Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 505

Search results for: stakeholder theory

505 Decision-Making Criteria of PPP Projects: Stakeholder Theoretic Perspective

Authors: Xueqin Shan, Wenhua Hou, Xiaosu Ye, Chuanming Wu

Abstract:

Any decision-making is based on certain theory. Taking the public rental housing in Chongqing municipality as an example, this essay states that the stakeholder theory can provide innovative criteria and evaluation methods for Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects. It gives an analysis of how to choose decision-making criteria for different stakeholders in the PPP model and what measures to take to meet the criteria to form “symbiotic" decision-making mode through contracts and to boost the application of PPP model in large-scale public programs in China.

Keywords: PPP, Stakeholder Theory, Stakeholders, Decision- making Criteria

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504 Measuring the CSR Company-Stakeholder Fit

Authors: Armando Calabrese, Roberta Costa, Tamara Menichini, Francesco Rosati

Abstract:

As a company competitiveness depends more and more on the relationship with its stakeholders, the topic of companystakeholder fit is becoming increasingly important. This fit affects the extent to which a stakeholder perceives CSR company commitment, values and behaviors and, therefore, stakeholder identification in a company and his/her loyalty to it. Consequently, it is important to measure the alignment or the gap between stakeholder CSR demands, values, preferences and perceptions, and the company CSR disclosed commitment, values and policies. In this paper, in order to assess the company-stakeholder fit about corporate responsibility, an innovative CSR fit positioning matrix is proposed. This matrix is based on the measurement of a company CSR disclosed commitment and stakeholder perceived and required commitment. The matrix is part of a more complex methodology based on Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) indicators, content analysis and stakeholder questionnaires. This methodology provides appropriate indications for helping companies to achieve CSR company-stakeholder fit, by leveraging both CSR commitment and communication. Moreover, it could be used by top management for comparing different companies and stakeholders, and for planning specific CSR strategies, policies and activities.

Keywords: Company-Stakeholder fit, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), CSR Positioning Matrix, Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), Stakeholder Orientation.

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503 Stakeholder Analysis: Who are the Key Actorsin Establishing and Developing Thai Independent Consumer Organizations?

Authors: P. Ondee, S. Pannarunothai

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In Thailand, both the 1997 and the current 2007 Thai Constitutions have mentioned the establishment of independent organizations as a new mechanism to play a key role in proposing policy recommendations to national decision-makers in the interest of collective consumers. Over the last ten years, no independent organizations have yet been set up. Evidently, nobody could point out who should be key players in establishing provincial independent consumer bodies. The purpose of this study was to find definitive stakeholders in establishing and developing independent consumer bodies in a Thai context. This was a cross-sectional study between August and September 2007, using a postal questionnaire with telephone follow-up. The questionnaire was designed and used to obtain multiple stakeholder assessment of three key attributes (power, interest and influence). Study population was 153 stakeholders associated with policy decision-making, formulation and implementation processes of civil-based consumer protection in pilot provinces. The population covered key representatives from five sectors (academics, government officers, business traders, mass media and consumer networks) who participated in the deliberative forums at 10 provinces. A 49.7% response rate was achieved. Data were analyzed, comparing means of three stakeholder attributes and classification of stakeholder typology. The results showed that the provincial health officers were the definitive stakeholders as they had legal power, influence and interest in establishing and sustaining the independent consumer bodies. However, only a few key representatives of the provincial health officers expressed their own paradigm on the civil-based consumer protection. Most provincial health officers put their own standpoint of building civic participation at only a plan-implementation level. For effective policy implementation by the independent consumer bodies, the Thai government should provide budgetary support for the operation of the provincial health officers with their paradigm shift as well as their own clarified standpoint on corporate governance.

Keywords: Civic participation, civil society, consumerprotection, independent organization, policy decision-making, stakeholder analysis.

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502 Closing the Loop between Building Sustainability and Stakeholder Engagement: Case Study of an Australian University

Authors: Karishma Kashyap, Subha D. Parida

Abstract:

Rapid population growth and urbanization is creating pressure throughout the world. This has a dramatic effect on a lot of elements which include water, food, transportation, energy, infrastructure etc. as few of the key services. Built environment sector is growing concurrently to meet the needs of urbanization. Due to such large scale development of buildings, there is a need for them to be monitored and managed efficiently. Along with appropriate management, climate adaptation is highly crucial as well because buildings are one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission in their operation phase. Buildings to be adaptive need to provide a triple bottom approach to sustainability i.e., being socially, environmentally and economically sustainable. Hence, in order to deliver these sustainability outcomes, there is a growing understanding and thrive towards switching to green buildings or renovating new ones as per green standards wherever possible. Academic institutions in particular have been following this trend globally. This is highly significant as universities usually have high occupancy rates because they manage a large building portfolio. Also, as universities accommodate the future generation of architects, policy makers etc., they have the potential of setting themselves as a best industry practice model for research and innovation for the rest to follow. Hence their climate adaptation, sustainable growth and performance management becomes highly crucial in order to provide the best services to users. With the objective of evaluating appropriate management mechanisms within academic institutions, a feasibility study was carried out in a recent 5-Star Green Star rated university building (housing the School of Construction) in Victoria (south-eastern state of Australia). The key aim was to understand the behavioral and social aspect of the building users, management and the impact of their relationship on overall building sustainability. A survey was used to understand the building occupant’s response and reactions in terms of their work environment and management. A report was generated based on the survey results complemented with utility and performance data which were then used to evaluate the management structure of the university. Followed by the report, interviews were scheduled with the facility and asset managers in order to understand the approach they use to manage the different buildings in their university campuses (old, new, refurbished), respective building and parameters incorporated in maintaining the Green Star performance. The results aimed at closing the communication and feedback loop within the respective institutions and assist the facility managers to deliver appropriate stakeholder engagement. For the wider design community, analysis of the data highlights the applicability and significance of prioritizing key stakeholders, integrating desired engagement policies within an institution’s management structures and frameworks and their effect on building performance

Keywords: Building Optimization, Green Building, Post Occupancy Evaluation, Stakeholder Engagement.

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501 Gaming for the Energy Neutral Development: A Case Study of Strijp-S

Authors: Q. Han, W. Schaefer, R. van den Berg

Abstract:

This paper deals with stakeholders’ decisions within energy neutral urban redevelopment processes. The decisions of these stakeholders during the process will make or break energy neutral ambitions. An extensive form of game theory model gave insight in the behavioral differences of stakeholders regarding energy neutral ambitions and the effects of the changing legislation. The results show that new legislation regarding spatial planning slightly influences the behavior of stakeholders. An active behavior of the municipality will still result in the best outcome. Nevertheless, the municipality becomes more powerful when acting passively and can make the use of planning tools to provide governance towards energy neutral urban redevelopment. Moreover, organizational support, recognizing the necessity for energy neutrality, keeping focused and collaboration among stakeholders are crucial elements to achieve the objective of an energy neutral urban (re)development.

Keywords: Energy neutrality urban (re)development, stakeholder behavior, legislation, game theory.

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500 Stakeholder Background and Knowledge Regarding Green Home Rating in Malaysia

Authors: Muhammad Azzam Ismail, Fahanim Abdul Rashid, Deo Prasad

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Green home rating has emerged as an important agenda to practice the principles of sustainability. In Malaysia, the establishment of the 'Green Building Index ' Residential New Construction- (GBI-RNC) has brought this agenda closer to the stakeholders of the local green building industry. GBI-RNC focuses on the evaluation of the environmental impacts posed by houses rather than assessing the Triple-Bottom-Line (TBL) of Sustainability which also include socio-economic factors. Therefore, as part of a wider study, a survey was conducted to gather the backgrounds of green building stakeholders in Malaysia and their responses to a number of exploratory questions regarding the setting up of a framework to rate green homes against the TBL. This paper reports the findings from Section A and B from this survey and discusses them accordingly with a conclusion that forms part of the basis for a new generation green home rating framework specifically for use in Malaysia.

Keywords: Green home rating, Malaysia, stakeholder surveyanalysis

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499 Role of Customers in Stakeholders- Approach in Company Corporate Governance

Authors: Kolis Karel, Kubicek Ales

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the customers- issues in company corporate governance and the financial performance. At the beginning theoretical background consisting stakeholder theory and corporate governance is presented. On this theoretical background, the empirical research is built, collecting data of 60 Czech joint stock companies- boards considering their relationships with customers. Correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were employed to test the sample on two hypotheses. The weak positive correlation between stakeholder approach and the company size was identified. But both hypotheses were not supported, because there was no significant relation of independent variables to financial performance.

Keywords: customers, stakeholder theory, corporate governance, financial performance

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498 The Impact of Stakeholder Communication Strategies on Consumers- Acceptance and Financial Performance: In the Case of Fertilizer Industry in Malaysia

Authors: Hasnida Abdul Wahab, Shahrina Md Nordin, Lai Fong Woon, Hasrina Mustafa

Abstract:

There has been a growing emphasis in communication management from simple coordination of promotional tools to a complex strategic process. This study will examine the current marketing communications and engagement strategies used in addressing the key stakeholders. In the case of fertilizer industry in Malaysia, there has been little empirical research on stakeholder communication when major challenges facing the modern corporation is the need to communicate its identity, its values and products in order to distinguish itself from competitors. The study will employ both quantitative and qualitative methods and the use of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to establish a causal relationship amongst the key factors of stakeholder communication strategies and increment in consumers- choice/acceptance and impact on financial performance. One of the major contributions is a conceptual framework for communication strategies and engagement in increasing consumers- acceptance level and the firm-s financial performance.

Keywords: Consumers' acceptance, financial performance, stakeholder communication strategies.

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497 Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility: Research on the Interconnection of Both Concepts and Its Impact on Non-Profit Organizations

Authors: Helene Eller

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The aim of non-profit organizations (NPO) is to provide services and goods for its clientele, with profit being a minor objective. By having this definition as the basic purpose of doing business, it is obvious that the goal of an organisation is to serve several bottom lines and not only the financial one. This approach is underpinned by the non-distribution constraint which means that NPO are allowed to make profits to a certain extent, but not to distribute them. The advantage is that there are no single shareholders who might have an interest in the prosperity of the organisation: there is no pie to divide. The gained profits remain within the organisation and will be reinvested in purposeful projects. Good governance is mandatory to support the aim of NPOs. Looking for a measure of good governance the principals of corporate governance (CG) will come in mind. The purpose of CG is direction and control, and in the field of NPO, CG is enlarged to consider the relationship to all important stakeholders who have an impact on the organisation. The recognition of more relevant parties than the shareholder is the link to corporate social responsibility (CSR). It supports a broader view of the bottom line: It is no longer enough to know how profits are used but rather how they are made. Besides, CSR addresses the responsibility of organisations for their impact on society. When transferring the concept of CSR to the non-profit area it will become obvious that CSR with its distinctive features will match the aims of NPOs. As a consequence, NPOs who apply CG apply also CSR to a certain extent. The research is designed as a comprehensive theoretical and empirical analysis. First, the investigation focuses on the theoretical basis of both concepts. Second, the similarities and differences are outlined and as a result the interconnection of both concepts will show up. The contribution of this research is manifold: The interconnection of both concepts when applied to NPOs has not got any attention in science yet. CSR and governance as integrated concept provides a lot of advantages for NPOs compared to for-profit organisations which are in a steady justification to show the impact they might have on the society. NPOs, however, integrate economic and social aspects as starting point. For NPOs CG is not a mere concept of compliance but rather an enhanced concept integrating a lot of aspects of CSR. There is no “either-nor” between the concepts for NPOs.

Keywords: Business ethics, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, non-profit organisations, stakeholder theory.

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496 Exploring the Nature and Meaning of Theory in the Field of Neuroeducation Studies

Authors: Ali Nouri

Abstract:

Neuroeducation is one of the most exciting research fields which is continually evolving. However, there is a need to develop its theoretical bases in connection to practice. The present paper is a starting attempt in this regard to provide a space from which to think about neuroeducational theory and invoke more investigation in this area. Accordingly, a comprehensive theory of neuroeducation could be defined as grouping or clustering of concepts and propositions that describe and explain the nature of human learning to provide valid interpretations and implications useful for educational practice in relation to philosophical aspects or values. Whereas it should be originated from the philosophical foundations of the field and explain its normative significance, it needs to be testable in terms of rigorous evidence to fundamentally advance contemporary educational policy and practice. There is thus pragmatically a need to include a course on neuroeducational theory into the curriculum of the field. In addition, there is a need to articulate and disseminate considerable discussion over the subject within professional journals and academic societies.

Keywords: Neuroeducation studies, neuroeducational theory, theory building, neuroeducation research.

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495 Concept for Planning Sustainable Factories

Authors: T. Mersmann, P. Nyhuis

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In the current economic climate, for many businesses it is generally no longer sufficient to pursue exclusively economic interests. Instead, integrating ecological and social goals into the corporate targets is becoming ever more important. However, the holistic integration of these new goals is missing from current factory planning approaches. This article describes the conceptual framework for a planning methodology for sustainable factories. To this end, the description of the key areas for action is followed by a description of the principal components for the systematization of sustainability for factories and their stakeholders. Finally, a conceptual framework is presented which integrates the components formulated into an established factory planning procedure.

Keywords: Factory Planning, Stakeholder, Systematization, Sustainability.

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494 A Vortex Plate Theory of Hovering Animal Flight

Authors: Khaled. M. Faqih

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A model of vortex wake is suggested to determine the induced power during animal hovering flight. The wake is modeled by a series of equi-spaced rigid rectangular vortex plates, positioned horizontally and moving vertically downwards with identical speeds; each plate is generated during powering of the functionally wing stroke. The vortex representation of the wake considered in the current theory allows a considerable loss of momentum to occur. The current approach accords well with the nature of the wingbeat since it considers the unsteadiness in the wake as an important fluid dynamical characteristic. Induced power in hovering is calculated as the aerodynamic power required to generate the vortex wake system. Specific mean induced power to mean wing tip velocity ratio is determined by solely the normal spacing parameter (f) for a given wing stroke amplitude. The current theory gives much higher specific induced power estimate than anticipated by classical methods.

Keywords: vortex theory, hovering flight, induced power, Prandlt's tip theory.

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493 A Computer Model of Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Hans H. Diel

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This paper describes a computer model of Quantum Field Theory (QFT), referred to in this paper as QTModel. After specifying the initial configuration for a QFT process (e.g. scattering) the model generates the possible applicable processes in terms of Feynman diagrams, the equations for the scattering matrix, and evaluates probability amplitudes for the scattering matrix and cross sections. The computations of probability amplitudes are performed numerically. The equations generated by QTModel are provided for demonstration purposes only. They are not directly used as the base for the computations of probability amplitudes. The computer model supports two modes for the computation of the probability amplitudes: (1) computation according to standard QFT, and (2) computation according to a proposed functional interpretation of quantum theory.

Keywords: Computational Modeling, Simulation of Quantum Theory, Quantum Field Theory, Quantum Electrodynamics

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492 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha

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Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Job embeddedness theory, theory of organizational equilibrium (TOE), Herzberg’s two-factor theory, turnover intention theories, theories and models.

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491 Personalized Learning: An Analysis Using Item Response Theory

Authors: A. Yacob, N. Hj. Ali, M. H. Yusoff, M. Y. MohdSaman, W. M. A. F. W. Hamzah

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Personalized learning becomes increasingly popular which not be restricted by time, place or any other barriers. This study proposes an analysis of Personalized Learning using Item Response Theory which considers course material difficulty and learner ability.The study investigates twenty undergraduate students at TATI University College, who are taking programming subject. By using the IRT,it was found that, finding the most appropriate problem levels to each student include high and low level test items together is not a problem. Thus, the student abilities can be asses more accurately and fairly. Learners who experience more anxiety will affect a heavier cognitive load and receive lower test scores.Instructors are encouraged to provide a supportive learning environment to enhance learning effectiveness because Cognitive Load Theory concerns the limited capacity of the brain to absorb new information.

Keywords: Analysis, Cognitive Load Theory, Item Response Theory, Learning, Motivation, Performance.

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490 Site Selection of Traffic Camera based on Dempster-Shafer and Bagging Theory

Authors: S. Rokhsari, M. Delavar, A. Sadeghi-Niaraki, A. Abed-Elmdoust, B. Moshiri

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Traffic incident has bad effect on all parts of society so controlling road networks with enough traffic devices could help to decrease number of accidents, so using the best method for optimum site selection of these devices could help to implement good monitoring system. This paper has considered here important criteria for optimum site selection of traffic camera based on aggregation methods such as Bagging and Dempster-Shafer concepts. In the first step, important criteria such as annual traffic flow, distance from critical places such as parks that need more traffic controlling were identified for selection of important road links for traffic camera installation, Then classification methods such as Artificial neural network and Decision tree algorithms were employed for classification of road links based on their importance for camera installation. Then for improving the result of classifiers aggregation methods such as Bagging and Dempster-Shafer theories were used.

Keywords: Aggregation, Bagging theory, Dempster-Shafer theory, Site selection

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489 Modality and Redundancy Effects on Music Theory Learning Among Pupils of Different Anxiety Levels

Authors: Soon Fook Fong, Aldalalah, M. Osamah

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The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of modality and redundancy principles on music theory learning among pupils of different anxiety levels. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The independent variables were the three modes of courseware. The moderator variable was the anxiety level, while the dependent variable was the post test score. The study sample consisted of 405 third-grade pupils. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the collected data. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The findings of this study showed that medium anxiety pupils performed significantly better than low and high anxiety pupils in all the three treatment modes. The AI mode was found to help pupils with high anxiety significantly more than the TI and AIT modes.

Keywords: Modality, Redundancy, Music theory, Cognitivetheory of multimedia learning, Cognitive load theory, Anxiety.

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488 A Comparative Analysis of Solid Waste Treatment Technologies on Cost and Environmental Basis

Authors: Nesli Aydin

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Waste management decision making in developing countries has moved towards being more pragmatic, transparent, sustainable and comprehensive. Turkey is required to make its waste related legislation compatible with European Legislation as it is a candidate country of the European Union. Improper Turkish practices such as open burning and open dumping practices must be abandoned urgently, and robust waste management systems have to be structured. The determination of an optimum waste management system in any region requires a comprehensive analysis in which many criteria are taken into account by stakeholders. In conducting this sort of analysis, there are two main criteria which are evaluated by waste management analysts; economic viability and environmentally friendliness. From an analytical point of view, a central characteristic of sustainable development is an economic-ecological integration. It is predicted that building a robust waste management system will need significant effort and cooperation between the stakeholders in developing countries such as Turkey. In this regard, this study aims to provide data regarding the cost and environmental burdens of waste treatment technologies such as an incinerator, an autoclave (with different capacities), a hydroclave and a microwave coupled with updated information on calculation methods, and a framework for comparing any proposed scenario performances on a cost and environmental basis.

Keywords: Decision making, economic viability, environmentally friendliness, stakeholder, waste management systems.

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487 Weak Measurement Theory for Discrete Scales

Authors: Jan Newmarch

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With the increasing spread of computers and the internet among culturally, linguistically and geographically diverse communities, issues of internationalization and localization and becoming increasingly important. For some of the issues such as different scales for length and temperature, there is a well-developed measurement theory. For others such as date formats no such theory will be possible. This paper fills a gap by developing a measurement theory for a class of scales previously overlooked, based on discrete and interval-valued scales such as spanner and shoe sizes. The paper gives a theoretical foundation for a class of data representation problems.

Keywords: Data representation, internationalisation, localisation, measurement theory.

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486 A Positioning Matrix to Assess and to Develop CSR Strategies

Authors: Armando Calabrese, Roberta Costa, Tamara Menichini, Francesco Rosati

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A company CSR commitment, as stated in its Social Report is, actually, perceived by its stakeholders?And in what measure? Moreover, are stakeholders satisfied with the company CSR efforts? Indeed, business returns from Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices, such as company reputation and customer loyalty, depend heavily on how stakeholders perceive the company social conduct. In this paper, we propose a methodology to assess a company CSR commitment based on Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) indicators, Content Analysis and a CSR positioning matrix. We evaluate three aspects of CSR: the company commitment disclosed through its Social Report; the company commitment perceived by its stakeholders; the CSR commitment that stakeholders require to the company. The positioning of the company under study in the CSR matrix is based on the comparison among the three commitment aspects (disclosed, perceived, required) and it allows assessment and development of CSR strategies.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), CSR Positioning Matrix, Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), Stakeholder Orientation

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485 Principal Role and School Structure

Authors: Behnaz Mohajeran, Alireza Ghaleei

Abstract:

This main purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the extent to which the form of school governance (particularly decision-making) had an impact upon the effectiveness of the school with reference to parental involvement, planning and budgeting, professional development of teachers, school facilities and resources, and student outcomes. Particular attention was given to decision-making within the governance arrangements. The study was based on four case studies of high schools in New South Wales, Australia including one government school, one independent Christian community school, one independent Catholic school, and one Catholic systemic school. The focus of the research was principals, teachers, parents, and students of four schools with varying governance structures. To gain a greater insight into the issues, the researchers collected information by questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and review of school key documents. This study found that it was not so much structure but the centrality of the school Principal and the way that the Principal perceived his/her roles in relation to others that impacted most on school governance.

Keywords: governance structure, principal role, schooleffectiveness, stakeholder involvement

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484 On Generalizing Rough Set Theory via using a Filter

Authors: Serkan Narlı, Ahmet Z. Ozcelik

Abstract:

The theory of rough sets is generalized by using a filter. The filter is induced by binary relations and it is used to generalize the basic rough set concepts. The knowledge representations and processing of binary relations in the style of rough set theory are investigated.

Keywords: Rough set, fuzzy set, membership function, knowledge representation and processing, information theory

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483 Overriding Moral Intuitions – Does It Make Us Immoral? Dual-Process Theory of Higher Cognition Account for Moral Reasoning

Authors: Michał Białek, Simon J. Handley

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Moral decisions are considered as an intuitive process, while conscious reasoning is mostly used only to justify those intuitions. This problem is described in few different dual-process theories of mind, that are being developed e.g. by Frederick and Kahneman, Stanovich and Evans. Those theories recently evolved into tri-process theories with a proposed process that makes ultimate decision or allows to paraformal processing with focal bias.. Presented experiment compares the decision patterns to the implications of those models. In presented study participants (n=179) considered different aspects of trolley dilemma or its footbridge version and decided after that. Results show that in the control group 70% of people decided to use the lever to change tracks for the running trolley, and 20% chose to push the fat man down the tracks. In contrast, after experimental manipulation almost no one decided to act. Also the decision time difference between dilemmas disappeared after experimental manipulation. The result supports the idea of three co-working processes: intuitive (TASS), paraformal (reflective mind) and algorithmic process.

Keywords: Moral reasoning, moral decision, reflection, trolley problem, dual-process theory of reasoning, tri-process theory of cognition.

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482 Strategic Information in the Game of Go

Authors: Michael Harre, Terry Bossomaier, Ranqing Chu, Allan Snyder

Abstract:

We introduce a novel approach to measuring how humans learn based on techniques from information theory and apply it to the oriental game of Go. We show that the total amount of information observable in human strategies, called the strategic information, remains constant for populations of players of differing skill levels for well studied patterns of play. This is despite the very large amount of knowledge required to progress from the recreational players at one end of our spectrum to the very best and most experienced players in the world at the other and is in contrast to the idea that having more knowledge might imply more 'certainty' in what move to play next. We show this is true for very local up to medium sized board patterns, across a variety of different moves using 80,000 game records. Consequences for theoretical and practical AI are outlined.

Keywords: Board Games, Cognitive Capacity, Decision Theory, Information Theory.

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481 Examining Herzberg-s Two Factor Theory in a Large Chinese Chemical Fiber Company

Authors: Ju-Chun Chien

Abstract:

The validity of Herzberg-s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation was tested empirically by surveying 2372 chemical fiber employees in 2012. In the valid sample of 1875 respondents, the degree of overall job satisfaction was more than moderate. The most highly valued components of job satisfaction were: “corporate image," “collaborative working atmosphere," and “supervisor-s expertise"; whereas the lowest mean score was 34.65 for “job rotation and promotion." The top three job retention options rated by the participants were “good image of the enterprise," “good compensation," and “workplace is close to my residence." The overall evaluation of the level of thriving facilitation workplace reached almost to “mostly agree." For those participants who chose at least one motivator as their job retention options had significantly greater job satisfaction than those who chose only hygiene factors as their retention options. Therefore, Herzberg-s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation was proven valid in this study.

Keywords: Employee job satisfaction, Job retention, Traditional business, Two-factor theory of motivation.

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480 Fundamental Concepts of Theory of Constraints: An Emerging Philosophy

Authors: Ajay Gupta, Arvind Bhardwaj, Arun Kanda

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Dr Eliyahu Goldratt has done the pioneering work in the development of Theory of Constraints. Since then, many more researchers around the globe are working to enhance this body of knowledge. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compile the salient features of this theory from the work done by Goldratt and other researchers. This paper will provide a good starting point to the potential researchers interested to work in Theory of Constraints. The paper will also help the practicing managers by clarifying their concepts on the theory and will facilitate its successful implementation in their working areas.

Keywords: Drum-Buffer-Rope, Goldratt, ProductionScheduling, Theory of Constraints.

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479 Text-Mining Approach for Evaluation of Affective Management Practices

Authors: Masaaki Saito, Qin Tang, Hiroyuki Umemuro

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The purpose of this paper is to propose a text mining approach to evaluate companies- practices on affective management. Affective management argues that it is critical to take stakeholders- affects into consideration during decision-making process, along with the traditional numerical and rational indices. CSR reports published by companies were collected as source information. Indices were proposed based on the frequency and collocation of words relevant to affective management concept using text mining approach to analyze the text information of CSR reports. In addition, the relationships between the results obtained using proposed indices and traditional indicators of business performance were investigated using correlation analysis. Those correlations were also compared between manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies. The results of this study revealed the possibility to evaluate affective management practices of companies based on publicly available text documents.

Keywords: Affective management, Affect, Stakeholder, Text mining.

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478 A Framework for Investigating Reverse Logistics Capability of E-Tailers

Authors: Wen-Shan Lin, Shu-Lu Hsu

Abstract:

Environmental concern and consumer rights have entailed e-tailers to adopt better strategies to facilitate product returns from customers. As the demand for reverse logistics (RL) continues to grow, little is known about what motivates e-tailers to enhance their RL capabilities and about the role RL capabilities plays in enabling e-tailers to achieve better customer satisfaction and economic performance. Based on resource-based theory and institutional theory, this article proposes that the following factors play a critical role in influencing the RL capability of e-tailers: (a) Financial resource commitment to RL, (b) managerial resource commitment to RL, and (c) institutional pressure to implement RL. Based on the role of these factors, the study provides a framework and propositions that serve to guide future research addressing the link among resources, institutional pressure, and RL capability.

Keywords: Reverse logistics, e-tailing, resource-based theory, institutional theory.

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477 Evolution of the Hydrogen Atom: An Alternative to the Big Bang Theory

Authors: Ghassan H. Halasa

Abstract:

Elementary particles are created in pairs of equal and opposite momentums at a reference frame at the speed of light. The speed of light reference frame is viewed as a point in space as observed by observer at rest. This point in space is the bang location of the big bang theory. The bang in the big bang theory is not more than sustained flow of pairs of positive and negative elementary particles. Electrons and negative charged elementary particles are ejected from this point in space at velocities faster than light, while protons and positively charged particles obtain velocities lower than light. Subsonic masses are found to have real and positive charge, while supersonic masses are found to be negative and imaginary indicating that the two masses are of different entities. The electron-s super-sonic speed, as viewed by rest observer was calculated and found to be less than the speed of light and is little higher than the electron speed in Bohr-s orbit. The newly formed hydrogen gas temperature was found to be in agreement with temperatures found on newly formed stars. Universe expansion was found to be in agreement. Partial mass and charge elementary particles and particles with momentum only were explained in the context of this theoretical approach.

Keywords: Evolution of Matter, Multidimensional spaces, relativity, Big Bang Theory

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476 PZ: A Z-based Formalism for Modeling Probabilistic Behavior

Authors: Hassan Haghighi

Abstract:

Probabilistic techniques in computer programs are becoming more and more widely used. Therefore, there is a big interest in the formal specification, verification, and development of probabilistic programs. In our work-in-progress project, we are attempting to make a constructive framework for developing probabilistic programs formally. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce an intermediate artifact of our work, a Z-based formalism called PZ, by which one can build set theoretical models of probabilistic programs. We propose to use a constructive set theory, called CZ set theory, to interpret the specifications written in PZ. Since CZ has an interpretation in Martin-L¨of-s theory of types, this idea enables us to derive probabilistic programs from correctness proofs of their PZ specifications.

Keywords: formal specification, formal program development, probabilistic programs, CZ set theory, type theory.

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