Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 87

Search results for: strict liability.

87 Origins of Strict Liability for Abnormally Dangerous Activities in the United States, Rylands v. Fletcher and a General Clause of Strict Liability in the UK

Authors: Maria Lubomira Kubica

Abstract:

The paper reveals the birth and evolution of the British precedent Rylands v. Fletcher that, once adopted on the other side of the Ocean (in United States), gave rise to a general clause of liability for abnormally dangerous activities recognized by the §20 of the American Restatements of the Law Third, Liability for Physical and Emotional Harm. The main goal of the paper was to analyze the development of the legal doctrine and of the case law posterior to the precedent together with the intent of the British judicature to leapfrog from the traditional rule contained in Rylands v. Fletcher to a general clause similar to that introduced in the United States and recently also on the European level. As it is well known, within the scope of tort law two different initiatives compete with the aim of harmonizing the European laws: European Group on Tort Law with its Principles of European Tort Law (hereinafter PETL) in which article 5:101 sets forth a general clause for strict liability for abnormally dangerous activities and Study Group on European Civil Code with its Common Frame of Reference (CFR) which promotes rather ad hoc model of listing out determined cases of strict liability. Very narrow application scope of the art. 5:101 PETL, restricted only to abnormally dangerous activities, stays in opposition to very broad spectrum of strict liability cases governed by the CFR. The former is a perfect example of a general clause that offers a minimum and basic standard, possibly acceptable also in those countries in which, like in the United Kingdom, this regime of liability is completely marginalized.

Keywords: Dangerous activities, general clause, risk, strict liability.

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86 Legal Doctrine on Rylands v. Fletcher: One more time on Feasibility of a General Clause of Strict Liability in the UK

Authors: Maria Lubomira Kubica

Abstract:

The paper reveals the birth and evolution of the British precedent Rylands v. Fletcher that, once adopted on the other side of the Ocean (in United States), gave rise to a general clause of liability for abnormally dangerous activities recognized by the §20 of the American Restatements of the Law Third, Liability for Physical and Emotional Harm. The main goal of the paper was to analyze the development of the legal doctrine and of the case law posterior to the precedent together with the intent of the British judicature to leapfrog from the traditional rule contained in Rylands v. Fletcher to a general clause similar to that introduced in the United States and recently also on the European level. As it is well known, within the scope of tort law two different initiatives compete with the aim of harmonizing the European laws: European Group on Tort Law with its Principles of European Tort Law (hereinafter PETL) in which article 5:101 sets forth a general clause for strict liability for abnormally dangerous activities and Study Group on European Civil Code with its Common Frame of Reference (CFR) which promotes rather ad hoc model of listing out determined cases of strict liability. Very narrow application scope of the art. 5:101 PETL, restricted only to abnormally dangerous activities, stays in opposition to very broad spectrum of strict liability cases governed by the CFR. The former is a perfect example of a general clause that offers a minimum and basic standard, possibly acceptable also in those countries in which, like in the United Kingdom, this regime of liability is completely marginalized.

Keywords: Abnormally dangerous activities, general clause, Rylands v. Fletcher, strict liability.

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85 The Tort Liability of the State in the Portuguese Administrative Courts

Authors: Jorge Barros Mendes

Abstract:

The Portuguese Constitution, in article 22, instituted the general principle of tort liability of the State and other public law entities. Consequently, ordinary legislation established the tort liability of the State into the Portuguese Legal Order, by means of Decree-Law 48051, of 1967. This decree, which was criticised extensively, was amended by virtue of Law 67/2007, of 31st December, establishing the regime for tort liability arising from losses caused by third parties, due to the acts of public management in relation to all the functions of the State, i.e. i) administrative, ii) legislative, and iii) jurisdictional.

Keywords: Portuguese courts, tort liability of the state.

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84 The Strict Stability of Impulsive Stochastic Functional Differential Equations with Markovian Switching

Authors: Dezhi Liu Guiyuan Yang Wei Zhang

Abstract:

Strict stability can present the rate of decay of the solution, so more and more investigators are beginning to study the topic and some results have been obtained. However, there are few results about strict stability of stochastic differential equations. In this paper, using Lyapunov functions and Razumikhin technique, we have gotten some criteria for the strict stability of impulsive stochastic functional differential equations with markovian switching.

Keywords: Impulsive; Stochastic functional differential equation; Strict stability; Razumikhin technique.

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83 Hotel Guest's Liability for Non-Payment of Hotel Services in Comparative Law

Authors: Oliver Radolović

Abstract:

The subject of the paper is comparative analysis of the hotel guest-s contractual liability for breaching the obligation for non-payment of hotel services in the hotel-keeper-s contract. The paper is methodologically conceived of six chapters (1. introduction, 2. comparative law sources of the hotel-keeper-s contract, 3. the guest-s obligation for payment of hotel services, 4. hotel guest's liability for non-payment, 5. the hotel-keeper-s rights due to nonpayment and 6. conclusion), which analyzes the guest-s liability for non-payment of hotel services through the international law, European law, euro-continental national laws (France, Germany, Italy, Croatia) and Anglo-American national laws (UK, USA). The paper-s results are the synthesis of answers to the set hypothesis and comparative review of hotel guest-s contractual liability for nonpayment of hotel services provided. In conclusion, it is necessary to adopt an international convention on the hotel-keeper-s contract, which would unify the institute of the hotel guest-s contractual liability for non-payment of hotel services at the international level.

Keywords: Comparative law, hotel guest's contractual liability, non-payment, hotel-keeper's contract.

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82 Zero Inflated Strict Arcsine Regression Model

Authors: Y. N. Phang, E. F. Loh

Abstract:

Zero inflated strict arcsine model is a newly developed model which is found to be appropriate in modeling overdispersed count data. In this study, we extend zero inflated strict arcsine model to zero inflated strict arcsine regression model by taking into consideration the extra variability caused by extra zeros and covariates in count data. Maximum likelihood estimation method is used in estimating the parameters for this zero inflated strict arcsine regression model.

Keywords: Overdispersed count data, maximum likelihood estimation, simulated annealing.

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81 Strict Stability of Fuzzy Differential Equations by Lyapunov Functions

Authors: Mustafa Bayram Gücen, Coşkun Yakar

Abstract:

In this study, we have investigated the strict stability of fuzzy differential systems and we compare the classical notion of strict stability criteria of ordinary differential equations and the notion of strict stability of fuzzy differential systems. In addition that, we present definitions of stability and strict stability of fuzzy differential equations and also we have some theorems and comparison results. Strict Stability is a different stability definition and this stability type can give us an information about the rate of decay of the solutions. Lyapunov’s second method is a standard technique used in the study of the qualitative behavior of fuzzy differential systems along with a comparison result that allows the prediction of behavior of a fuzzy differential system when the behavior of the null solution of a fuzzy comparison system is known. This method is a usefull for investigating strict stability of fuzzy systems. First of all, we present definitions and necessary background material. Secondly, we discuss and compare the differences between the classical notion of stability and the recent notion of strict stability. And then, we have a comparison result in which the stability properties of the null solution of the comparison system imply the corresponding stability properties of the fuzzy differential system. Consequently, we give the strict stability results and a comparison theorem. We have used Lyapunov second method and we have proved a comparison result with scalar differential equations.

Keywords: Fuzzy systems, fuzzy differential equations, fuzzy stability, strict stability.

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80 Decision Making under Strict Uncertainty: Case Study in Sewer Network Planning

Authors: Zhen Wu, David Lupien St-Pierre, Georges Abdul-Nour

Abstract:

In decision making under strict uncertainty, decision makers have to choose a decision without any information about the states of nature. The classic criteria of Laplace, Wald, Savage, Hurwicz and Starr are introduced and compared in a case study of sewer network planning. Furthermore, results from different criteria are discussed and analyzed. Moreover, this paper discusses the idea that decision making under strict uncertainty (DMUSU) can be viewed as a two-player game and thus be solved by a solution concept in game theory: Nash equilibrium.

Keywords: Decision criteria, decision making, sewer network planning, strict uncertainty.

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79 Liability Aspects Related to Genetically Modified Food under the Food Safety Legislation in India

Authors: S. K. Balashanmugam, Padmavati Manchikanti, S. R. Subramanian

Abstract:

The question of legal liability over injury arising out of the import and the introduction of GM food emerges as a crucial issue confronting to promote GM food and its derivatives. There is a greater possibility of commercialized GM food from the exporting country to enter importing country where status of approval shall not be same. This necessitates the importance of fixing a liability mechanism to discuss the damage, if any, occurs at the level of transboundary movement or at the market. There was a widespread consensus to develop the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and to give for a dedicated regime on liability and redress in the form of Nagoya Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on the Liability and Redress (‘N-KL Protocol’) at the international context. The national legal frameworks based on this protocol are not adequately established in the prevailing food legislations of the developing countries. The developing economy like India is willing to import GM food and its derivatives after the successful commercialization of Bt Cotton in 2002. As a party to the N-KL Protocol, it is indispensable for India to formulate a legal framework and to discuss safety, liability, and regulatory issues surrounding GM foods in conformity to the provisions of the Protocol. The liability mechanism is also important in the case where the risk assessment and risk management is still in implementing stage. Moreover, the country is facing GM infiltration issues with its neighbors Bangladesh. As a precautionary approach, there is a need to formulate rules and procedure of legal liability to discuss any kind of damage occurs at transboundary trade. In this context, the proposed work will attempt to analyze the liability regime in the existing Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 from the applicability and domestic compliance and to suggest legal and policy options for regulatory authorities.

Keywords: Commercialisation, food safety, FSSAI, genetically modified foods, India, liability.

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78 Strict Stability of Fuzzy Differential Equations with Impulse Effect

Authors: Sanjay K.Srivastava, Bhanu Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper some results on strict stability heve beeb extended for fuzzy differential equations with impulse effect using Lyapunov functions and Razumikhin technique.

Keywords: Fuzzy differential equations, Impulsive differential equations, Strict stability, Lyapunov function, Razumikhin technique.

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77 New Analysis Methods on Strict Avalanche Criterion of S-Boxes

Authors: Phyu Phyu Mar, Khin Maung Latt

Abstract:

S-boxes (Substitution boxes) are keystones of modern symmetric cryptosystems (block ciphers, as well as stream ciphers). S-boxes bring nonlinearity to cryptosystems and strengthen their cryptographic security. They are used for confusion in data security An S-box satisfies the strict avalanche criterion (SAC), if and only if for any single input bit of the S-box, the inversion of it changes each output bit with probability one half. If a function (cryptographic transformation) is complete, then each output bit depends on all of the input bits. Thus, if it were possible to find the simplest Boolean expression for each output bit in terms of the input bits, each of these expressions would have to contain all of the input bits if the function is complete. From some important properties of S-box, the most interesting property SAC (Strict Avalanche Criterion) is presented and to analyze this property three analysis methods are proposed.

Keywords: S-boxes, cryptosystems, strict avalanche criterion, function, analysis methods.

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76 Bootstrap Confidence Intervals and Parameter Estimation for Zero Inflated Strict Arcsine Model

Authors: Y. N. Phang, E. F. Loh

Abstract:

Zero inflated Strict Arcsine model is a newly developed model which is found to be appropriate in modeling overdispersed count data. In this study, maximum likelihood estimation method is used in estimating the parameters for zero inflated strict arcsine model. Bootstrapping is then employed to compute the confidence intervals for the estimated parameters.

Keywords: overdispersed count data, maximum likelihood estimation, simulated annealing, BCa confidence intervals.

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75 Approaches to Determining Optimal Asset Structure for a Commercial Bank

Authors: Svetlana Saksonova

Abstract:

Every commercial bank optimises its asset portfolio depending on the profitability of assets and chosen or imposed constraints. This paper proposes and applies a stylized model for optimising banks' asset and liability structure, reflecting profitability of different asset categories and their risks as well as costs associated with different liability categories and reserve requirements. The level of detail for asset and liability categories is chosen to create a suitably parsimonious model and to include the most important categories in the model. It is shown that the most appropriate optimisation criterion for the model is the maximisation of the ratio of net interest income to assets. The maximisation of this ratio is subject to several constraints. Some are accounting identities or dictated by legislative requirements; others vary depending on the market objectives for a particular bank. The model predicts variable amount of assets allocated to loan provision.

Keywords: asset structure, commercial bank, model, optimisation

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74 A New Approach for Recoverable Timestamp Ordering Schedule

Authors: Hassan M. Najadat

Abstract:

A new approach for timestamp ordering problem in serializable schedules is presented. Since the number of users using databases is increasing rapidly, the accuracy and needing high throughput are main topics in database area. Strict 2PL does not allow all possible serializable schedules and so does not result high throughput. The main advantages of the approach are the ability to enforce the execution of transaction to be recoverable and the high achievable performance of concurrent execution in central databases. Comparing to Strict 2PL, the general structure of the algorithm is simple, free deadlock, and allows executing all possible serializable schedules which results high throughput. Various examples which include different orders of database operations are discussed.

Keywords: Concurrency control, schedule, timestamp, transaction.

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73 Zero Truncated Strict Arcsine Model

Authors: Y. N. Phang, E. F. Loh

Abstract:

The zero truncated model is usually used in modeling count data without zero. It is the opposite of zero inflated model. Zero truncated Poisson and zero truncated negative binomial models are discussed and used by some researchers in analyzing the abundance of rare species and hospital stay. Zero truncated models are used as the base in developing hurdle models. In this study, we developed a new model, the zero truncated strict arcsine model, which can be used as an alternative model in modeling count data without zero and with extra variation. Two simulated and one real life data sets are used and fitted into this developed model. The results show that the model provides a good fit to the data. Maximum likelihood estimation method is used in estimating the parameters.

Keywords: Hurdle models, maximum likelihood estimation method, positive count data.

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72 Directors’ Duties, Civil Liability, and the Business Judgment Rule under the Portuguese Legal Framework

Authors: Marisa Catarina da Conceição Dinis

Abstract:

The commercial companies’ management has suffered an important material and legal transformation in the last years, mainly related to the changes in the Portuguese legal framework and because of the fact they were recently object of great expansion. In fact, next to the smaller family businesses, whose management is regularly assumed by partners, companies with social investment highly scattered, whose owners are completely out from administration, are now arising. In those particular cases, the business transactions are much more complex and require from the companies’ managers a highly technical knowledge and some specific professionals’ skills and abilities. This kind of administration carries a high-level risk that can both result in great success or in great losses. Knowing that the administration performance can result in important losses to the companies, the Portuguese legislator has created a legal structure to impute them some responsibilities and sanctions. The main goal of this study is to analyze the Portuguese law and some jurisprudence about companies’ management rules and about the conflicts between the directors and the company. In order to achieve these purposes we have to consider, on the one hand, the legal duties directly connected to the directors’ functions and on the other hand the disrespect for those same rules. The Portuguese law in this matter, influenced by the common law, determines that the directors’ attitude should be guided by loyalty and honesty. Consequently, we must reflect in which cases the administrators should respond to losses that they might cause to companies as a result of their duties’ disrespect. In this way is necessary to study the business judgment rule wich is a rule that refers to a liability exclusion rule. We intend, in the same way, to evaluate if the civil liability that results from the directors’ duties disrespect can extend itself to those who have elected them ignoring or even knowing that they don´t have the necessary skills or appropriate knowledge to the position they hold. To charge directors’, without ruining entrepreneurship, charging, in the same way, those who select them reinforces the need for more responsible and cautious attitudes which will lead consequently to more confidence in the markets.

Keywords: Duty of loyalty, duty of care, business judgment rule, civil liability of directors.

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71 Statistical Analysis for Overdispersed Medical Count Data

Authors: Y. N. Phang, E. F. Loh

Abstract:

Many researchers have suggested the use of zero inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models in modeling overdispersed medical count data with extra variations caused by extra zeros and unobserved heterogeneity. The studies indicate that ZIP and ZINB always provide better fit than using the normal Poisson and negative binomial models in modeling overdispersed medical count data. In this study, we proposed the use of Zero Inflated Inverse Trinomial (ZIIT), Zero Inflated Poisson Inverse Gaussian (ZIPIG) and zero inflated strict arcsine models in modeling overdispered medical count data. These proposed models are not widely used by many researchers especially in the medical field. The results show that these three suggested models can serve as alternative models in modeling overdispersed medical count data. This is supported by the application of these suggested models to a real life medical data set. Inverse trinomial, Poisson inverse Gaussian and strict arcsine are discrete distributions with cubic variance function of mean. Therefore, ZIIT, ZIPIG and ZISA are able to accommodate data with excess zeros and very heavy tailed. They are recommended to be used in modeling overdispersed medical count data when ZIP and ZINB are inadequate.

Keywords: Zero inflated, inverse trinomial distribution, Poisson inverse Gaussian distribution, strict arcsine distribution, Pearson’s goodness of fit.

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70 Relationships between Information Transparency, Corporate Governance and D&O Insurance

Authors: Shu-Lin Lin, Ching-Chien Yang

Abstract:

This study examines the influence of information transparency and corporate governance on purchase directors and officers liability (D&O) insurance decisions. The results show that companies with greater information transparency have significant demand for D&O insurance. Greater transparency in voluntary disclosures is significantly and positively associated with demand for insurance, indicating that increasing the degree of information disclosure reduces information asymmetry for insurers, which stimulates their willingness to provide greater protection. Analysis of insured and uninsured subsamples indicates that uninsured companies have superior corporate governance compared to insured companies. Although insured companies tend to have weaker corporate governance structures, they appoint Big 4 firms or industry experts to compensate for the weakness of their corporate governance. Empirical results indicate that purchasing D&O insurance can strengthen external corporate governance and increase companies’ willingness to voluntarily provide more transparent information.

Keywords: Directors and officers liability (D&O) insurance, information transparency, corporate governance, Big 4.

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69 An Empirical Analysis and Comparative Study of Liquidity Ratios and Asset-Liability Management of Banks Operating in India

Authors: Amit Kumar Meena, Joydip Dhar

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the analysis and comparison of liquidity ratios and asset liability management practices in top three banks from public, private and foreign sector in India. The analysis is based upon the liquidity ratios calculation and the determination of maturity gap profiles for the banks under study. The paper also compares these banks maturity gap profiles with their corresponding group’s maturity gap profiles. This paper identifies the interest rate sensitivity of the balance sheet items of these banks to determine the gap between rate sensitive assets and rate sensitive liabilities. The results of this study suggest that overall banks in India have very good short term liquidity position and all banks are financing their short term liabilities by their long term assets.

Keywords: ALM, Liquidity ratios, Rate sensitive Assets, Rate Sensitive Liabilities.

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68 Specifying Strict Serializability of Iterated Transactions in Propositional Temporal Logic

Authors: Walter Hussak

Abstract:

We present an operator for a propositional linear temporal logic over infinite schedules of iterated transactions, which, when applied to a formula, asserts that any schedule satisfying the formula is serializable. The resulting logic is suitable for specifying and verifying consistency properties of concurrent transaction management systems, that can be defined in terms of serializability, as well as other general safety and liveness properties. A strict form of serializability is used requiring that, whenever the read and write steps of a transaction occurrence precede the read and write steps of another transaction occurrence in a schedule, the first transaction must precede the second transaction in an equivalent serial schedule. This work improves on previous work in providing a propositional temporal logic with a serializability operator that is of the same PSPACE complete computational complexity as standard propositional linear temporal logic without a serializability operator.

Keywords: Temporal logic, iterated transactions, serializability.

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67 Output Regulation of Perturbed Nonlinear Systems by Nested Sliding Mode Control

Authors: Aras Adhami Mirhoseini, Mohammad J. Yazdanpanah

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider nested sliding mode control of SISO nonlinear systems, perturbed by bounded matched and unmatched uncertainties. The systems are assumed to be in strict-feedback form. A step wise procedure is introduced to obtain the controller. In each step, a continuous sliding mode controller is designed as virtual control law. Then the next step sliding surface is defined by using this virtual controller. These sliding surfaces are selected as nonlinear static functions of the system states. Finally in the last step, smooth static state feedback control law is determined such that the output reaches the desired set-point while the system is forced arbitrary close to the intersection of sliding surfaces and the states remain bounded.

Keywords: Sliding mode control, Strict-feedback form, Unmatched uncertainty, output regulation.

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66 A Concept of Rational Water Management at Local Utilities – The Use of RO for Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment/Reuse

Authors: N. Matveev, A. Pervov

Abstract:

Local utilities often face problems of local industrial wastes, storm water disposal due to existing strict regulations. For many local industries, the problem of wastewater treatment and discharge into surface reservoirs can’t be solved through the use of conventional biological treatment techniques. Current discharge standards require very strict removal of a number of impurities such as ammonia, nitrates, phosphate, etc. To reach this level of removal, expensive reagents and sorbents are used. The modern concept of rational water resources management requires the development of new efficient techniques that provide wastewater treatment and reuse. As RO membranes simultaneously reject all dissolved impurities such as BOD, TDS, ammonia, phosphates etc., they become very attractive for the direct treatment of wastewater without biological stage. To treat wastewater, specially designed membrane "open channel" modules are used that do not possess "dead areas" that cause fouling or require pretreatment. A solution to RO concentrate disposal problem is presented that consists of reducing of initial wastewater volume by 100 times. Concentrate is withdrawn from membrane unit as sludge moisture. The efficient use of membrane RO techniques is connected with a salt balance in water system. Thus, to provide high ecological efficiency of developed techniques, all components of water supply and wastewater discharge systems should be accounted for.

Keywords: Reverse osmosis, stormwater treatment, openchannel module, wastewater reuse.

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65 Transfigurative Changes of Governmental Responsibility

Authors: Ákos Cserny

Abstract:

The unequivocal increase of the area of operation of the executive power can happen with the appearance of new areas to be influenced and its integration in the power, or at the expense of the scopes of other organs with public authority. The extension of the executive can only be accepted within the framework of the rule of law if parallel with this process we get constitutional guarantees that the exercise of power is kept within constitutional framework. Failure to do so, however, may result in the lack, deficit of democracy and democratic sense, and may cause an overwhelming dominance of the executive power. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present executive power and responsibility in the context of different dimensions.

Keywords: Confidence, constitution, executive power, liability, parliamentarism.

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64 Production Scheduling Improvements in an Automotive Sector Company

Authors: Govind Sharan Dangayach, Himanshu Bhatt

Abstract:

The paper attempts to overcome the fluctuations occurring in demand of the components in an automotive sector company. Resource and time being the strict constraints, the production is not able to match the pace of the fluctuating demand. So, we introduce some production schedules that help in meeting out the required demand. The merits and demerits of the approaches are also highlighted.

Keywords: Production scheduling, Demand rise, Capacity constrained resource (CCR), Overtime.

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63 Using Technology with a New Model of Management Development by Simulation of Neural Network and its Application on Intelligent Schools

Authors: Ahmad Ghayoumi, Mehdi Ghayoumi

Abstract:

Intelligent schools are those which use IT devices and technologies as media software, hardware and networks to improve learning process. On the other hand management improvement is best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organizations Here, we present a model Management improvement System that has been applied on some schools and have made strict improvement.

Keywords: Intelligent school, Management development system, Learning station, Teaching station

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62 Developing of Intelligent Schools with a New Model of Strategic Management System

Authors: Ahmad Ghayoumi, Mehdi Ghayoumi

Abstract:

Intelligent schools are those which use IT devices and technologies as media software, hardware and networks to improve learning process. On the other hand Strategic management is a field that deals with the major intended and emergent initiatives taken by general managers on behalf of owners, involving utilization of resources, to enhance the performance of firms in their external environments. Here, we present a model Strategic Management System that has been applied on some schools and have made strict improvement.

Keywords: Intelligent school, Strategic management system, Learning station, Teaching station

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61 Genetic-Based Planning with Recursive Subgoals

Authors: Han Yu, Dan C. Marinescu, Annie S. Wu, Howard Jay Siegel

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce an effective strategy for subgoal division and ordering based upon recursive subgoals and combine this strategy with a genetic-based planning approach. This strategy can be applied to domains with conjunctive goals. The main idea is to recursively decompose a goal into a set of serializable subgoals and to specify a strict ordering among the subgoals. Empirical results show that the recursive subgoal strategy reduces the size of the search space and improves the quality of solutions to planning problems.

Keywords: Planning, recursive subgoals, Sliding-tile puzzle, subgoal interaction, genetic algorithms.

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60 Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic

Authors: Mubarak Alhajri

Abstract:

This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.

Keywords: Adaptive control, convergence, hysteresis constant, hysteresis switching.

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59 New PTH Moment Stable Criteria of Stochastic Neural Networks

Authors: Zixin Liu, Huawei Yang, Fangwei Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, the issue of pth moment stability of a class of stochastic neural networks with mixed delays is investigated. By establishing two integro-differential inequalities, some new sufficient conditions ensuring pth moment exponential stability are obtained. Compared with some previous publications, our results generalize some earlier works reported in the literature, and remove some strict constraints of time delays and kernel functions. Two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the main results.

Keywords: Neural networks, stochastic, PTH moment stable, time varying delays, distributed delays.

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58 Research on Laws and Regulations of Sustainable Construction in China

Authors: Wei Zhang, Jing Dong

Abstract:

This paper introduced the status quo of laws and regulations of sustainable construction in China and investigated the existing problems of current laws and regulations through person-interviews in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing and Shenzhen in China. The problems include incomplete legal system, lack of guidance of higher-level laws, backward in some laws and regulations, unclear legal liability and poor law enforcement. Aimed at these problems, this paper also put forward some improvement approaches, such as filling the legal gap, revising laws and regulations, establishing incentive system and keeping pace with level of development.

Keywords: Improvement, laws and regulations, status quo, sustainable construction

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