Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2340

Search results for: standing wave ratio

2340 Effect on Bandwidth of Using Double Substrates Based Metamaterial Planar Antenna

Authors: Smrity Dwivedi

Abstract:

The present paper has revealed the effect of double substrates over a bandwidth performance for planar antennas. The used material has its own importance to get minimum return loss and improved directivity. The author has taken double substrates to enhance the efficiency in terms of gain of antenna. Metamaterial based antenna has its own specific structure which increased the performance of antenna. Improved return loss is -20 dB, and the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is 1.2, which is better than single substrate having return loss of -15 dB and VSWR of 1.4. Complete results are obtained using commercial software CST microwave studio.

Keywords: Metamaterials, return loss, standing wave ratio, directivity, CST microwave studio.

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2339 A Study of Standing-Wave Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Authors: Patcharin Saechan, Isares Dhuchakallaya

Abstract:

Thermoacoustic refrigerator is a cooling device which uses the acoustic waves to produce the cooling effect. The aim of this paper is to explore the experimental and numerical feasibility of a standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator. The effects of the stack length, position of stack and operating frequency on the cooling performance are carried out. The circular pore stacks are tested under the atmospheric pressure. A low-cost loudspeaker is used as an acoustic driver. The results show that the location of stack installed in resonator tube has a greater effect on the cooling performance, than the stack length and operating frequency, respectively. The temperature difference across the ends of stack can be generated up to 13.7°C, and the temperature of cold-end is dropped down by 5.3°C from the ambient temperature.

Keywords: Cooling performance, Refrigerator, Standing-wave, Thermoacoustics.

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2338 Wave Vortex Parameters as an Indicator of Breaking Intensity

Authors: B. Robertson, K. Hall

Abstract:

The study of the geometric shape of the plunging wave enclosed vortices as a possible indicator for the breaking intensity of ocean waves has been ongoing for almost 50 years with limited success. This paper investigates the validity of using the vortex ratio and vortex angle as methods of predicting breaking intensity. Previously published works on vortex parameters, based on regular wave flume results or solitary wave theory, present contradictory results and conclusions. Through the first complete analysis of field collected irregular wave breaking vortex parameters it is illustrated that the vortex ratio and vortex angle cannot be accurately predicted using standard breaking wave characteristics and hence are not suggested as a possible indicator for breaking intensity.

Keywords: Breaking Wave Measurement, Wave Vortex Parameters, Analytical Techniques, Ocean Remote Sensing.

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2337 A 4-Element Corporate Series Feed Millimeter-Wave Microstrip Antenna Array for 5G Applications

Authors: G. Viswanadh Raviteja

Abstract:

In this paper, a microstrip antenna array is designed for 5G applications. A corporate series feed is considered to operate with a center frequency between 27 to 28 GHz to be able to cover the 5G frequency bands 24.25-27.5 GHz, 26.5-29.5 GHz and 27.5-28.35 GHz. The substrate is taken to be Rogers RT/Duroid 6002. The corporate series 5G antenna array is designed stage by stage by taking into consideration a conventional antenna designed at 28 GHz, thereby constructing the 2X1 antenna array before arriving at the final design structure of 4-element corporate series feed antenna array. The discussions concerning S11 parameter, gain and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) for the design structures are considered and all the important findings are tabulated. The proposed antenna array’s S11 parameter was found to be -29.00 dB at a frequency of 27.39 GHz with a good directional gain of 12.12 dB.

Keywords: Corporate series feed, millimeter wave antenna array, 5G applications, millimeter-wave (mm-wave) applications

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2336 Experimental Characterization of a Thermoacoustic Travelling-Wave Refrigerator

Authors: M. Pierens, J.-P. Thermeau, T. Le Pollès, P. Duthil

Abstract:

The performances of a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator are presented. Developed in the frame of the European project called THATEA, it is designed for providing 600 W at a temperature of 233 K with an efficiency of 40 % relative to the Carnot efficiency. This paper presents the device and the results of the first measurements. For a cooling power of 210 W, a coefficient of performance relative to Carnot of 30 % is achieved when the refrigerator is coupled with an existing standing-wave engine.

Keywords: Refrigeration, sustainable energy, thermoacoustics, travelling-wave type heat pump

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2335 Simulation of Irregular Waves by CFD

Authors: Muniyandy Elangovan

Abstract:

Wave generation methodology has been developed and validated by simulating wave in CFD. In this analysis, Flap type wave maker has been modeled numerically with wave basin to generate waves for marine experimental analysis. Irregular waves are arrived from the wave spectrum, and this wave has been simulated in CFD. Generated irregular wave has been compared with an analytical wave. Simulated wave has been processed for FFT analysis, and the wave spectrum is validated with original wave spectrum.

Keywords: Numerical wave tank, irregular wave, FFT, wavespectrum

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2334 Analytical Investigation of the Effects of a Standing Ocean Wave in a Wave-Power Device OWC

Authors: E.G. Bautista, F. Méndez, O. Bautista, J.C. Arcos

Abstract:

In this work we study analytically and numerically the performance of the mean heave motion of an OWC coupled with the governing equation of the spreading ocean waves due to the wide variation in an open parabolic channel with constant depth. This paper considers that the ocean wave propagation is under the assumption of a shallow flow condition. In order to verify the effect of the waves in the OWC firstly we establish the analytical model in a non-dimensional form based on the energy equation. The proposed wave-power system has to aims: one is to perturb the ocean waves as a consequence of the channel shape in order to concentrate the maximum ocean wave amplitude in the neighborhood of the OWC and the second is to determine the pressure and volume oscillation of air inside the compression chamber.

Keywords: Oscillating water column, Shallow flow, Waveenergy.

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2333 T-Wave Detection Based on an Adjusted Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima

Authors: Samar Krimi, Kaïs Ouni, Noureddine Ellouze

Abstract:

The method described in this paper deals with the problems of T-wave detection in an ECG. Determining the position of a T-wave is complicated due to the low amplitude, the ambiguous and changing form of the complex. A wavelet transform approach handles these complications therefore a method based on this concept was developed. In this way we developed a detection method that is able to detect T-waves with a sensitivity of 93% and a correct-detection ratio of 93% even with a serious amount of baseline drift and noise.

Keywords: ECG, Modulus Maxima Wavelet Transform, Performance, T-wave detection

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2332 Wave-Structure Interaction for Submerged Quarter-Circle Breakwaters of Different Radii - Reflection Characteristics

Authors: Arkal Vittal Hegde, L. Ravikiran

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of a series of experiments conducted on physical models of Quarter-circle breakwater (QBW) in a two dimensional monochromatic wave flume. The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate the reflection coefficient Kr of QBW models of different radii (R) for different submergence ratios (d/hc), where d is the depth of water and hc is the height of the breakwater crest from the sea bed. The radii of the breakwater models studied were 20cm, 22.5cm, 25cm, 27.5cm and submergence ratios used varied from 1.067 to 1.667. The wave climate off the Mangalore coast was used for arriving at the various model wave parameters. The incident wave heights (Hi) used in the flume varied from 3 to 18cm, and wave periods (T) ranged from 1.2 s to 2.2 s. The water depths (d) of 40cm, 45cm and 50cm were used in the experiments. The data collected was analyzed to compute variation of reflection coefficient Kr=Hr/Hi (where Hr=reflected wave height) with the wave steepness Hi/gT2 for various R/Hi (R=breakwater radius) values. It was found that the reflection coefficient increased as incident wave steepness increased. Also as wave height decreases reflection coefficient decreases and as structure radius R increased Kr decreased slightly.

Keywords: Incident wave steepness, Quarter-circle breakwater, Reflection coefficient, Submergence ratio.

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2331 Reconfigurable Circularly Polarized Compact Short Backfire Antenna

Authors: M. Javid Asad, M. Zafrullah, Mian Shahzad Iqbal

Abstract:

In this research paper, a slotted coaxial line fed cross dipole excitation structure for short backfire antenna is proposed and developed to achieve reconfigurable circular polarization. The cross dipole, which is fed by the slotted coaxial line, consists of two orthogonal dipoles. The dipoles are mounted on the outer conductor of the coaxial line. A unique technique is developed to generate reconfigurable circular polarization using cross dipole configuration. The sub-reflector is supported by the feed line, thus requiring no extra support. The antenna is developed on elliptical ground plane with dielectric rim making antenna compact. It is demonstrated that cross dipole excited short backfire antenna can achieve voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) bandwidth of 14.28% for 2:1 VSWR, axial ratio of 0.2 dB with axial ratio (≤ 3dB) bandwidth of 2.14% and a gain of more than 12 dBi. The experimental results for the designed antenna structure are in close agreement with computer simulations.

Keywords: Circularly polarized, compact, short backfireantenna.

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2330 Polarization Modulation by free-Standing Asymmetric Hole Arrays

Authors: Hong-Wen Hsieh, Shun-Tung Yen

Abstract:

We theoretically demonstrate modulation of light polarization by a crossed rectangular hole array with asymmetric arm lengths. There are two waveguide modes that can modulate the x- and y- polarized incident waves independently. A specific structure is proposed to convert a left-hand incident wave to a right-hand outgoing wave by transmission.

Keywords: Crossed rectangular hole array, extraordinary optical transmission, polarization modulation.

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2329 Statistical Description of Wave Interactions in 1D Defect Turbulence

Authors: Yusuke Uchiyama, Hidetoshi Konno

Abstract:

We have investigated statistical properties of the defect turbulence in 1D CGLE wherein many body interaction is involved between local depressing wave (LDW) and local standing wave (LSW). It is shown that the counting number fluctuation of LDW is subject to the sub-Poisson statistics (SUBP). The physical origin of the SUBP can be ascribed to pair extinction of LDWs based on the master equation approach. It is also shown that the probability density function (pdf) of inter-LDW distance can be identified by the hyper gamma distribution. Assuming a superstatistics of the exponential distribution (Poisson configuration), a plausible explanation is given. It is shown further that the pdf of amplitude of LDW has a fattail. The underlying mechanism of its fluctuation is examined by introducing a generalized fractional Poisson configuration.

Keywords: sub-Poisson statistics, hyper gamma distribution, fractional Poisson configuration.

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2328 Investigation of Dam Safety Making Use of Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) Seismic Method

Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke

Abstract:

Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) seismic method is widely used in geotechnical engineering for the measurement of shear wave velocity and evaluation of material property. This method was recently conducted at a Dam site located in Zaria, within the basement complex of northern Nigeria. The aim of this experiment was to make use of the MASW method in evaluating the strength of material properties of a section of the Dam embankment, which is vital to ascertain the safety of the Dam. The result revealed that, the material embankment showed general increase of shear wave velocity with depth. The range of shear wave velocities and the determined Poisson’s ratio falls within the normal range of consolidated rock material, indicating the Dam embankment is still consolidated. The range of shear modulus determined, also shows that the Dam embankment is rigid enough to withstand the shear stress imposed by the impounded water.

Keywords: Dam, MASW, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave, Seismic.

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2327 An Analysis of the Performances of Various Buoys as the Floats of Wave Energy Converters

Authors: İlkay Özer Erselcan, Abdi Kükner, Gökhan Ceylan

Abstract:

The power generated by eight point absorber type wave energy converters each having a different buoy are calculated in order to investigate the performances of buoys in this study. The calculations are carried out by modeling three different sea states observed in two different locations in the Black Sea. The floats analyzed in this study have two basic geometries and four different draft/radius (d/r) ratios. The buoys possess the shapes of a semi-ellipsoid and a semi-elliptic paraboloid. Additionally, the draft/radius ratios range from 0.25 to 1 by an increment of 0.25. The radiation forces acting on the buoys due to the oscillatory motions of these bodies are evaluated by employing a 3D panel method along with a distribution of 3D pulsating sources in frequency domain. On the other hand, the wave forces acting on the buoys which are taken as the sum of Froude-Krylov forces and diffraction forces are calculated by using linear wave theory. Furthermore, the wave energy converters are assumed to be taut-moored to the seabed so that the secondary body which houses a power take-off system oscillates with much smaller amplitudes compared to the buoy. As a result, it is assumed that there is not any significant contribution to the power generation from the motions of the housing body and the only contribution to power generation comes from the buoy. The power take-off systems of the wave energy converters are high pressure oil hydraulic systems which are identical in terms of their characteristic parameters. The results show that the power generated by wave energy converters which have semi-ellipsoid floats is higher than that of those which have semi elliptic paraboloid floats in both locations and in all sea states. It is also determined that the power generated by the wave energy converters follow an unsteady pattern such that they do not decrease or increase with changing draft/radius ratios of the floats. Although the highest power level is obtained with a semi-ellipsoid float which has a draft/radius ratio equal to 1, other floats of which the draft/radius ratio is 0.25 delivered higher power that the floats with a draft/radius ratio equal to 1 in some cases.

Keywords: Black Sea, Buoys, Hydraulic Power Take-Off System, Wave Energy Converters.

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2326 A Study of the Relation of Wave Height and Erosion at Bangkhuntien Shoreline, Thailand

Authors: Prasertsak Ekphisutsuntorn, Prungchan Wongwises, Chaiyuth Chinnarasri, Usa Humphries, Suphat Vongvisessomjai

Abstract:

In this paper, the significant wave height at the Upper Gulf of Thailand and the changing of wave height at Bangkhuntien shoreline were simulated by using the Simulating WAves Nearshore Model (SWAN) version 40.51. The simulated results indicated that the significant wave height by SWAN model corresponded with the observed data. The results showed that the maximum significant wave height at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were 1.06-2.05 m. and the average significant wave height at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were 0.30-0.47 m. The significant wave height can be used to calculate the erosion through the Bangkhuntien shoreline. The erosion rates at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were prepared by using the aerial photo and they were about 1.80 m/yr. from 1980- 1986, 4.75 m/yr from 1987-1993, 15.28 m/yr from 1994-1996 and 10.03 m/yr from 1997-2002. The relation between the wave energy and the erosion were in good agreement. Therefore, the significant wave height was one of the major factors of the erosion at the Bangkhuntien shoreline.

Keywords: significant wave height, erosion, SWAN, relation, Bangkhuntien shoreline

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2325 Strength of Fine Concrete Used in Textile Reinforced Concrete by Changing Water-Binder Ratio

Authors: Taekyun Kim, Jongho Park, Jinwoong Choi, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Recently, the abnormal climate phenomenon has enlarged due to the global warming. As a result, temperature variation is increasing and the term is being prolonged, frequency of high and low temperature is increasing by heat wave and severe cold. Especially for reinforced concrete structure, the corrosion of reinforcement has occurred by concrete crack due to temperature change and the durability of the structure that has decreased by concrete crack. Accordingly, the textile reinforced concrete (TRC) which does not corrode due to using textile is getting the interest and the investigation of TRC is proceeding. The study of TRC structure behavior has proceeded, but the characteristic study of the concrete used in TRC is insufficient. Therefore, characteristic of the concrete by changing mixing ratio is studied in this paper. As a result, mixing ratio with different water-binder ratio has influenced to the strength of concrete. Also, as the water-binder ratio has decreased, strength of concrete has increased.

Keywords: Concrete, mixing ratio, textile, TRC.

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2324 Analysis of FWM Penalties in DWDM Systems Based on G.652, G.653, and G.655 Optical Fibers

Authors: Paula B. Harboe, Edilson da Silva, José R. Souza

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation of the power penalties imposed by four-wave mixing (FWM) on G.652 (Single- Mode Fiber - SMF), G.653 (Dispersion-Shifted Fiber - DSF), and G.655 (Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber - NZDSF) compliant fibers, considering the DWDM grids suggested by the ITU-T Recommendations G.692, and G.694.1, with uniform channel spacing of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 GHz. The mathematical/numerical model assumes undepleted pumping, and shows very clearly the deleterious effect of FWM on the performance of DWDM systems, measured by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The results make it evident that non-uniform channel spacing is practically mandatory for WDM systems based on DSF fibers.

Keywords: DWDM systems, Four-Wave Mixing (FWM), G.652, G.653, G.655 compliant fibers, Signal-to-noise ratio.

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2323 Increased Signal to Noise Ratio in P300 Potentials by the Method of Coherent Self-Averaging in BCI Systems

Authors: Ricardo Espinosa

Abstract:

The coherent Self-Averaging (CSA), is a new method proposed in this work; applied to simulated signals evoked potentials related to events (ERP) to find the wave P300, useful systems in the brain computer interface (BCI). The CSA method cleans signal in the time domain of white noise through of successive averaging of a single signal. The method is compared with the traditional method, coherent averaging or synchronized (CA), showing optimal results in the improvement of the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The method of CSA is easy to implement, robust and applicable to any physiological time series contaminated with white noise

Keywords: Evoked potentials, wave P300, Coherent Self-averaging, brain - computer interface (BCI).

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2322 Guidelines for Selecting the Appropriate Heel Insert for Long-Standing Ladies

Authors: Atisthan Wuttimanop, Suchada Rianmora, Mahint Mahattanakorn

Abstract:

Feet and ankles are parts of human body that receive high-pressure in every day. Feet disorders such as ankle sprain, achilles tendonitis, heel pain, and plantar fasciitis are very common. There are many causes for these feet disorders such as wearing high heels, obesity, sports activity, and standing for a long time. There are many reliefs for feet disorders such as heel insert. However, they come in various shapes and use different materials. There are no specifications in which type is suitable for specific user. This has led to the proposed research to provide guidelines for selecting the appropriate heel insert for ladies who face with long-standing carriers. This research uses contact-measuring techniques to test forces, contact area, and pressure acting on a person’s feet in various standing positions with different insert materials and shapes. The proper material for making insert will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: Heel inserts, Long-standing person, Contact-data acquisition, Finite element analysis, Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA).

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2321 Traveling Wave Solutions for Shallow Water Wave Equation by (G'/G)-Expansion Method

Authors: Anjali Verma, Ram Jiwari, Jitender Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new function expansion method for finding traveling wave solution of a non-linear equation and calls it the (G'/G)-expansion method. The shallow water wave equation is reduced to a non linear ordinary differential equation by using a simple transformation. As a result the traveling wave solutions of shallow water wave equation are expressed in three forms: hyperbolic solutions, trigonometric solutions and rational solutions.

Keywords: Shallow water wave equation, Exact solutions, (G'/G) expansion method.

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2320 Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array

Authors: Badar Muneer, Waseem Shabir, Faisal Karim Shaikh

Abstract:

Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.

Keywords: Feeding network, laminated waveguide, PIFA, transverse slots.

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2319 Proposed Geometric Printed Patch Shapes for Microstrip Ultra-Wideband Antennas

Authors: Rashid A. Fayadh, F. Malek, Hilal A. Fadhil, Norshafinash Saudin

Abstract:

In this paper, a design of ultra wideband (UWB) printed microstrip antennas that fed by microstrip transmission line were presented and printed on a substrate Taconic TLY-5 material with relative dielectric constant of 2.2. The proposed antennas were designed to cover the frequency range of 3.5 to 12 GHz. The antennas of printed patch shapes are rectangular, triangle/rectangular, hexagonal, and circular with the same dimensions of feeder and ground plane. The proposed antennas were simulated using a package of CST microwave studio in the 2 to 12 GHz operating frequency range. Simulation results and comparison for return loss (S11), radiation patterns, and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) were presented and discussed over the UWB frequency.

Keywords: Microstrip patch antenna, ultra-wideband frequency, wireless communication systems, return loss and radiation patterns.

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2318 CFD Simulation and Validation of Flap Type Wave-Maker

Authors: Anant Lal, M. Elangovan

Abstract:

A general purpose viscous flow solver Ansys CFX was used to solve the unsteady three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Equation (RANSE) for simulating a 3D numerical viscous wave tank. A flap-type wave generator was incorporated in the computational domain to generate the desired incident waves. Authors have made effort to study the physical behaviors of Flap type wave maker with governing parameters. Dependency of the water fill depth, Time period of oscillations and amplitude of oscillations of flap were studied. Effort has been made to establish relations between parameters. A validation study was also carried out against CFD methodology with wave maker theory. It has been observed that CFD results are in good agreement with theoretical results. Beaches of different slopes were introduced to damp the wave, so that it should not cause any reflection from boundary. As a conclusion this methodology can simulate the experimental wave-maker for regular wave generation for different wave length and amplitudes.

Keywords: CFD, RANSE, Flap type, wave-maker, VOF, seakeeping, numerical method.

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2317 Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Shape Effect on Shock Wave in Natural Gas Processing

Authors: Esam I. Jassim, Mohamed M. Awad

Abstract:

Natural gas flow contains undesirable solid particles, liquid condensation, and/or oil droplets and requires reliable removing equipment to perform filtration. Recent natural gas processing applications are demanded compactness and reliability of process equipment. Since conventional means are sophisticated in design, poor in efficiency, and continue lacking robust, a supersonic nozzle has been introduced as an alternative means to meet such demands. A 3-D Convergent-Divergent Nozzle is simulated using commercial Code for pressure ratio (NPR) varies from 1.2 to 2. Six different shapes of nozzle are numerically examined to illustrate the position of shock-wave as such spot could be considered as a benchmark of particle separation. Rectangle, triangle, circular, elliptical, pentagon, and hexagon nozzles are simulated using Fluent Code with all have same cross-sectional area. The simple one-dimensional inviscid theory does not describe the actual features of fluid flow precisely as it ignores the impact of nozzle configuration on the flow properties. CFD Simulation results, however, show that nozzle geometry influences the flow structures including location of shock wave. The CFD analysis predicts shock appearance when p01/pa>1.2 for almost all geometry and locates at the lower area ratio (Ae/At). Simulation results showed that shock wave in Elliptical nozzle has the farthest distance from the throat among the others at relatively small NPR. As NPR increases, hexagon would be the farthest. The numerical result is compared with available experimental data and has shown good agreement in terms of shock location and flow structure.

Keywords: CFD, Particle Separation, Shock wave, Supersonic Nozzle.

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2316 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang

Abstract:

Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: Characteristic equation, interface waves, dispersion curves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structures.

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2315 Real-time Interactive Ocean Wave Simulation using Multithread

Authors: K. Prachumrak, T. Kanchanapornchai

Abstract:

This research simulates one of the natural phenomena, the ocean wave. Our goal is to be able to simulate the ocean wave at real-time rate with the water surface interacting with objects. The wave in this research is calm and smooth caused by the force of the wind above the ocean surface. In order to make the simulation of the wave real-time, the implementation of the GPU and the multithreading techniques are used here. Based on the fact that the new generation CPUs, for personal computers, have multi cores, they are useful for the multithread. This technique utilizes more than one core at a time. This simulation is programmed by C language with OpenGL. To make the simulation of the wave look more realistic, we applied an OpenGL technique called cube mapping (environmental mapping) to make water surface reflective and more realistic.

Keywords: Interactive wave, ocean wave, wind effect, multithread

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2314 The Radial Pulse Wave and Blood Viscosity

Authors: Hyunhee Ryu, Young Ju Jeon, Jaeuk U. Kim, Hae Jung Lee, Yu Jung Lee, Jong Yeol Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blood viscosity on the radial pulse wave. For this, we obtained the radial pulse wave of 15 males with abnormal high hematocrit level and 47 males with normal hematocrit level at the age of thirties and forties. Various variables of the radial pulse wave between two groups were analyzed and compared by Student's T test. There are significant differences in several variables about height, time and area of the pulse wave. The first peak of the radial pulse wave was higher in abnormal high hematocrit group, but the third peak was higher and longer in normal hematocrit group. Our results suggest that the radial pulse wave can be used for diagnosis of high blood viscosity and more clinical application.

Keywords: Radial pulse wave, Blood viscosity, Hematocrit.

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2313 A FE-Based Scheme for Computing Wave Interaction with Nonlinear Damage and Generation of Harmonics in Layered Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos

Abstract:

A Finite Element (FE) based scheme is presented for quantifying guided wave interaction with Localised Nonlinear Structural Damage (LNSD) within structures of arbitrary layering and geometric complexity. The through-thickness mode-shape of the structure is obtained through a wave and finite element method. This is applied in a time domain FE simulation in order to generate time harmonic excitation for a specific wave mode. Interaction of the wave with LNSD within the system is computed through an element activation and deactivation iteration. The scheme is validated against experimental measurements and a WFE-FE methodology for calculating wave interaction with damage. Case studies for guided wave interaction with crack and delamination are presented to verify the robustness of the proposed method in classifying and identifying damage.

Keywords: Layered Structures, nonlinear ultrasound, wave interaction with nonlinear damage, wave finite element, finite element.

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2312 A Canadian Leaf Shaped Triple Band Patch Antenna with DGS for X and C-Band Applications

Authors: R. Kiruthika, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

A shaped single feed microstrip antenna is realized for C-Band and X-Band applications. The frequency range of C-band and X-band varies from 4 to 8 Gigahertz and 8 to 12 Gigahertz. The antenna operates under three frequency bands, one under C band and two under X-band applications. Defect on the ground called DGS (Defected Ground Structure) is made to enhance the distinctiveness of the antenna parameters. The design consists of DGS provided to improve the antenna performance. The substrate material used is of the Flame Retardant grade-4 (FR4) epoxy having high mechanical and electrical strength. The design and analysis was done using the FEM (Finite Element Method) based Ansoft HFSS (High Frequency Structural Simulator) Version 12. For the resonant frequencies of 5.21, 9.17 and 10.45, a value of reflection coefficient obtained is of -39.0, -16.0 and -30.7 dB respectively. Other constraints of antenna such as bandwidth, gain, directivity and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) are also conferred.

Keywords: Flame retardant-4 epoxy, finite element method, return loss, directivity.

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2311 Parametric Analysis of Water Lily Shaped Split Ring Resonator Loaded Fractal Monopole Antenna for Multiband Applications

Authors: C. Elavarasi, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

A coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed is presented, and comprising a split ring resonator (SRR) loaded fractal with water lily shape is used for multi band applications. The impedance matching of the antenna is determined by the number of Koch curve fractal unit cells. The antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate with a permittivity of εr = 4.4 and size of 14 x 16 x 1.6 mm3 to generate multi resonant mode at 3.8 GHz covering S band, 8.68 GHz at X band, 13.96 GHz at Ku band, and 19.74 GHz at K band with reflection coefficient better than -10 dB. Simulation results show that the antenna exhibits the desired voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) level and radiation patterns across the wide frequency range. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as return loss, VSWR, good radiation pattern with reasonable gain across the operating bands are obtained.

Keywords: Monopole antenna, fractal, metamaterial, waterlily shape, split ring resonator, multiband.

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