Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: sperm motility

37 Effect of Sperm Concentration and Length of Storage at 5 C on Motility of Goat Spermatozoa

Authors: Sri Wahjuningsih, Hermanto, Nuryadi, Agus Budiarto, Panji Bhintoro

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentration of spermatozoa and length of storage in 5 0C on sperm motility. Semen was collected using artificial vagina from goat aged 2 to 2.5 years. Fresh goat semen with sperm motility ≥ 70% was used as material. Semen was divided into 4 treatments of concentration (40 x 10 6 / ml, 50 x 106/ml, 60x106/ml, 70x106/ml) with length of storage 0,12,24,36 h. in 5 0C. There were interactions (P <0.05) between concentration and length of storage on individual motility of spermatozoa. Concentration of spermatozoa and length of storage affect the motility of individual (P <0.05). It was concluded that Sperm motility will decrease with increasing concentration and length of storage in 5 0C. Concentration of sperm 40x106/ ml and length of storage 0 h in 50C showed the highest motility of spermatozoa

Keywords: Goat, Length of storage, Motility, Sperm Concentration

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36 Effect of Polarization and Coherence of Optical Radiation on Sturgeon Sperm Motility

Authors: Nikolai V. Barulin, Vitaly Yu. Plavskii

Abstract:

This work contains information about the influence low-level optical irradiation on sperm motility of sturgeon fish. On the basis of given and earlier received data the following conclusion has been made. Among the photophysical processes of a resonant and not resonant nature (oriented action of light; action of gradient forces; dipole-dipole interaction; termooptical processes), which are capable to cause the photobiological effects depended on such laserspecific characteristics as polarization and coherency, determining influence belongs to oriented action of light and dipole-dipole interactions among the processes studied in the present work.

Keywords: sturgeon, aquaculture, fish sperm, laser, optical irradiation, sperm motility

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35 Quantitative Characteristics of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Neo-Males (XX Genotype) and Super-Males (YY Genotype) Sperm

Authors: Radosław K. Kowalski, Beata Sarosiek, Wiesław Demianowicz, Jędrek Judek, Krzysztof Goryczko, Stefan Dobosz, Henryk Kuźmiński, Krystyna Demska-Zakęś, Igor Babiak, Jan Glogowski

Abstract:

Rainbow trout homogametic males, (XX or YY sex genotype), can be obtained, respectively, through masculinisation of genetic females or induced androgenesis. Aim of this study was to compare reproductive potential of neo-males (XX) and super-males (YY) with heterogametic males (XY). We measured spermatozoa motility parameters, sperm concentration, osmolality and characterized protein profiles in samples of stripped and testicular sperm obtained from XY and YY males, and testicular sperm of XX males. The motile spermatozoa, as measured by both subjective method and CASA, showed no differences between testicular sperm of XX males and stripped sperm of XY and YY males whereas testicular sperm of XY and YY males had significantly lower sperm motility. Result of protein densitometry showed similarities in protein profile between seminal plasma of XY and YY males and testicular fluids of XX males. Testis of XX males showed specific histological structures of cysts consists hypertrophied Sertoli cells.

Keywords: fish, genotype, rainbow trout, sperm.

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34 Improvement of Semen Quality in Holstein Bulls during Heat Stress by Supplementing Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Authors: Hamid. Gholami, Mohammad. Chamani, Armin. Towhidi, Mohammad. H. Fazeli

Abstract:

The aim of current study was to investigate the changes in the quality parameters of Holstein bull semen during the heat stress and the effect of feeding a source of omega-3 fatty acids in this period. Samples were obtained from 19 Holstein bulls during the expected time of heat stress in Iran (June to September 2009). Control group (n=10) were fed a standard concentrate feed while treatment group (n=9) had this feed top dressed with 100 g of an omega-3 enriched nutriceutical. Semen quality was assessed on ejaculates collected after 1, 5, 9 and 12 weeks of supplementation. Computer-assisted assessment of sperm motility, viability (eosinnigrosin) and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) were conducted. Heat stress affected sperm quality parameters by week 5 and 9 (p<0.05). Supplementation has significantly increased total motility, progressive motility, HOST and average path velocity in the fresh semen of bulls (P<0.05).

Keywords: Bull, heat stress, omega-3 fatty acids, spermatozoa.

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33 In vitro Effects of Salvia officinalis on Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Boris Botman, Marek Halenár, Tomáš Slanina, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

In vitro storage and processing of animal semen represents a risk factor to spermatozoa vitality, potentially leading to reduced fertility. A variety of substances isolated from natural sources may exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus extending the lifespan of stored ejaculates. This study compared the ability of different concentrations of the Salvia officinalis extract on the motility, mitochondrial activity, viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by bovine spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, 6 and 24 h) of in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay, the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the sperm viability and ROS generation was quantified using luminometry. The CASA analysis revealed that the motility in the experimental groups supplemented with 0.5-2 µg/mL Salvia extract was significantly lower in comparison with the control (P<0.05; Time 24 h). At the same time, a long-term exposure of spermatozoa to concentrations ranging between 0.05 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL had a negative impact on the mitochondrial metabolism (P<0.05; Time 24 h). The viability staining revealed that 0.001-1 µg/mL Salvia extract had no effects on bovine male gametes, however 2 µg/mL Salvia had a persisting negative effect on spermatozoa (P<0.05). Furthermore 0.05-2 µg/mL Salvia exhibited an immediate ROS-promoting effect on the sperm culture (P>0.05; Time 0 h and 2 h), which remained significant throughout the entire in vitro culture (P<0.05; Time 24 h). Our results point out to the necessity to examine specific effects the biomolecules present in Salvia officinalis may have individually or collectively on the in vitro sperm vitality and oxidative profile.

Keywords: Bulls, CASA, MTT test, reactive oxygen species, sage, Salvia officinalis, spermatozoa.

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32 Protective Effect of Melissa officinalis L. against Malathion Toxicity and Reproductive Impairment in Male Rats

Authors: M. M. Seif, F. A. Khalil, A. A. K. Abou Arab, A. S. Abdel- Aziz, M. A. Abou Donia, Sh. R. Mohamed

Abstract:

Malathion (ML) is a well known pesticide commonly used in many agricultural and non-agricultural processes. Its toxicity has been attributed primarily to the accumulation of acetylcholine (Ach) at nerve junctions, due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The aim of the current research was to study the protective effect of the melissa plant extract against reproductive impairment induced by malathion in 32 male albino rats, and the biological experiment was divided into four groups (8 in each) that given malathion (27 mg/kg; 1/50 of the LD50 for an oral dose) and/or Melissa officinalis (MO) extract (200mg/kg/day) by gavages technique. The sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm morphology, FSH, LH, and testosterone levels had been determined in testes homogenate at the end of the experiment. It is worthy to report that, rats treated with melissa extract did not show a significant difference when compared with the control group, while rats given malathion alone had significantly lower sperm count, sperm motility, and significantly higher abnormal sperm numbers, than the untreated control rats as well as having significantly lower serum FSH, LH, and testosterone levels compared with the control group. Administrations of melissa extract restore all mentioned histological parameters towards the control group and the melissa extract had a strong positive protective effect against malathion toxicity. Results the of biological parameters were confirmed by the histological examination of rat testes and indicated that, both control and melissa groups showing normal seminiferous tubules, while malathion group testicular tissues had necrosis, edema in the seminiferous tubules and degeneration of spermatogonial cells lining the seminiferous tubules with incomplete spermatogenesis. The use of melissa against malathion improved the histological picture and showing normal seminiferous tubules with complete spermatogenesis and almost there was no histopathological changes could be noted.

Keywords: Malathion, Melissa officinalis L., Reproductive toxicity, Rats.

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31 In vitro Effects of Amygdalin on the Functional Competence of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Tomáš Slanina, Ľubomír Ondruška, Eduard Kolesár, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová

Abstract:

The present in vitro study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin (AMG) is able to cause changes to the motility, viability and mitochondrial activity of rabbit spermatozoa. New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10) aged four months were used in the study. Semen samples were collected from each animal and used for the in vitro incubation. The samples were divided into five equal parts and diluted with saline supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/mL AMG. At times 0h, 3h and 5h spermatozoa motion parameters were assessed using the SpermVision™ computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system, cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, and the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the viability of rabbit spermatozoa. All AMG concentrations exhibited stimulating effects on the spermatozoa activity, as shown by a significant preservation of the motility (P<0.05 with respect to 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h) and mitochondrial activity (P< 0.05 in case of 0.5 mg/mL AMG; P< 0.01 in case of 1 mg/mL AMG; P < 0.001 with respect to 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h). None of the AMG doses supplemented had any significant impact of the spermatozoa viability. In conclusion, the data revealed that short-term co-incubation of spermatozoa with AMG may result in a higher preservation of the sperm structural integrity and functional activity.

Keywords: Amygdalin, CASA, mitochondrial activity, motility, rabbits, spermatozoa, viability.

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30 Sperm Production Rate, Gonadal and Extragonadal Sperm Reserves in the Sokoto Red (Maradi) Buck in a Tropical Environment

Authors: Immanuel I. Bitto, Thomas Agam

Abstract:

28 healthy adult Maradi bucks were used to evaluate sperm production and sperm storage capacity in the breed. Daily sperm production (DSP) averaged 0.55±0.05x109, while the daily sperm production/g (DSP/g) was 1.37±0.12 x107. Gonadal sperm reserve was 1.99±0.18 x109, while the caput, upper corpus and lower corpus averaged 0.58±0.04 x109, 0.36±0.02 x109 and 0.33±0.08 x109 respectively. The proximal cauda, mid cauda, distal cauda and ductus deferens had values of 0.68±0.10 x109, 1.23±0.16 x109,1.87±0. x109and 0.17±0.05 x109 respectively. The relative contributions of the respective epididymal sections and ductus deferens to the total extragonadal sperm reserves were, 11.11%, 6.89%, 6.32%, 13.03%, 23.56%, 35.82% and 3.26% respectively. Gonadal sperm reserves were significantly higher (p<0.05) than caput reserves, upper corpus reserves, lower corpus reserves, proximal cauda reserves and ductus deferens reserves. Gonadal reserves were however similar (p>0.05) to mid cauda and distal cauda epididymal reserves.

Keywords: Goats, Reserves, Sperm, Tropics

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29 Sexual behaviour and Semen Characteristics of Young Male Boer Goats in Tropical Condition: A Case in Indonesia

Authors: S. Suyadi

Abstract:

Sexual behavior and semen charactertistics were evaluated in young male Boer goats in tropical condition during time period of September to November 2009. The animal was let to have adaptation for five months after importation from Australian climate. A total of 20 bucks were observed for sexual behavior and ability of semen production. Out of this number, 4 faild to libido and 3 produced poor semen. The remaing 13 animals were divided into three groups according to the ages (11-13, 15-16 and 18-25 months). Sexual behavior consisting response time to female teaser, ejaculation time, fixing strenght to female and erection status were normaly observer in 13 bucks, and there was no significant difference between age groups. Semen characteristics from 13 bucks were in normal quality in the volume, sperm mass motility, individual motility, percentage of live- and abnormal sperm. We concluded that is possible to collect semen of Boer goats during the period of September to November under tropical condition. Collection during other time period should be analyzed.

Keywords: sexsual behavior, semen characteristics, Boer goats, tropical condition.

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28 In vitro Effects of Viscum album on the Functionality of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Simona Baldovská, Ľubomír Ondruška, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová

Abstract:

This study aimed to assess the in vitro effects of different concentrations of the Viscum album extract on the motility, viability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by rabbit spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, and 8h). Spermatozoa motility was assessed by using the CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis) system. Cell viability was evaluated by using the metabolic activity MTT assay, and the luminol-based luminometry was applied to quantify the ROS formation. The CASA analysis revealed that low Viscum concentrations were able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 µg/mL (P<0.05 with respect to time 8h). At the same time, concentrations ranging between 1 and 100 µg/mL of the extract led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P<0.05 in case of 5, 50 and 100 µg/mL; P<0.01 with respect to 1 and 10 µg/mL, time 8h). 1 and 5 µg/mL of the extract exhibited antioxidant characteristics, translated into a significant reduction of the ROS production, particularly notable at time 8h (P<0.01). The results indicate that the Viscum extract is capable of delaying the damage inflicted to the spermatozoon by the in vitro environment.

Keywords: CASA, mistletoe, mitochondrial activity, motility, reactive oxygen species, rabbits, spermatozoa, Viscum album.

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27 The Effect of Mist Cooling on Sexual Behavior and Semen Quality of Sahiwal Bulls

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Elrabie Abdelrasoul

Abstract:

The present study was carried out on Sahiwal cattle bulls maintained at the Artificial Breeding Complex, NDRI, Karnal, Hayana, India, to assess the effect of cooling using mist cooling and fanning on Sahiwal bulls in the dry hot summer season. Fourteen Sahiwal bulls were divided into two groups of seven each. Sexual behavior and semen quality traits considered were: Reaction time (RT), Dismounting time (DMT), Total time taken in mounts (TTTM), Flehmen response (FR), Erection Score (ES), Protrusion Score (PS), Intensity of thrust (ITS), Temperament Score (TS), Libido Score (LS), Semen volume, Physical appearance, Mass activity, Initial progressive motility, Non-eosinophilic spermatozoa count (NESC) and post thaw motility percent. Data were analyzed by least squares technique. Group-1 was the control, whereas group-2 (treatment group) bulls were exposed to mist cooling and fanning (thrice a day 15 min each) in the dry hot summer season. Group-2 showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher value in DMT (sec), ES, PS, ITS, LS, semen volume (ml), semen color density, mass activity, initial motility, progressive motility and live sperm.

Keywords: Mist cooling, Sahiwal bulls, semen quality, sexual behavior.

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26 Crude Glycerol Affects Canine Sperm Motility: Computer Assisted Semen Analysis in vitro

Authors: P. Massanyi, L. Kichi, T. Slanina, E. Kolesar, J. Danko, N. Lukac, E. Tvrda, R. Stawarz, A. Kolesarova

Abstract:

Target of this study was the analysis of the impact of crude glycerol on canine spermatozoa motility, morphology, viability, and membrane integrity. Experiments were realized in vitro. In the study, semen from 5 large dog breeds was used. They were typical representatives of large breeds, coming from healthy rearing, regularly vaccinated and integrated to the further breeding. Semen collections were realized at the owners of animals and in the veterinary clinic. Subsequently the experiments were realized at the Department of Animal Physiology of the SUA in Nitra. The spermatozoa motility was evaluated using CASA analyzer (SpermVisionTM, Minitub, Germany) at the temperature 5 and 37°C for 5 hours. In the study, 13 motility parameters were evaluated. Generally, crude glycerol has generally negative effect on spermatozoa motility. Morphological analysis was realized using Hancock staining and the preparations were evaluated at magnification 1000x using classification tables of morphologically changed spermatozoa. Data clearly detected the highest number of morphologically changed spermatozoa in the experimental groups (know twisted tails, tail torso and tail coiling). For acrosome alterations swelled acrosomes, removed acrosomes and acrosomes with undulated membrane were detected. In this study also the effect of crude glycerol on spermatozoa membrane integrity were analyzed. The highest crude glycerol concentration significantly affects spermatozoa integrity. Results of this study show that crude glycerol has effect of spermatozoa motility, viability, and membrane integrity. Detected changes are related to crude glycerol concentration, temperature, as well as time of incubation.

Keywords: Dog, semen, spermatozoa, acrosome, glycerol, CASA, viability.

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25 Gonadotoxic and Cytotoxic Effect of Induced obesity via Monosodium Glutamate on Mus musculus Testis Cytoarchitecture and Sperm Parameter

Authors: I. Nur Hilwani, R. Nasibah, S. Nurdiana, M. J. Norashirene

Abstract:

Impaired fertility may be the result of indirect consumption of anti-fertility agents through food. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been widely used as food additive, flavour enhancer and included in vaccines. This study focuses in determining the gonadotoxic and cytotoxic effect of MSG on selected sperm parameters such as sperm viability, sperm membrane integrity and testes cytoarchitecture of male mice via histological examination to determine its effect on spermatogenesis. Twenty-four Mus musculus were randomly divided into 4 groups and given intraperitoneal injections (IP) daily for 14 days of different MSG concentrations at 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg MSG to body weight to induce obesity. Saline was given to control group. Mice were sacrificed and analysis revealed abnormalities in values for sperm parameters and damages to testes cytoarchitecture of male mice. The results recorded decreased viability (p<0.05) and integrity of sperm membrane (p>0.05) with degenerative structures in seminiferous tubule of testes. The results indicated various implications of MSG on male mice reproductive system which has consequences in fertility potential.

Keywords: Sperm parameter, sperm viability, sperm membrane integrity and testes histology.

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24 The Effect of Selective Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibitors on Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Reproduction Parameters

Authors: Agata Kowalska, Radosław K. Kowalski, Zdzisław Zakęś

Abstract:

Our results showed that treatment with both cyclooxygenase (COX1 or COX2) inhibitors impair reproduction parameters of the medaka. Resveratrol (COX1 inhibitor) caused an decrease in the number of spawning females at the first week of feeding fish with experimental diets. In the group treated with NS- 398 (COX2 inhibitor) we found the lowest sperm velocity parameters and decreased linearity of movement. The ovaries of the medaka fed feed supplemented with Resveratrol or NS-398 were confirmed to have a lower share of matured oocytes however during the experiment (four weeks) the number of eggs spawned by females was similar. Both inhibitors in fish diet (20 mg/kg body weight/day) caused a decrease in the embryo survival. Our results revealed that for the medaka female reproduction, activity of both COX enzymes might be necessary whereas males reproduction competence, as expressed by sperm motility parameters, might be related to COX2 activity.

Keywords: COX innibitors, medaka, reproduction parameters

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23 The Effect of Curcumin on Cryopreserved Bovine Semen

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Marek Halenár, Hana Greifová, Alica Mackovich, Faridullah Hashim, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

Oxidative stress associated with semen cryopreservation may result in lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm motility and fertilization ability. Curcumin (CUR), a natural phenol isolated from Curcuma longa Linn. has been presented as a possible supplement for a more effective semen cryopreservation because of its antioxidant properties. This study focused to evaluate the effects of CUR on selected oxidative stress parameters in cryopreserved bovine semen. 20 bovine ejaculates were split into two aliquots and diluted with a commercial semen extender containing CUR (50 μmol/L) or no supplement (control), cooled to 4 °C, frozen and kept in liquid nitrogen. Frozen straws were thawed in a water bath for subsequent experiments. Computer assisted semen analysis was used to evaluate spermatozoa motility, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was quantified by using luminometry. Superoxide generation was evaluated with the NBT test, and LPO was assessed via the TBARS assay. CUR supplementation significantly (P<0.001) increased the spermatozoa motility and provided a significantly higher protection against ROS (P<0.001) or superoxide (P<0.01) overgeneration caused by semen freezing and thawing. Furthermore, CUR administration resulted in a significantly (P<0.01) lower LPO of the experimental semen samples. In conclusion, CUR exhibits significant ROS-scavenging activities which may prevent oxidative insults to cryopreserved spermatozoa and thus may enhance the post-thaw functional activity of male gametes.

Keywords: Bulls, cryopreservation, curcumin, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species, spermatozoa.

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22 Cissampelos capensis Rhizome Extract Induces Intracellular ROS Production, Capacitation and DNA Fragmentation in Human Spermatozoa

Authors: S. Shalaweh, P. Bouic, F. Weitz, R. Henkel

Abstract:

More than 3000 plants of notable phyto-therapeutic value grow in South Africa; these include Cissampelos capensis, commonly known in Afrikaans as dawidjie or dawidjiewortel. C. capensis is the most significant and popular medicinal plant used by the Khoisan as well as other rural groups in the Western region of South Africa. Its rhizomes are traditionally used to treat male fertility problems. Yet, no studies have investigated the effects of this plant or its extracts on human spermatozoa. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effects of C. capensis rhizome extract (CRE) fractions on ejaculated human spermatozoa in vitro. Spermatozoa from a total of 77 semen samples were washed with human tubular fluid medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin (HTF-BSA) and incubated for 2 hours with 20 μg/ml progesterone (P4) followed by incubation with different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, 50, 200 μg/ml) of fractionated CRE (F1=0% MeOH, F2=30% MeOH, F3=60% MeOH and F4=100% MeOH) for 1.5 hours at 37°C. A sample without addition of CRE fractions served as control. Samples were analyzed for sperm motility, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA-fragmentation, acrosome reaction and capacitation. Results showed that F1 resulted in significantly higher values for ROS, capacitation and hyper-activation compared to F2, F3, and F4 with P4-stimulated samples generally having higher values. No significant effect was found for the other parameters. In conclusion, alkaloids present in F1 of CRE appear to have triggered sperm intrinsic ROS production leading to sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction induced by P4.

Keywords: Capacitation, acrosome reaction, Cissampelos capensis, DNA fragmentation, ROS.

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21 Effect of Ginger and L-Carnitine on the Reproductive Performance of Male Rats

Authors: Ismail I. Abo-Ghanema, El-Nasharty M.A., El-Far A. H., Hanan A.Ghonium

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated the effects of ginger and L-carnitine on the reproductive performance of male rats with respect to semen parameters, male sex hormones and the testicular antioxidant system. A total of sixty mature male albino rats were divided into four groups of fifteen rats. The control group received saline, whereas the other three groups received ginger (100 mg kg-1 d- 1.), L-carnitine (150 mg kg-1 d-1.) or a combination of both ginger (100 mg kg-1 d-1.) and L-carnitine (150 mg kg-1 d-1.) via a stomach tube daily for one month. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed, and their sperm characteristics (count, motility and viability), antioxidant enzyme factors levels (reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity) and sex hormone levels (testosterone, Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were analysed. Our results showed that the three experimental treatments improved sperm parameters, antioxidant enzyme activity and testosterone hormone levels; the most pronounced positive effects were observed in the group that received a combination of both ginger and L-carnitine. Therefore, the administration of a combination of ginger and L-carnitine may be beneficial for improving male sexual performance.

Keywords: Ginger, L-Carnitine, Spermatogenesis, Rats.

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20 Inductions of CaC2 on Sperm Morphology and Viability of the Albino Mice (Mus musculus)

Authors: Dike H. Ogbuagu, Etsede J. Oritsematosan

Abstract:

This work investigated possible inductions of CaC2, often misused by fruit vendors to stimulate artificial ripening, on mammalian sperm morphology and viability. Thirty isogenic strains of male albino mice, Mus musculus (age≈ 8weeks; weight= 32.52.0g) were acclimatized (ambient temperature 28.0±1.0°C) for 2 weeks and fed standard growers mash and water ad libutum. They were later exposed to graded toxicant concentrations (w/w) of 2.5000, 1.2500, 0.6250, and 0.3125% in 4 cages. A control cage was also established. After 5 weeks, 3 animals from each cage were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the cauda epididymis excised. Sperm morphology and viability were determined by microscopic procedures. The ANOVA, means plots, Student’s t-test and variation plots were used to analyze data. The common abnormalities observed included Double Head, Pin Head, Knobbed Head, No Tail and With Hook. The higher toxicant concentrations induced significantly lower body weights [F(829.899) ˃ Fcrit(4.19)] and more abnormalities [F(26.52) ˃ Fcrit(4.00)] at P˂0.05. Sperm cells in the control setup were significantly more viable than those in the 0.625% (t=0.005) and 2.500% toxicant doses (t=0.018) at the 95% confidence limit. CaC2 appeared to induced morphological abnormalities and reduced viability in sperm cells of M. musculus.

Keywords: Artificial ripening, Calcium carbide, fruit vendors, sperm morphology, sperm viability.

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19 Sperm Identification Using Elliptic Model and Tail Detection

Authors: Vahid Reza Nafisi, Mohammad Hasan Moradi, Mohammad Hosain Nasr-Esfahani

Abstract:

The conventional assessment of human semen is a highly subjective assessment, with considerable intra- and interlaboratory variability. Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) systems provide a rapid and automated assessment of the sperm characteristics, together with improved standardization and quality control. However, the outcome of CASA systems is sensitive to the method of experimentation. While conventional CASA systems use digital microscopes with phase-contrast accessories, producing higher contrast images, we have used raw semen samples (no staining materials) and a regular light microscope, with a digital camera directly attached to its eyepiece, to insure cost benefits and simple assembling of the system. However, since the accurate finding of sperms in the semen image is the first step in the examination and analysis of the semen, any error in this step can affect the outcome of the analysis. This article introduces and explains an algorithm for finding sperms in low contrast images: First, an image enhancement algorithm is applied to remove extra particles from the image. Then, the foreground particles (including sperms and round cells) are segmented form the background. Finally, based on certain features and criteria, sperms are separated from other cells.

Keywords: Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA), Sperm identification, Tail detection, Elliptic shape model.

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18 In vitro Effects of Berberine on the Vitality and Oxidative Profile of Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Hana Greifová, Peter Ivanič, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent in vitro effects of berberine (BER), a natural alkaloid with numerous biological properties on bovine spermatozoa during three time periods (0 h, 2 h, 24 h). Bovine semen samples were diluted and cultivated in physiological saline solution containing 0.5% DMSO together with 200, 100, 50, 10, 5, and 1 μmol/L BER. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the computer assisted semen analyzer. The viability of spermatozoa was assessed by the metabolic (MTT) assay, production of superoxide radicals was quantified using the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, and chemiluminescence was used to evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell lysates were prepared and the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated using the TBARS assay. The results of the movement activity showed a significant increase in the motility during long term cultivation in case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 μmol/L BER (P < 0.01; P < 0.001; 24 h). At the same time, supplementation of 1, 5 and 10 μmol/L BER led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P < 0.001; 24 h). BER addition at a range of 1-50 μmol/L also provided a significantly higher protection against superoxide (P < 0.05) and ROS (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) overgeneration as well as LPO (P < 0.01; P<0.05) after a 24 h cultivation. We may suggest that supplementation of BER to bovine spermatozoa, particularly at concentrations ranging between 1 and 50 μmol/L, may offer protection to the motility, viability and oxidative status of the spermatozoa, particularly notable at 24 h.

Keywords: Berberine, bulls, motility, oxidative profile, spermatozoa, viability.

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17 Adding Olive Oil into Diluents for Improving Semen Quality and Storage Ability of Roosters' Semen during Liquid Storage

Authors: Hazim J. Al-Daraji

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing the diluent of roosters' semen with different levels of olive oil on motility, viability, morphology and acrosome integrity of chicken spermatozoa after in vitro storage for up to 72 h. Semen was collected from 60 White Layer males (62 wk of age) kept in separated floor pens and randomly divided into six treatment groups (10 males in each group). Experimental groups were as follows: T1 :fresh semen, T2 : semen extended 1:1 with Al – Daraji 2 diluent (AD2D) alone, T3 – T6 :semen samples extended 1:1 with AD2D supplemented with 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml or 8 ml of olive oil / 100 ml of diluent, respectively. Semen samples were then stored at 5 °C for 24 h, 48 h or 72 h. There was a clear influence of diluent supplementation with olive oil on the spermatozoa motility profile; olive oil groups (T3, T4, T5 and T6) recorded the highest scores of mass activity and individual motility during all storage periods compared to T1 and T2 groups. In addition, the inclusion of olive oil into semen diluent (T3, T4, T5 and T6) gave significantly higher percentages of viable spermatozoa, normal morphologically spermatozoa and intact acrosomes irrespective of storage period. These results clearly show that supplementation the diluent of roosters' semen with olive oil can improve semen quality when semen samples in vitro stored at 5 °C for up to 72 h.

Keywords: Olive oil, diluent, liquid storage, semen quality of roosters.

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16 A Multi Steps Algorithm for Sperm Segmentation in Microscopic Image

Authors: Fereidoon Nowshiravan Rahatabad, Mohammad Hassan Moradi, Vahid Reza Nafisi

Abstract:

Nothing that an effective cure for infertility happens when we can find a unique solution, a great deal of study has been done in this field and this is a hot research subject for to days study. So we could analyze the men-s seaman and find out about fertility and infertility and from this find a true cure for this, since this will be a non invasive and low risk procedure, it will be greatly welcomed. In this research, the procedure has been based on few Algorithms enhancement and segmentation of images which has been done on the images taken from microscope in different fertility institution and have obtained a suitable result from the computer images which in turn help us to distinguish these sperms from fluids and its surroundings.

Keywords: Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA), Spermidentification, Segmentation.

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15 On the Influence of Certain Natural Factors on the Sperm Quality and Sexual Behaviour of Rams

Authors: Pascal Constantin, Gîlcă Ioan, Radu Rusu Răzvan, Nacu Gherasim

Abstract:

In the Northern hemisphere, sheep reproduction is seasonal (September-November). Among several natural factors influencing the reproduction status of rams, we studied the daylight length and temperature. Rams from different breeds were studied: Merinos de Palas (half-precocious), Karakul de Botosani (halfbelated) and Turcana (belated breed, low reproductive plasticity). In Merinos de Palas, ejaculate volume during sexual repose is 51.3% from normal quantity. When autumn climate was experimentally induced, ejaculate volume reached 98.45% (Merinos), 94.97% (Karakul) and 97.59% (Turcana). Semen density increased from 1.031-1.033 till 1.035 after exposition to artificial light and temperature conditions. Spermatozoids mobility and sperm pH improved, passing over 82% and 6.75, values identical to those in the natural reproduction season. Behaviour analysis after photoperiodicity indicated that over 83.3% Merinos and Karakul males and all Turcana rams exteriorised normal and intense sexual reflexes. Certain effort and reduced expenses brought rams in good condition, producing higher quantity and quality sperm.

Keywords: natural factors, photoperiodicity, sexual behaviour, Romanian sheep.

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14 Fractal Analysis on Human Colonic Pressure Activities based on the Box-counting Method

Authors: Rongguo Yan, Guozheng Yan, Banghua Yang

Abstract:

The colonic tissue is a complicated dynamic system and the colonic activities it generates are composed of irregular segmental waves, which are referred to as erratic fluctuations or spikes. They are also highly irregular with subunit fractal structure. The traditional time-frequency domain statistics like the averaged amplitude, the motility index and the power spectrum, etc. are insufficient to describe such fluctuations. Thus the fractal box-counting dimension is proposed and the fractal scaling behaviors of the human colonic pressure activities under the physiological conditions are studied. It is shown that the dimension of the resting activity is smaller than that of the normal one, whereas the clipped version, which corresponds to the activity of the constipation patient, shows with higher fractal dimension. It may indicate a practical application to assess the colonic motility, which is often indicated by the colonic pressure activity.

Keywords: Colonic pressure activity, erratic fluctuations, fractal dimension and spikes.

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13 Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Can-type Combustion Chamber

Authors: Selvakuma Kumaresh, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Combustion phenomenon will be accomplished effectively by the development of low emission combustor. One of the significant factors influencing the entire Combustion process is the mixing between a swirling angular jet (Primary Air) and the non-swirling inner jet (fuel). To study this fundamental flow, the chamber had to be designed in such a manner that the combustion process to sustain itself in a continuous manner and the temperature of the products is sufficiently below the maximum working temperature in the turbine. This study is used to develop the effective combustion with low unburned combustion products by adopting the concept of high swirl flow and motility of holes in the secondary chamber. The proper selection of a swirler is needed to reduce emission which can be concluded from the emission of Nox and CO2. The capture of CO2 is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from natural gas. Thus the suppression of unburned gases is a meaningful objective for the development of high performance combustor without affecting turbine blade temperature.

Keywords: Combustion, Emission, Can-type Combustion Chamber, CFD, Motility of Holes, Swirl Flow.

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12 Spatio-Temporal Orientation Development during the Physical Education Class, with 5th and 6th Form Pupils

Authors: Constantin Pehoiu

Abstract:

School physical education, through its objectives and contents, efficiently valorizes the pupils- abilities, developing them, especially the coordinative skill component, which is the basis of movement learning, of the development of the daily motility and also of the special, refined motility required by the practice of certain sports. Medium school age offers the nervous and motor substratum needed for the acquisition of complex motor habits, a substratum that is essential for the coordinative skill. Individuals differ as to the level at which this function is performed, the extent to which this function turns an individual into a person that is adapted and adaptable to complex and various situations. Spatio-temporal orientation, together with movement combination and coupling, and with kinesthetic, balance, motor reaction, movement transformation and rhythm differentiation form the coordinative skills. From our viewpoint, these are characteristic features with high levels of manifestation in a complex psychomotor act - valorizing the quality of one-s talent - as well as indices pertaining to one-s psychomotor intelligence and creativity.

Keywords: development, lesson, spatio-temporal orientation, physical education.

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11 Sperm Whale Signal Analysis: Comparison using the Auto Regressive model and the Daubechies 15 Wavelets Transform

Authors: Olivier Adam, Maciej Lopatka, Christophe Laplanche, Jean-François Motsch

Abstract:

This article presents the results using a parametric approach and a Wavelet Transform in analysing signals emitting from the sperm whale. The extraction of intrinsic characteristics of these unique signals emitted by marine mammals is still at present a difficult exercise for various reasons: firstly, it concerns non-stationary signals, and secondly, these signals are obstructed by interfering background noise. In this article, we compare the advantages and disadvantages of both methods: Auto Regressive models and Wavelet Transform. These approaches serve as an alternative to the commonly used estimators which are based on the Fourier Transform for which the hypotheses necessary for its application are in certain cases, not sufficiently proven. These modern approaches provide effective results particularly for the periodic tracking of the signal's characteristics and notably when the signal-to-noise ratio negatively effects signal tracking. Our objectives are twofold. Our first goal is to identify the animal through its acoustic signature. This includes recognition of the marine mammal species and ultimately of the individual animal (within the species). The second is much more ambitious and directly involves the intervention of cetologists to study the sounds emitted by marine mammals in an effort to characterize their behaviour. We are working on an approach based on the recordings of marine mammal signals and the findings from this data result from the Wavelet Transform. This article will explore the reasons for using this approach. In addition, thanks to the use of new processors, these algorithms once heavy in calculation time can be integrated in a real-time system.

Keywords: Autoregressive model, Daubechies Wavelet, Fourier Transform, marine mammals, signal processing, spectrogram, sperm whale, Wavelet Transform.

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10 Effect of Exercise on Sexual Behavior and Semen Quality of Sahiwal Bulls

Authors: Abdelrasoul, Khalid Ahmed Elrabie

Abstract:

The study was conducted on Sahiwal cattle bulls maintained at the Artificial Breeding Complex, NDRI, Karnal, Hayana, India, to determine the effect of exercise on the sexual behavior and semen quality. Fourteen Sahiwal bulls were classified into two groups of seven each. Group-1, bulls were exercised by walking in a bull exerciser once a week one hour before semen collection, whereas bulls in group-2 were exercised daily. Sexual behavior and semen quality traits studied were: Reaction time (RT), Dismounting time (DMT), Total time taken in mounts (TTTM), Flehmen response (FR), Erection Score (ES), Protrusion Score (PS), Intensity of thrust (ITS), Temperament Score (TS), Libido Score (LS), Semen volume, Physical appearance, Mass activity, Initial progressive motility, Non-eosinophilic spermatozoa count (NESC) and post thaw motility percent. Data were analyzed by least squares technique. Group-2 showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher value in RT (sec), DMT (sec), TTTM (sec), ES, PS, ITS, LS, semen volume, semen color density and mass activity.

Keywords: Exercise, Sahiwal bulls, semen quality, sexual behavior.

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9 Is Curcumine Effect Comparable to 5- Aminosalicylic Acid or Budesonide on a Rat Model of Ulcerative Colitis Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid?

Authors: Inas E. Darwish, Alia M. Arab, Tarek A. Azeim, Teshreen M. Zeitoun, Wafaa A. Hewedy, Moemen A. Heiba, Iman S. Emara

Abstract:

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing-remitting condition that afflicts millions of people throughout the world and impairs their daily functions and quality of life. Treatment of IBD depends largely on 5-aminosalicylic acid (5- ASA) and corticosteroids. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid, budesonide and currcumin on 90 male albino rats against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNB) induced colitis. TNB was injected intrarectally to 50 rats. The other 40 rats served as control groups. Both 5-ASA (in a dose of 120 mg/kg) and budesonide (in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg) were administered daily for one week whereas currcumin was injected intraperitonially (in a dose of 30 mg/kg daily) for 14 days after injection of either TNB in the colitis rats (group B) or saline in control groups (group A). The study included estimation of macroscopic score index, histological examination of H&E stained sections of the colonic tissue, biochemical estimation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and caspase-3 levels, in addition to studying the effect of tested drugs on colonic motility. It was found that budesonide and curcumin improved mucosal healing, reduced both NO production and caspase- 3 level. They had the best impact on the disturbed colonic motility in TNBS-model of colitis.

Keywords: Colitis, curcumin, nitric oxide.

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8 A Stochastic Approach of Mitochondrial Dynamics

Authors: Athanasios T. Alexiou, Maria M. Psiha, John A. Rekkas, Panayiotis M. Vlamos

Abstract:

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, capable to interact with each other. While the number of mitochondria in a cell varies, their quality and functionality depends on the operation of fusion, fission, motility and mitophagy. Nowadays, several researches declare as an important factor in neurogenerative diseases the disruptions in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. In this paper a stochastic model in BioAmbients calculus is presented, concerning mitochondrial fusion and its distribution in the renewal of mitochondrial population in a cell. This model describes the successive and dependent stages of protein synthesis, protein-s activation and merging of two independent mitochondria.

Keywords: Mitochondrial Dynamics, P-Calculus, StochasticModeling.

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