. For example, values of some measurements for controlling machines in an industrial process, weight or height of subjects, blood pressures of patients and retirement ages of public servants. When interval estimation is considered in a situation where the parameter to be estimated is bounded, it has been argued that the classical Neyman procedure for setting confidence intervals is unsatisfactory. This is due to the fact that the information regarding the restriction is simply ignored. It is, therefore, of significant interest to construct confidence intervals for the parameters that include the additional information on parameter values being bounded to enhance the accuracy of the interval estimation. Therefore in this paper, we propose a new confidence interval for the coefficient of variance where the population mean and standard deviation are bounded. The proposed interval is evaluated in terms of coverage probability and expected length via Monte Carlo simulation.  

Keywords: Bounded parameters, coefficient of variation, confidence interval, Monte Carlo simulation.

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557 On Simple Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

In this paper we proposed the new confidence interval for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. In practice, this situation occurs normally in environment and agriculture sciences where we know the standard deviation is proportional to the mean. As a result, the coefficient of variation of is known. We propose the new confidence interval based on the recent work of Khan [3] and this new confidence interval will compare with our previous work, see, e.g. Niwitpong [5]. We derive analytic expressions for the coverage probability and the expected length of each confidence interval. A numerical method will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their expected lengths.

Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation.

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556 Study of Temperature Difference and Current Distribution in Parallel-Connected Cells at Low Temperature

Authors: Sara Kamalisiahroudi, Jun Huang, Zhe Li, Jianbo Zhang

Abstract:

Two types of commercial cylindrical lithium ion batteries (Panasonic 3.4 Ah NCR-18650B and Samsung 2.9 Ah INR-18650), were investigated experimentally. The capacities of these samples were individually measured using constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV) method at different ambient temperatures (-10°C, 0°C, 25°C). Their internal resistance was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and pulse discharge methods. The cells with different configurations of parallel connection NCR-NCR, INR-INR and NCR-INR were charged/discharged at the aforementioned ambient temperatures. The results showed that the difference of internal resistance between cells much more evident at low temperatures. Furthermore, the parallel connection of NCR-NCR exhibits the most uniform temperature distribution in cells at -10°C, this feature is quite favorable for the safety of the battery pack.

Keywords: Batteries in parallel connection, internal resistance, low temperature, temperature difference, current distribution.

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555 Cubic Splines and Fourier Series Approach to Study Temperature Variation in Dermal Layers of Elliptical Shaped Human Limbs

Authors: Mamta Agrawal, Neeru Adlakha, K.R. Pardasani

Abstract:

An attempt has been made to develop a seminumerical model to study temperature variations in dermal layers of human limbs. The model has been developed for two dimensional steady state case. The human limb has been assumed to have elliptical cross section. The dermal region has been divided into three natural layers namely epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues. The model incorporates the effect of important physiological parameters like blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation, and thermal conductivity of the tissues. The outer surface of the limb is exposed to the environment and it is assumed that heat loss takes place at the outer surface by conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation. The temperature of inner core of the limb also varies at the lower atmospheric temperature. Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on the physical conditions of the problem. Cubic splines approach has been employed along radial direction and Fourier series along angular direction to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been computed for different values of eccentricity resembling with the elliptic cross section of the human limbs. The numerical results have been used to obtain the temperature profile and to study the relationships among the various physiological parameters.

Keywords: Blood Mass Flow Rate, Metabolic Heat Generation, Fourier Series, Cubic splines and Thermal Conductivity.

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554 Effect of Thermal Radiation on Temperature Variation in 2-D Stagnation-Point flow

Authors: Vai Kuong Sin

Abstract:

Non-isothermal stagnation-point flow with consideration of thermal radiation is studied numerically. A set of partial differential equations that governing the fluid flow and energy is converted into a set of ordinary differential equations which is solved by Runge-Kutta method with shooting algorithm. Dimensionless wall temperature gradient and temperature boundary layer thickness for different combinaton of values of Prandtl number Pr and radiation parameter NR are presented graphically. Analyses of results show that the presence of thermal radiation in the stagnation-point flow is to increase the temperature boundary layer thickness and decrease the dimensionless wall temperature gradient.

Keywords: Stagnation-point flow, Similarity solution, Thermal radiation.

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553 Study on the Effect of Weight Percentage Variation and Size Variation of Magnesium Ferrosilicon Added, Gating System Design and Reaction Chamber Design on Inmold Process

Authors: A. Miss May Thu Zar Myint, B. Dr. Kay Thi Lwin

Abstract:

This research focuses on the effect of weight percentage variation and size variation of MgFeSi added, gating system design and reaction chamber design on inmold process. By using inmold process, well-known problem of fading is avoided because the liquid iron reacts with magnesium in the mold and not, as usual, in the ladle. During the pouring operation, liquid metal passes through the chamber containing the magnesium, where the reaction of the metal with magnesium proceeds in the absence of atmospheric oxygen [1].In this paper, the results of microstructural characteristic of ductile iron on this parameters are mentioned. The mechanisms of the inmold process are also described [2]. The data obtained from this research will assist in producing the vehicle parts and other machinery parts for different industrial zones and government industries and in transferring the technology to all industrial zones in Myanmar. Therefore, the inmold technology offers many advantages over traditional treatment methods both from a technical and environmental, as well as an economical point of view. The main objective of this research is to produce ductile iron castings in all industrial sectors in Myanmar more easily with lower costs. It will also assist the sharing of knowledge and experience related to the ductile iron production.

Keywords: ductile iron, inmold process, magnesiumtreatment, microstructural characteristics.

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552 Variation in the Traditional Knowledge of Curcuma longa L. in North-Eastern Algeria

Authors: A. Bouzabata, A. Boukhari

Abstract:

Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as turmeric, has a long history of traditional uses for culinary purposes as a spice and a food colorant. The present study aimed to document the ethnobotanical knowledge about Curcuma longa, and to assess the variation in the herbalists’ experience in Northeastern Algeria. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires and direct interviews with 30 herbalists. Ethnobotanical indices, including the fidelity level (FL%), the relative frequency citation (RFC), and use value (UV) were determined by quantitative methods. Diversity in the level of knowledge was analyzed using univariate, non-parametric, and multivariate statistical methods. Three main categories of uses were recorded for C. longa: for food, for medicine, and for cosmetic purposes. As a medicine, turmeric was used for the treatment of gastrointestinal, dermatological, and hepatic diseases. Medicinal and food uses were correlated with both forms of preparation (rhizome and powder). The age group did not influence the use. Multivariate analyses showed a significant variation in traditional knowledge, associated with the use value, origin, quality, and efficacy of the drug. The findings suggested that the geographical origin of C. longa affected the use in Algeria.

Keywords: Curcuma longa, curcuma indices, ethnobotanical knowledge, variation.

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551 Discovering Liouville-Type Problems for p-Energy Minimizing Maps in Closed Half-Ellipsoids by Calculus Variation Method

Authors: Lina Wu, Jia Liu, Ye Li

Abstract:

The goal of this project is to investigate constant properties (called the Liouville-type Problem) for a p-stable map as a local or global minimum of a p-energy functional where the domain is a Euclidean space and the target space is a closed half-ellipsoid. The First and Second Variation Formulas for a p-energy functional has been applied in the Calculus Variation Method as computation techniques. Stokes’ Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, Hardy-Sobolev type Inequalities, and the Bochner Formula as estimation techniques have been used to estimate the lower bound and the upper bound of the derived p-Harmonic Stability Inequality. One challenging point in this project is to construct a family of variation maps such that the images of variation maps must be guaranteed in a closed half-ellipsoid. The other challenging point is to find a contradiction between the lower bound and the upper bound in an analysis of p-Harmonic Stability Inequality when a p-energy minimizing map is not constant. Therefore, the possibility of a non-constant p-energy minimizing map has been ruled out and the constant property for a p-energy minimizing map has been obtained. Our research finding is to explore the constant property for a p-stable map from a Euclidean space into a closed half-ellipsoid in a certain range of p. The certain range of p is determined by the dimension values of a Euclidean space (the domain) and an ellipsoid (the target space). The certain range of p is also bounded by the curvature values on an ellipsoid (that is, the ratio of the longest axis to the shortest axis). Regarding Liouville-type results for a p-stable map, our research finding on an ellipsoid is a generalization of mathematicians’ results on a sphere. Our result is also an extension of mathematicians’ Liouville-type results from a special ellipsoid with only one parameter to any ellipsoid with (n+1) parameters in the general setting.

Keywords: Bochner Formula, Stokes’ Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, first and second variation formulas, Hardy-Sobolev type inequalities, Liouville-type problem, p-harmonic map.

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550 Powering Pacemakers from Heart Pressure Variation with Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

Authors: A. Mathieu, B. Aubry, E. Chhim, M. Jobe, M. Arnaud

Abstract:

Present project consists in a study and a development of piezoelectric devices for supplying power to new generation pacemakers. They are miniaturized leadless implants without battery placed directly in right ventricle. Amongst different acceptable energy sources in cardiac environment, we choose the solution of a device based on conversion of the energy produced by pressure variation inside the heart into electrical energy. The proposed energy harvesters can meet the power requirements of pacemakers, and can be a good solution to solve the problem of regular surgical operation. With further development, proposed device should provide enough energy to allow pacemakers autonomy, and could be good candidate for next pacemaker generation.

Keywords: Energy harvester, heart, leadless pacemaker, piezoelectric cells, pressure variation.

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549 Analysis on Precipitation Variation Patterns of Chenzhou City

Authors: Li Wu

Abstract:

By using linear regression methodology to analyze the data of daily precipitation from 1961-2012, this paper studied the variation tendency of precipitation in Chenzhou. The outcome showed: (1) The annual precipitation was decreasing for 52 years and the difference of precipitation variation tendency among four seasons was remarkable. The precipitation of spring and autumn showed more remarkable decrease than of summer; but the precipitation of winter significantly increased. (2) The annual precipitation frequency tended to lower, which was consistent with the tendency of yearly variation. The seasonal precipitation frequency was greatly different, namely, precipitation frequency in spring and autumn decreased, co-occurring with the phenomenon of mutation; but the winter precipitation frequency increased notably. (3) The precipitation intensity displayed a tendency of increase, including spring, autumn and winter; among them, winter had the most obvious tendency to increase, and autumn had the most yearly variation. Summer was the only season with a tendency of decreasing in precipitation intensity. (4) Annual extreme precipitation tended to reduce, spring, summer and autumn are all included; whereas, winter extreme precipitation tended to increase at the rate of 0.1d/10a. (5) The daily maximum precipitation intensity increased slightly and it varied greatly.

Keywords: Chenzhou, precipitation variation, precipitation frequency, precipitation intensity.

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548 Effects of Temperature-Dependent Material Properties on Stress and Temperature in Cracked Metal Plate under Electric Current Load

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

Using the finite element analyses, this paper discusses the effects of temperature-dependent material properties on the stress and temperature fields in a cracked metal plate under the electric current load. The practical and complicated results are obtained when the temperature-dependent material properties are adopted in the analysis. If the simplified (temperature-independent) material properties are used, incorrect results will be obtained.

Keywords: Joule heating, temperature-dependent, crack tip, finite element.

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547 Measurement and Analysis of Temperature Effects on Box Girders of Continuous Rigid Frame Bridges

Authors: Bugao Wang, Weifeng Wang, Xianwei Zeng

Abstract:

Researches on the general rules of temperature field changing and their effects on the bridge in construction are necessary. This paper investigated the rules of temperature field changing and its effects on bridge using onsite measurement and computational analysis. Guanyinsha Bridge was used as a case study in this research. The temperature field was simulated in analyses. The effects of certain boundary conditions such as sun radiance, wind speed, and model parameters such as heat factor and specific heat on temperature field are investigated. Recommended values for these parameters are proposed. The simulated temperature field matches the measured observations with high accuracy. At the same time, the stresses and deflections of the bridge computed with the simulated temperature field matches measured values too. As a conclusion, the temperature effect analysis of reinforced concrete box girder can be conducted directly based on the reliable weather data of the concerned area.

Keywords: continuous rigid frame bridge, temperature effectanalysis, temperature field, temperature field simulation

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546 Morphological Analysis of English L1-Persian L2 Adult Learners’ Interlanguage: From the Perspective of SLA Variation

Authors: Maassoumeh Bemani Naeini

Abstract:

Studies on interlanguage have long been engaged in describing the phenomenon of variation in SLA. Pursuing the same goal and particularly addressing the role of linguistic features, this study describes the use of Persian morphology in the interlanguage of two adult English-speaking learners of Persian L2. Taking the general approach of a combination of contrastive analysis, error analysis and interlanguage analysis, this study focuses on the identification and prediction of some possible instances of transfer from English L1 to Persian L2 across six elicitation tasks aiming to investigate whether any of contextual features may variably influence the learners’ order of morpheme accuracy in the areas of copula, possessives, articles, demonstratives, plural form, personal pronouns, and genitive cases.  Results describe the existence of task variation in the interlanguage system of Persian L2 learners.

Keywords: English L1, Interlanguage Analysis, Persian L2, SLA variation.

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545 Adaptive Total Variation Based on Feature Scale

Authors: Jianbo Hu, Hongbao Wang

Abstract:

The widely used Total Variation de-noising algorithm can preserve sharp edge, while removing noise. However, since fixed regularization parameter over entire image, small details and textures are often lost in the process. In this paper, we propose a modified Total Variation algorithm to better preserve smaller-scaled features. This is done by allowing an adaptive regularization parameter to control the amount of de-noising in any region of image, according to relative information of local feature scale. Experimental results demonstrate the efficient of the proposed algorithm. Compared with standard Total Variation, our algorithm can better preserve smaller-scaled features and show better performance.

Keywords: Adaptive, de-noising, feature scale, regularizationparameter, Total Variation.

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544 Iterative Image Reconstruction for Sparse-View Computed Tomography via Total Variation Regularization and Dictionary Learning

Authors: XianYu Zhao, JinXu Guo

Abstract:

Recently, low-dose computed tomography (CT) has become highly desirable due to increasing attention to the potential risks of excessive radiation. For low-dose CT imaging, ensuring image quality while reducing radiation dose is a major challenge. To facilitate low-dose CT imaging, we propose an improved statistical iterative reconstruction scheme based on the Penalized Weighted Least Squares (PWLS) standard combined with total variation (TV) minimization and sparse dictionary learning (DL) to improve reconstruction performance. We call this method "PWLS-TV-DL". In order to evaluate the PWLS-TV-DL method, we performed experiments on digital phantoms and physical phantoms, respectively. The experimental results show that our method is in image quality and calculation. The efficiency is superior to other methods, which confirms the potential of its low-dose CT imaging.

Keywords: Low dose computed tomography, penalized weighted least squares, total variation, dictionary learning.

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