Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: strands

16 Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridges Using Large 0.7 Inch Strands

Authors: Amin Akhnoukh

Abstract:

The National Bridge Inventory (NBI) includes more than 600,000 bridges within the United States of America. Prestressed concrete girder bridges represent one of the most widely used bridge systems. The majority of these girder bridges were constructed using 0.5 and 0.6 inch diameter strands. The main impediments to using larger strand diameters are: 1) lack of prestress bed capacities, 2) lack of structural knowledge regarding the transfer and development length of larger strands, and 3) the possibility of developing wider end zone cracks upon strand release. This paper presents a study about using 0.7 inch strands in girder fabrication. Transfer and development length were evaluated, and girders were fabricated using 0.7 inch strands at different spacings. Results showed that 0.7 inch strands can be used at 2.0 inch spacing without violating the AASHTO LRFD Specifications, while attaining superior performance in shear and flexure.

Keywords: 0.7 inch strands, prestress, I-girders, bridges

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15 Advantages of Large Strands in Precast/Prestressed Concrete Highway Application

Authors: Amin Akhnoukh

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to investigate the advantages of using large-diameter 0.7 inch prestressing strands in pretention applications. The advantages of large-diameter strands are mainly beneficial in the heavy construction applications. Bridges and tunnels are subjected to a higher daily traffic with an exponential increase in trucks ultimate weight, which raise the demand for higher structural capacity of bridges and tunnels. In this research, precast prestressed I-girders were considered as a case study. Flexure capacities of girders fabricated using 0.7 inch strands and different concrete strengths were calculated and compared to capacities of 0.6 inch strands girders fabricated using equivalent concrete strength. The effect of bridge deck concrete strength on composite deck-girder section capacity was investigated due to its possible effect on final section capacity. Finally, a comparison was made to compare the bridge cross-section of girders designed using regular 0.6 inch strands and the large-diameter 0.7 inch. The research findings showed that structural advantages of 0.7 inch strands allow for using fewer bridge girders, reduced material quantity, and light-weight members. The structural advantages of 0.7 inch strands are maximized when high strength concrete (HSC) are used in girder fabrication, and concrete of minimum 5ksi compressive strength is used in pouring bridge decks. The use of 0.7 inch strands in bridge industry can partially contribute to the improvement of bridge conditions, minimize construction cost, and reduce the construction duration of the project.

Keywords: 0.7 Inch Strands, I-Girders, Pretension, Flexure Capacity

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14 Cantilever Shoring Piles with Prestressing Strands: An Experimental Approach

Authors: Hani Mekdash, Lina Jaber, Yehia Temsah

Abstract:

Underground space is becoming a necessity nowadays, especially in highly congested urban areas. Retaining underground excavations using shoring systems is essential in order to protect adjoining structures from potential damage or collapse. Reinforced Concrete Piles (RCP) supported by multiple rows of tie-back anchors are commonly used type of shoring systems in deep excavations. However, executing anchors can sometimes be challenging because they might illegally trespass neighboring properties or get obstructed by infrastructure and other underground facilities. A technique is proposed in this paper, and it involves the addition of eccentric high-strength steel strands to the RCP section through ducts without providing the pile with lateral supports. The strands are then vertically stressed externally on the pile cap using a hydraulic jack, creating a compressive strengthening force in the concrete section. An experimental study about the behavior of the shoring wall by pre-stressed piles is presented during the execution of an open excavation in an urban area (Beirut city) followed by numerical analysis using finite element software. Based on the experimental results, this technique is proven to be cost-effective and provides flexible and sustainable construction of shoring works.

Keywords: Excavation, inclinometer, prestressing, shoring system.

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13 A Metametadata Architecture forPedagogic Data Description

Authors: A. Ismail, M. S. Joy, J. E. Sinclair, M. I. Hamzah

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a novel method for semantic searching and retrieval of information about learning materials. Metametadata encapsulate metadata instances by using the properties and attributes provided by ontologies rather than describing learning objects. A novel metametadata taxonomy has been developed which provides the basis for a semantic search engine to extract, match and map queries to retrieve relevant results. The use of ontological views is a foundation for viewing the pedagogical content of metadata extracted from learning objects by using the pedagogical attributes from the metametadata taxonomy. Using the ontological approach and metametadata (based on the metametadata taxonomy) we present a novel semantic searching mechanism.These three strands – the taxonomy, the ontological views, and the search algorithm – are incorporated into a novel architecture (OMESCOD) which has been implemented.

Keywords: Metadata, metametadata, semantic, ontologies.

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12 Tensile Test of Corroded Strand and Maintenance of Corroded Prestressed Concrete Girders

Authors: Jeon Chi-Ho, Lee Jae-Bin, Shim Chang-Su

Abstract:

National bridge inventory in Korea shows that the number of old prestressed concrete (PSC) bridgeover 30 years of service life is rapidly increasing. Recently tendon corrosion is one of the most critical issues in the maintenance of PSC bridges. In this paper, mechanical properties of corroded strands, which were removed from old bridges, were evaluated using tensile test. In the result, the equations to express the mechanical behavior of corroded strand were derived and compared to existing equation. For the decision of tendon replacement, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of corrosion level on strength and ductility of the structure. Considerations on analysis of PSC girders were introduced, and decision making on tendon replacement was also proposed.

Keywords: Prestressed concrete bridge, prestressing steel, corrosion, strength, ductility.

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11 Measuring Innovative and Entrepreneurial Networks Performance

Authors: Luís Farinha, João J. Ferreira

Abstract:

Nowadays innovation represents a challenge crucial to remaining globally competitive. This study seeks to develop a conceptual model aimed at measuring the dynamic interactions of the triple/quadruple helix, balancing innovation and entrepreneurship initiatives as pillars of regional competitiveness – the Regional Helix Scoreboard (RHS). To this aim, different strands of literature are identified according to their focus on specific regional competitiveness governance mechanisms. We put forward an overview of the state-of-the-art of research and is duly assessed in order to develop and propose a framework of analysis that enables an integrated approach in the context of collaborative dynamics. We conclude by presenting the RHS for the study of regional competitiveness dynamics, which integrates and associates different backgrounds and identifies a number of key performance indicators for research challenges.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, KPIs, innovation, performance measurement, regional competitiveness, regional helix scoreboard.

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10 Electrostatic and Dielectric Measurements for Hair Building Fibers from DC to Microwave Frequencies

Authors: K. Y. You, Y. L. Then

Abstract:

In recent years, the hair building fiber has become popular, in other words, it is an effective method which helps people who suffer hair loss or sparse hair since the hair building fiber is capable to create a natural look of simulated hair rapidly. In the markets, there are a lot of hair fiber brands that have been designed to formulate an intense bond with hair strands and make the hair appear more voluminous instantly. However, those products have their own set of properties. Thus, in this report, some measurement techniques are proposed to identify those products. Up to five different brands of hair fiber are tested. The electrostatic and dielectric properties of the hair fibers are macroscopically tested using design DC and high frequency microwave techniques. Besides, the hair fibers are microscopically analysis by magnifying the structures of the fiber using scanning electron microscope (SEM). From the SEM photos, the comparison of the uniformly shaped and broken rate of the hair fibers in the different bulk samples can be observed respectively.

Keywords: Hair fiber, electrostatic, dielectric properties, broken rate, microwave techniques.

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9 Influence of Insulation System Methods on Dissipation Factor and Voltage Endurance

Authors: Farzad Yavari, Hamid Chegini, Saeed Lotfi

Abstract:

This paper reviews the comparison of Resin Rich (RR) and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) insulation system qualities for stator bar of rotating electrical machines. Voltage endurance and tangent delta are two diagnostic tests to determine the quality of insulation systems. The paper describes the trend of dissipation factor while performing voltage endurance test for different stator bar samples made with RR and VPI insulation system methods. Some samples were made with the same strands and insulation thickness but with different main wall material to prove the influence of insulation system methods on stator bar quality. Also, some of the samples were subjected to voltage at the temperature of their insulation class, and their dissipation factor changes were measured and studied.

Keywords: Vacuum pressure impregnation, resin rich, insulation, stator bar, dissipation factor, voltage endurance.

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8 Experimental Study on Smart Anchor Head

Authors: Young-Jun You, Ki-Tae Park, Kyu-Wan Lee

Abstract:

Since prestressed concrete members rely on the tensile strength of the prestressing strands to resist loads, loss of even few them could result catastrophic. Therefore, it is important to measure present residual prestress force. Although there are some techniques for obtaining present prestress force, some problems still remain. One method is to install load cell in front of anchor head but this may increase cost. Load cell is a transducer using the elastic material property. Anchor head is also an elastic material and this might result in monitoring monitor present prestress force. Features of fiber optic sensor such as small size, great sensitivity, high durability can assign sensing function to anchor head. This paper presents the concept of smart anchor head which acts as load cell and experiment for the applicability of it. Test results showed the smart anchor head worked good and strong linear relationship between load and response.

Keywords: SHM, prestress force, anchor head, fiber optic sensor

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7 Electrical Characteristics of Biomodified Electrodes using Nonfaradaic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: Yusmeeraz Yusof, Yoshiyuki Yanagimoto, Shigeyasu Uno, Kazuo Nakazato

Abstract:

We demonstrate a nonfaradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement of biochemically modified gold plated electrodes using a two-electrode system. The absence of any redox indicator in the impedance measurements provide more precise and accurate characterization of the measured bioanalyte at molecular resolution. An equivalent electrical circuit of the electrodeelectrolyte interface was deduced from the observed impedance data of saline solution at low and high concentrations. The detection of biomolecular interactions was fundamentally correlated to electrical double-layer variation at modified interface. The investigations were done using 20mer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands without any label. Surface modification was performed by creating mixed monolayer of the thiol-modified single-stranded DNA and a spacer thiol (mercaptohexanol) by a two-step self-assembly method. The results clearly distinguish between the noncomplementary and complementary hybridization of DNA, at low frequency region below several hundreds Hertz.

Keywords: Biosensor, electrical double-layer, impedance spectroscopy, label free DNA.

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6 An Improved Tie Force Method for Progressive Collapse Resistance of Precast Concrete Cross Wall Structures

Authors: M. Tohidi, J. Yang, C. Baniotopoulos

Abstract:

Progressive collapse of buildings typically occurs  when abnormal loading conditions cause local damages, which leads  to a chain reaction of failure and ultimately catastrophic collapse. The  tie force (TF) method is one of the main design approaches for  progressive collapse. As the TF method is a simplified method, further  investigations on the reliability of the method is necessary. This study  aims to develop an improved TF method to design the cross wall  structures for progressive collapse. To this end, the pullout behavior of  strands in grout was firstly analyzed; and then, by considering the tie  force-slip relationship in the friction stage together with the catenary  action mechanism, a comprehensive analytical method was developed.  The reliability of this approach is verified by the experimental results  of concrete block pullout tests and full scale floor-to-floor joints tests  undertaken by Portland Cement Association (PCA). Discrepancies in  the tie force between the analytical results and codified specifications  have suggested the deficiency of TF method, hence an improved  model based on the analytical results has been proposed to address this  concern.

 

Keywords: Cross wall, progressive collapse, ties force method, catenary, analytical.

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5 Determination of Skills Gap between School-Based Learning and Laboratory-Based Learning in Omar Al-Mukhtar University

Authors: Aisha Othman, Crinela Pislaru, Ahmed Impes

Abstract:

This paper provides an identification of the existing practical skills gap between school-based learning (SBL) and laboratory based learning (LBL) in the Computing Department within the Faculty of Science at Omar Al-Mukhtar University in Libya. A survey has been conducted and the first author has elicited the responses of two groups of stakeholders, namely the academic teachers and students.

The primary goal is to review the main strands of evidence available and argue that there is a gap between laboratory and school-based learning in terms of opportunities for experiment and application of skills. In addition, the nature of experimental work within the laboratory at Omar Al-Mukhtar University needs to be reconsidered. Another goal of our study was to identify the reasons for students’ poor performance in the laboratory and to determine how this poor performance can be eliminated by the modification of teaching methods. Bloom’s taxonomy of learning outcomes has been applied in order to classify questions and problems into categories, and the survey was formulated with reference to third year Computing Department students. Furthermore, to discover students’ opinions with respect to all the issues, an exercise was conducted. The survey provided questions related to what the students had learnt and how well they had learnt. We were also interested in feedback on how to improve the course and the final question provided an opportunity for such feedback.

Keywords: Bloom’s taxonomy, e-learning, Omar Al-Mukhtar University.

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4 Molecular Identification of ESBL Genesbla GES-1, blaVEB-1, blaCTX-M blaOXA-1, blaOXA-4,blaOXA-10 and blaPER-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burn Patientsby PCR, RFLP and Sequencing Techniques

Authors: Fereshteh Shacheraghi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Hanieh Noveiri

Abstract:

Fourty one strains of ESBL producing P.aeruginosa which were previously isolated from burn patients in Kerman University general hospital, Iran were subjected to PCR, RFLP and sequencing in order to determine the type of extended spectrum β- lactamases (ESBL), the restriction digestion pattern and possibility of mutation among detected genes. DNA extraction was carried out by phenol chloroform method. PCR for detection of bla genes was performed using specific primer for each gene. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) for ESBL genes was carried out using EcoRI, NheI, PVUII, EcoRV, DdeI, and PstI restriction enzymes. The PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing of both the strands for identification of the ESBL genes.The blaCTX-M, blaVEB-1, blaPER-1, blaGES-1, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-4 and blaOXA-10 genes were detected in the (n=1) 2.43%, (n=41)100%, (n=28) 68.3%, (n=10) 24.4%, (n=29) 70.7%, (n=7)17.1% and (n=38) 92.7% of the ESBL producing isolates respectively. The RFLP analysis showed that each ESBL gene has identical pattern of digestion among the isolated strains. Sequencing of the ESBL genes confirmed the genuinety of PCR products and revealed no mutation in the restriction sites of the above genes. From results of the present investigation it can be concluded that blaVEB-1 and blaCTX-M were the most and the least frequently isolated ESBL genes among the P.aeruginosa strains isolated from burn patients. The RFLP and sequencing analysis revealed that same clone of the bla genes were indeed existed among the antibiotic resistant strains.

Keywords: ESBL genes, PCR, RFLP, Sequencing, P.aeruginosa

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3 Apoptosis Pathway Targeted by Thymoquinone in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cell Line

Authors: M. Marjaneh, M. Y. Narazah, H. Shahrul

Abstract:

Array-based gene expression analysis is a powerful tool to profile expression of genes and to generate information on therapeutic effects of new anti-cancer compounds. Anti-apoptotic effect of thymoquinone was studied in MCF7 breast cancer cell line using gene expression profiling with cDNA microarray. The purity and yield of RNA samples were determined using RNeasyPlus Mini kit. The Agilent RNA 6000 NanoLabChip kit evaluated the quantity of the RNA samples. AffinityScript RT oligo-dT promoter primer was used to generate cDNA strands. T7 RNA polymerase was used to convert cDNA to cRNA. The cRNA samples and human universal reference RNA were labelled with Cy-3-CTP and Cy-5-CTP, respectively. Feature Extraction and GeneSpring softwares analysed the data. The single experiment analysis revealed involvement of 64 pathways with up-regulated genes and 78 pathways with downregulated genes. The MAPK and p38-MAPK pathways were inhibited due to the up-regulation of PTPRR gene. The inhibition of p38-MAPK suggested up-regulation of TGF-ß pathway. Inhibition of p38-MAPK caused up-regulation of TP53 and down-regulation of Bcl2 genes indicating involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Down-regulation of CARD16 gene as an adaptor molecule regulated CASP1 and suggested necrosis-like programmed cell death and involvement of caspase in apoptosis. Furthermore, down-regulation of GPCR, EGF-EGFR signalling pathways suggested reduction of ER. Involvement of AhR pathway which control cytochrome P450 and glucuronidation pathways showed metabolism of Thymoquinone. The findings showed differential expression of several genes in apoptosis pathways with thymoquinone treatment in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

Keywords: CARD16, CASP10, cDNA microarray, PTPRR, Thymoquinone.

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2 Engineering Photodynamic with Radioactive Therapeutic Systems for Sustainable Molecular Polarity: Autopoiesis Systems

Authors: Moustafa Osman Mohammed

Abstract:

This paper introduces Luhmann’s autopoietic social systems starting with the original concept of autopoiesis by biologists and scientists, including the modification of general systems based on socialized medicine. A specific type of autopoietic system is explained in the three existing groups of the ecological phenomena: interaction, social and medical sciences. This hypothesis model, nevertheless, has a nonlinear interaction with its natural environment ‘interactional cycle’ for the exchange of photon energy with molecular without any changes in topology. The external forces in the systems environment might be concomitant with the natural fluctuations’ influence (e.g. radioactive radiation, electromagnetic waves). The cantilever sensor deploys insights to the future chip processor for prevention of social metabolic systems. Thus, the circuits with resonant electric and optical properties are prototyped on board as an intra–chip inter–chip transmission for producing electromagnetic energy approximately ranges from 1.7 mA at 3.3 V to service the detection in locomotion with the least significant power losses. Nowadays, therapeutic systems are assimilated materials from embryonic stem cells to aggregate multiple functions of the vessels nature de-cellular structure for replenishment. While, the interior actuators deploy base-pair complementarity of nucleotides for the symmetric arrangement in particular bacterial nanonetworks of the sequence cycle creating double-stranded DNA strings. The DNA strands must be sequenced, assembled, and decoded in order to reconstruct the original source reliably. The design of exterior actuators have the ability in sensing different variations in the corresponding patterns regarding beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV) for spatial autocorrelation of molecular communication, which consists of human electromagnetic, piezoelectric, electrostatic and electrothermal energy to monitor and transfer the dynamic changes of all the cantilevers simultaneously in real-time workspace with high precision. A prototype-enabled dynamic energy sensor has been investigated in the laboratory for inclusion of nanoscale devices in the architecture with a fuzzy logic control for detection of thermal and electrostatic changes with optoelectronic devices to interpret uncertainty associated with signal interference. Ultimately, the controversial aspect of molecular frictional properties is adjusted to each other and forms its unique spatial structure modules for providing the environment mutual contribution in the investigation of mass temperature changes due to pathogenic archival architecture of clusters.

Keywords: Autopoiesis, quantum photonics, portable energy, photonic structure, photodynamic therapeutic system.

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1 Teaching Linguistic Humour Research Theories: Egyptian Higher Education EFL Literature Classes

Authors: O. F. Elkommos

Abstract:

“Humour studies” is an interdisciplinary research area that is relatively recent. It interests researchers from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, medicine, nursing, in the work place, gender studies, among others, and certainly teaching, language learning, linguistics, and literature. Linguistic theories of humour research are numerous; some of which are of interest to the present study. In spite of the fact that humour courses are now taught in universities around the world in the Egyptian context it is not included. The purpose of the present study is two-fold: to review the state of arts and to show how linguistic theories of humour can be possibly used as an art and craft of teaching and of learning in EFL literature classes. In the present study linguistic theories of humour were applied to selected literary texts to interpret humour as an intrinsic artistic communicative competence challenge. Humour in the area of linguistics was seen as a fifth component of communicative competence of the second language leaner. In literature it was studied as satire, irony, wit, or comedy. Linguistic theories of humour now describe its linguistic structure, mechanism, function, and linguistic deviance. Semantic Script Theory of Verbal Humor (SSTH), General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH), Audience Based Theory of Humor (ABTH), and their extensions and subcategories as well as the pragmatic perspective were employed in the analyses. This research analysed the linguistic semantic structure of humour, its mechanism, and how the audience reader (teacher or learner) becomes an interactive interpreter of the humour. This promotes humour competence together with the linguistic, social, cultural, and discourse communicative competence. Studying humour as part of the literary texts and the perception of its function in the work also brings its positive association in class for educational purposes. Humour is by default a provoking/laughter-generated device. Incongruity recognition, perception and resolving it, is a cognitive mastery. This cognitive process involves a humour experience that lightens up the classroom and the mind. It establishes connections necessary for the learning process. In this context the study examined selected narratives to exemplify the application of the theories. It is, therefore, recommended that the theories would be taught and applied to literary texts for a better understanding of the language. Students will then develop their language competence. Teachers in EFL/ESL classes will teach the theories, assist students apply them and interpret text and in the process will also use humour. This is thus easing students' acquisition of the second language, making the classroom an enjoyable, cheerful, self-assuring, and self-illuminating experience for both themselves and their students. It is further recommended that courses of humour research studies should become an integral part of higher education curricula in Egypt.

Keywords: ABTH, deviance, disjuncture, episodic, GTVH, humour competence, humour comprehension, humour in the classroom, humour in the literary texts, humour research linguistic theories, incongruity- resolution, isotopy-disjunction, jab line, longer text joke, narrative story line (macro-micro), punch line, six knowledge resource, SSTH, stacks, strands, teaching linguistics, teaching literature, TEFL, TESL.

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