Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: surface defects

8 Detection of Defects in CFRP by Ultrasonic IR Thermographic Method

Authors: W. Swiderski

Abstract:

In the paper introduced the diagnostic technique making possible the research of internal structures in composite materials reinforced fibres using in different applications. The main reason of damages in structures of these materials is the changing distribution of load in constructions in the lifetime. Appearing defect is largely complicated because of the appearance of disturbing of continuity of reinforced fibres, binder cracks and loss of fibres adhesiveness from binders. Defect in composite materials is usually more complicated than in metals. At present, infrared thermography is the most effective method in non-destructive testing composite. One of IR thermography methods used in non-destructive evaluation is vibrothermography. The vibrothermography is not a new non-destructive method, but the new solution in this test is use ultrasonic waves to thermal stimulation of materials. In this paper, both modelling and experimental results which illustrate the advantages and limitations of ultrasonic IR thermography in inspecting composite materials will be presented. The ThermoSon computer program for computing 3D dynamic temperature distribuions in anisotropic layered solids with subsurface defects subject to ulrasonic stimulation was used to optimise heating parameters in the detection of subsurface defects in composite materials. The program allows for the analysis of transient heat conduction and ultrasonic wave propagation phenomena in solids. The experiments at MIAT were fulfilled by means of FLIR SC 7600 IR camera. Ultrasonic stimulation was performed with the frequency from 15 kHz to 30 kHz with maximum power up to 2 kW.

Keywords: Ultrasonic, Non-Destructive Testing, Composite Material, infrared thermography

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7 Thermographic Tests of Curved GFRP Structures with Delaminations: Numerical Modelling vs. Experimental Validation

Authors: P. D. Pastuszak

Abstract:

The present work is devoted to thermographic studies of curved composite panels (unidirectional GFRP) with subsurface defects. Various artificial defects, created by inserting PTFE stripe between individual layers of a laminate during manufacturing stage are studied. The analysis is conducted both with the use finite element method and experiments. To simulate transient heat transfer in 3D model with embedded various defect sizes, the ANSYS package is used. Pulsed Thermography combined with optical excitation source provides good results for flat surfaces. Composite structures are mostly used in complex components, e.g., pipes, corners and stiffeners. Local decrease of mechanical properties in these regions can have significant influence on strength decrease of the entire structure. Application of active procedures of thermography to defect detection and evaluation in this type of elements seems to be more appropriate that other NDT techniques. Nevertheless, there are various uncertainties connected with correct interpretation of acquired data. In this paper, important factors concerning Infrared Thermography measurements of curved surfaces in the form of cylindrical panels are considered. In addition, temperature effects on the surface resulting from complex geometry and embedded and real defect are also presented.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Defects, Composite, Curved Structures, Active Thermography

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6 ED Machining of Particulate Reinforced MMC’s

Authors: Sarabjeet Singh Sidhu, Ajay Batish, Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract:

This paper reports the optimal process conditions for machining of three different types of MMC’s 65vol%SiC/A356.2; 10vol%SiC-5vol%quartz/Al and 30vol%SiC/A359 using PMEDM process. MRR, TWR, SR and surface integrity were evaluated after each trial and contributing process parameters were identified. The four responses were then collectively optimized using TOPSIS and optimal process conditions were identified for each type of MMC. The density of reinforced particles shields the matrix material from spark energy hence the high MRR and SR was observed with lowest reinforced particle. TWR was highest with Cu-Gr electrode due to disintegration of the weakly bonded particles in the composite electrode. Each workpiece was examined for surface integrity and ranked as per severity of surface defects observed and their rankings were used for arriving at the most optimal process settings for each workpiece. 

Keywords: metal matrix composites (MMCS), metal removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), surface integrity (SI), tool wear rate (TWR), technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS)

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5 Effect of Oxygen Annealing on the Surface Defects and Photoconductivity of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Array

Authors: Ajay Kushwaha, Hemen Kalita, M. Aslam

Abstract:

Post growth annealing of solution grown ZnO nanowire array is performed under controlled oxygen ambience. The role of annealing over surface defects and their consequence on dark/photo-conductivity and photosensitivity of nanowire array is investigated. Surface defect properties are explored using various measurement tools such as contact angle, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and XPS measurements. The contact angle of the NW films reduces due to oxygen annealing and nanowire film surface changes from hydrophobic (96°) to hydrophilic (16°). Raman and XPS spectroscopy reveal that oxygen annealing improves the crystal quality of the nanowire films. The defect band emission intensity (relative to band edge emission, ID/IUV) reduces from 1.3 to 0.2 after annealing at 600 °C at 10 SCCM flow of oxygen. An order enhancement in dark conductivity is observed in O2 annealed samples, while photoconductivity is found to be slightly reduced due to lower concentration of surface related oxygen defects.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, Photoconductivity, zinc oxide, surface defects, Photosensor and Nanowire thin film

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4 SEM and AFM Investigations of Surface Defects and Tool Wear of Multilayers Coated Carbide Inserts

Authors: Ayman M. Alaskari, Samy E. Oraby, Abdulla I. Almazrouee

Abstract:

Coated tool inserts can be considered as the backbone of machining processes due to their wear and heat resistance. However, defects of coating can degrade the integrity of these inserts and the number of these defects should be minimized or eliminated if possible. Recently, the advancement of coating processes and analytical tools open a new era for optimizing the coating tools. First, an overview is given regarding coating technology for cutting tool inserts. Testing techniques for coating layers properties, as well as the various coating defects and their assessment are also surveyed. Second, it is introduced an experimental approach to examine the possible coating defects and flaws of worn multicoated carbide inserts using two important techniques namely scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Finally, it is recommended a simple procedure for investigating manufacturing defects and flaws of worn inserts.

Keywords: Defects, SEM, AFM, Coated inserts

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3 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)Topographical Surface Characterization of Multilayer-Coated and Uncoated Carbide Inserts

Authors: Samy E. Oraby, Ayman M. Alaskari

Abstract:

In recent years, scanning probe atomic force microscopy SPM AFM has gained acceptance over a wide spectrum of research and science applications. Most fields focuses on physical, chemical, biological while less attention is devoted to manufacturing and machining aspects. The purpose of the current study is to assess the possible implementation of the SPM AFM features and its NanoScope software in general machining applications with special attention to the tribological aspects of cutting tool. The surface morphology of coated and uncoated as-received carbide inserts is examined, analyzed, and characterized through the determination of the appropriate scanning setting, the suitable data type imaging techniques and the most representative data analysis parameters using the MultiMode SPM AFM in contact mode. The NanoScope operating software is used to capture realtime three data types images: “Height", “Deflection" and “Friction". Three scan sizes are independently performed: 2, 6, and 12 μm with a 2.5 μm vertical range (Z). Offline mode analysis includes the determination of three functional topographical parameters: surface “Roughness", power spectral density “PSD" and “Section". The 12 μm scan size in association with “Height" imaging is found efficient to capture every tiny features and tribological aspects of the examined surface. Also, “Friction" analysis is found to produce a comprehensive explanation about the lateral characteristics of the scanned surface. Configuration of many surface defects and drawbacks has been precisely detected and analyzed.

Keywords: surface roughness, PSD, carbide inserts, surface defects, SPM AFM contact mode, scan size

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2 Genetic Algorithms in Hot Steel Rolling for Scale Defect Prediction

Authors: Jarno Haapamäki, Juha Röning

Abstract:

Scale defects are common surface defects in hot steel rolling. The modelling of such defects is problematic and their causes are not straightforward. In this study, we investigated genetic algorithms in search for a mathematical solution to scale formation. For this research, a high-dimensional data set from hot steel rolling process was gathered. The synchronisation of the variables as well as the allocation of the measurements made on the steel strip were solved before the modelling phase.

Keywords: Knowledge Discovery, Modeling, Genetic Algorithms, hot strip rolling

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1 Surface Defects Detection for Ceramic Tiles UsingImage Processing and Morphological Techniques

Authors: H. Elbehiery, A. Hefnawy, M. Elewa

Abstract:

Quality control in ceramic tile manufacturing is hard, labor intensive and it is performed in a harsh industrial environment with noise, extreme temperature and humidity. It can be divided into color analysis, dimension verification, and surface defect detection, which is the main purpose of our work. Defects detection is still based on the judgment of human operators while most of the other manufacturing activities are automated so, our work is a quality control enhancement by integrating a visual control stage using image processing and morphological operation techniques before the packing operation to improve the homogeneity of batches received by final users.

Keywords: Image Processing, Quality Control, morphological operation, Visual Control, Defects detection

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